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Ericka Skinner 3/26/2013.   Born January 8th, 1902 in Oak Park Illinois  Fourth of six children  Father -civil engineer  Mother-homemaker and devout.

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Presentation on theme: "Ericka Skinner 3/26/2013.   Born January 8th, 1902 in Oak Park Illinois  Fourth of six children  Father -civil engineer  Mother-homemaker and devout."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ericka Skinner 3/26/2013

2   Born January 8th, 1902 in Oak Park Illinois  Fourth of six children  Father -civil engineer  Mother-homemaker and devout Pentecostal Christian  Could read before Kindergarten  Spent his adolescence in a strict religious and ethical environment on a farm  Isolated, independent, and disciplined person Bio

3   American Humanistic Psychologist  Focused on the concepts of the Self:  Self Awareness  Self Worth  Ideal Self  Self actualization Bio Continued

4   The University of Wisconsin Madison 1.Agriculture 2.History 3.Religion Education

5   Teaching  MA in 1928 and a PhD in 1931  Became interested in psychology after a child study  Lectured and served as director of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in Rochester, New York  Became professor of clinical psychology at Ohio State University and began to focus on client centered therapy. Columbia University

6   Emphasize the whole person and look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving  People behave the way we do because of the way we perceive our situation  Reject the deterministic nature of both psychoanalysis and behaviorism  All people are good and capable of growth Humanistic Psychologists

7   Achieved when:  People are in an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure)  People are accepted by others (being seen with unconditional positive regard)  Capable of giving and receiving empathy (being listened to and understood)  Form Our Personalities Growth

8   Also known as:  Non-directive therapy and Rogerian Therapy  Establishing a relationship with an understanding, accepting therapist, can resolve difficulties and gain the insight necessary to restructure the lives of the clients.  Therapists guide clients even in subtle ways, while clients look for guidance from therapists Client Centered Therapy

9   Client Centered Therapy

10   Individuals seeking therapy are to be referred to as clients, not patients  Emphasizes the importance of the individual in seeking assistance, controlling their destiny and overcoming their difficulties  Patient is makes it seem as if they client is sick and searching for a cure through the therapist Client

11   Therapeutic relationship between the therapist and client could lead to insights and lasting changes in the client.  Freud offered unconscious explanations to his clients to explain their behavior  Rogers wanted his clients to figure out their behavior themselves.  No solutions  No Judgment Sigmund Freud

12   Genuineness-therapist shares his or her feelings honestly with their client to encourage the client to share his or her feelings honestly as well.  Unconditional positive regard- the therapist accepts the client for who they are and display support and care no matter what the client is facing or experiencing.  Empathetic understanding- allows the client to get a better understanding of their own inner thought, perceptions, and emotions through the therapist 3 Key Qualities of Client Centered Therapy

13   Organized/consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself.  Formed by  childhood experiences  evaluation by others.  We want to feel/experience, thus behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self Self-Concept

14   Self worth (or self-esteem) – what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father.  Self-image – How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health. Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality. At a simple level, we might perceive ourselves as a good or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image has an affect on how a person thinks feels and behaves in the world.  Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic – i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc. 3 Components of Self- Concept

15   Congruent- the closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent we are and the higher our sense of self-worth  Incongruence- if some of the totality of their experience is unacceptable to the individual and is denied or distorted in the self-image. (Everyone experiences it) Congruency and In- congruency

16  Congruence

17   Develops during childhood from interactions with parents  High self-worth- confidence and positive feelings about him or herself, faces challenges in life, accepts failure and unhappiness at times, and is open with people.  Low self-worth- avoids challenges in life, not able to accept that life can be painful and unhappy at times, and will be become defensive and guarded with other people. (truth hurts) Self Worth

18   We need to feel valued, respected, treated with affection and loved.  Positive regard- how other people evaluate and judge us in social interaction.  Unconditional positive regard is where parents/ significant others/ therapist accepts and loves the person for what he or she is  Conditional positive regard is where positive regard, praise and approval of child for behaving in ways that the parents think correct. Needs

19   Major Goal!  This is the belief that every person can achieve their goals, wishes and desires in life.  Highest potential according to personality  Ideal self is congruent with their actual behavior  Fully Functioning! Self Actualization

20   In touch with the here and now, his or her subjective experiences and feelings, and continually growing and changing  Free of poor self-concept or external constraints Fully Functioning

21   First-openness to experience: both positive and negative emotions accepted.  Second-existential living: Being able to live and fully appreciate the present, not always looking back to the past or forward to the future.  Third-the trust feeling: feelings, instincts and gut- reactions are paid attention to and trusted  Fourth- creativity: creative thinking and risk taking are features of a person’s life. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new experiences.  Fifth- fulfilled life: when a person is happy and satisfied with life, and always looking for new challenges and experiences. 5 Characteristics of Fully Functioning Individuals

22   In 1945, Rogers was invited to set up a counseling center at the University of Chicago  1947 he was elected President of the American Psychological Association  1956 Rogers became the first President of the American Academy of Psychotherapists  He taught psychology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison until 1963 and during he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences  New Center for Studies of the Person in La Jolla where he worked for doing therapy, giving speeches, and wrote the rest of his life Later Life

23   Devoted to applying his theories in situations of political oppression and national social conflict, traveling worldwide with his daughter and other fellow psychologists between 1974 and 1984  US, Europe, Brazil and Japan  Focused on cross-cultural communications, personal growth, self-empowerment, and learning for social change  Nominated for the Nobel Peace prize just days after his death. The Person-Centered Approach Workshops

24   Rogers suffered a fall that resulted in a fractured pelvis: he had life alert and was able to contact paramedics.  He had a successful operation, but his pancreas failed the next night and he died a few days later on February 4th, 1987. Death

25   Medical Professionals offer therapeutic environment that is conformable, non-judgmental, and empathetic. Via guidelines of Carl Rogers Today

26   Brennan, J. (1998). Readings in The History and Systems of Psychology. (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall Inc.  Cherry, K. (2013). Client-Centered Therapy Carl Rogers' Non-directive Approach to Therapy. Retrieved from /a/client-centered-therapy.htm  Hall, K. (1997, 05). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from /rogers.htm  McLeod, S.(2012). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from References


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