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Physical education teachers inspiring young people towards a physically active lifestyle?!: Motivational dynamics in physical education Prof. Dr. L. Haerens.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical education teachers inspiring young people towards a physically active lifestyle?!: Motivational dynamics in physical education Prof. Dr. L. Haerens."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical education teachers inspiring young people towards a physically active lifestyle?!: Motivational dynamics in physical education Prof. Dr. L. Haerens Department of Movement and Sports Sciences Department of Developmental, Personality and Social Psychology Ghent University, Belgium

2 Department of developmental, personal and social psychology (Ugent) Department of Movement and Sports Sciences (Ugent) Leen Haerens Maarten Vansteenkiste Bart Soenens PHD- students Greet Cardon Isabel Tallir

3 1.PART I: Teaching for health based physical education: what does it mean? 2.PART II: Training teachers for health based physical education

4 PART I: Teaching for health based physical education: what does it mean? Objectives 1.Stimulate evidence-based reflective thinking on the most appropriate content and pedagogy for health-based physical education (HBPE) 2.Providing an overview of Self-determination Theory and linking its key principles to HBPE

5 One of the stated aims of all compulsory PE programmes is to educate for lifelong engagement in physical activity for health (Puhse & Gerber, 2005) BUT PE = ‘the pill not taken’ (McKenzie & Lounsbery, 2009) Lack of evidence on effective content and pedagogies for HBPE (Haerens et al, 2011)

6 Question 1: Is Increasing MVPA during PE THE WAY to promote lifelong engagement in PA?!

7 Elementary schools  14 min MVPA  19 min MVPA Secondary schools => 20 min MVPA => 9 min MVPA Is it really?....

8 1.Increasing MVPA during PE insufficient for health (e.g. Harris, 2000, Cardon et al, 2004, Aelterman et al, 2010) 1. Need to promote transfer! 2. PE has a wide range of learning goals that are all important

9 Question 2: Ok, but what’s the alternative?

10 What is HBPE? =getting youngsters to value and enjoy physical activity for life so that they are (autonomously) motivated to become/remain active outside physical education

11 Question 3: Motivation, what is it?

12 Prof. Edward Deci (University of Rochester, NY) Prof. Richard Ryan (University of Rochester, NY) SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY

13  I’m going to be put effort into PE... ‘because my teachers will punish me otherwise’ ‘because I can only be proud of myself if I do so’ ‘because I feel more energetic afterwards’ ‘because I want to be healthy’ ‘because I like PE’ Process of internalisation = ownership of change Autonomous motivation Volitional motivation Controlled motivation Mustivation Pleasure, passion, interest Personal relevance, meaningful Punishment rewards expectation s Shame, guilt, self-worth

14 What is HBPE? =getting youngsters to value and enjoy physical activity for life so that they are autonomously motivated to become/remain active outside physical education

15 Question 4: Is motivation really an important concept to consider in the relationship between PE and PA? What’s the evidence?

16 AUTONOMOUS MOTIVATION Increased physical activity during PE (Aelterman et al, 2012) Remain more active in leisure time (Haerens et al, 2010)

17 Question 5: How do we teach for optimal motivation?

18 AutonomyCompetence Relatedness AUTONOMY SUPPORT RELATEDNESS SUPPORT - Sincere interest - Choice - Meaningful rationale - Minimizing controlling language - Fun elements - Sincere concern - Warmth - Unconditional regard - Emotional support - Optimal challenge - Positive feedback - Encouragement - Clear guidelines & expectations STRUCTURE Cox et al., 2008; Jang, Reeve & Deci, 2010; Mouratidis et al., 2008; Reeve & Jang, 2006; Sheldon & Filak, 2008; Vansteenkiste et al., 2004 Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000)

19 Need-support Autonomy-support Structure Involvement Perceptions of need-support Motivation Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000) Need satisfaction Autonomy Competence Relatedness Outcome TEACHERSTUDENT

20 Teacher benchmarks for HBPE?  Increasing autonomy support: e.g. providing choice  Providing structure and competence support: e.g. help, differentiation  Relatedness support: e.g. being sincerely concerned about your pupils

21 Question 6: Does teachers’ need support really leads to more autonomous motivation and higher activity levels. What’s the evidence?

22 Need-support Autonomy-support Structure Involvement Perceptions of need-support Motivation Need satisfaction Autonomy Competence Relatedness Outcome TEACHERSTUDENT ? STUDIE 4 6a: Is need support notified by the students?

23 Autonomy- support Structure Involvement Autonomy- support Structure Involvement E.g. The teacher asks the students questions about their interests, problems, values or wishes “Which exercises do you find hard to do?” “Did you understand the instructions?” E.g. The teacher asks the students questions about their interests, problems, values or wishes “Which exercises do you find hard to do?” “Did you understand the instructions?” E.g. The teacher provides a rationale for guidelines, tasks and assignments. “A wider foot position is important because it enhances your balance.” E.g. The teacher provides a rationale for guidelines, tasks and assignments. “A wider foot position is important because it enhances your balance.” E.g. The teacher takes the perspective of students into account, is empathic. “The teacher simplifies his language depending on the students’ development” E.g. The teacher takes the perspective of students into account, is empathic. “The teacher simplifies his language depending on the students’ development”

24 Need-support Autonomy-support Structure Involvement Perceptions of need-support Motivation Need satisfaction Autonomy Competence Relatedness Outcome TEACHERSTUDENT ? STUDIE 4 6a: Is need support notified by the students? Yes it is!

25 Need-support Autonomy-support Structure Involvement Perceptions of need-support Autonomous motivation Need satisfaction Activity levels TEACHERSTUDENT 6b: Does need support lead to more optimal outcomes?

26 Study 1 (Belgium) Physical activity during PE: accelerometers (CSA Actigraph monitors) Study 2 (UK) Transfer of learning => to what extent does PE stimulates you to become more active during leisure time

27 Model has good fit! χ2 =2,295, df=2 RMSEA=0.012 CFI=1 SRMR=0.008 NEED-SUPPORTIVE TEACHING BEHAVIOR Autonomy support Structure Involvement MVPA during PE

28 χ2 =446.20, df=85 RMSEA=0.066 CFI=0,96 SRMR=0.049 Full mediation!

29 χ2 =84,24, df=18 RMSEA=0.062 CFI=0,98 SRMR=0.022 STUDENTS’ NEED SATISFACTION Autonomy-relatedness Competence MVPA during PE

30 χ2 =185,163, df=49 RMSEA=0.054 CFI=0,99 SRMR=0.024 Only partical mediation, direct relationship remains significant

31 Methods Study 2 Multilevel Regression analyses (MLWin)

32 Methods Study 2 Multilevel Regression analyses (MLWin)

33 Both studies point towards the importance of need support and need satisfaction Enhancing perceived competence might be crucial! Teachers’ need support! Actual motor competence?

34 What is HBPE in secondary schools? =getting youngsters to value and enjoy physical activity for life so that they are (autonomously) motivated to become/remain active outside physical education What is HBPE in preschool and elementary schools? =providing young children with the necessary FMS to be able to feel competent when engaging in physical activities and sports in secondary schools and in later life?

35 AUTONOMOUS MOTIVATION Positive outcomes NEED SATISFACTION Autonomy Competence Relatedness NEED-SUPPORTIVE CONTEXTS Autonomy support Structure Involvement The Bright Side of Self-determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000)

36 Autonomous motivation Controlled motivation Amotivation Negative outcomes NEED FRUSTRATION Autonomy Competence Relatedness NEED-THWARTING CONTEXT Controlling Chaotic Cold Question 7: What about the Dark side of Self- determination Theory? (Deci & Ryan, 1985; 2000)

37 Autonomy AUTONOMY SUPPORT - Sincere interest - Choice - Meaningful rationale - promoting initiative - Fun elements Introduction Autonomy CONTROL - Shouting, yelling, roaring - Exerting power - Losing patience - Controlling language - Pressuring pupils - Criticizing pupils

38 Autonomy support i.e. ‘’ Lisa is there something wrong? I see you are struggeling with catching the ball. If you want that I show it again, you can ask me.’’ Controlling i.e. ‘‘ Come on Dean, just throw and catch (irritated). A boy of your age schould be able to do this naturally. NO, NO, NO, … STOP, NOT GOOD, come over here,… ’’

39 CONTROLLED MOTIVATION PERCEIVED CONTROLLING c-path a-path b-path Controlled motivation B =.41 (0.19) * B L2 =.60 (0.10) *** B L1 =.66 (0.04) *** B =.43 (0.20) * Indirect effect = 0.25 (0.12)* De Meyer J.*, Tallir I.*, Soenens B., Vansteenkiste M., Speleers L., Aelterman N., Van den Berghe L. & Haerens L. (Accepted pending minor revisisons). Relation between observed controlling teaching behavior and students’ motivation in physical education. Journal of Educational Psychology. *Equal contribution

40 AMOTIVATION PERCEIVED CONTROLLING c-path a-path b-path Amotivation B =.41 (0.19) * B L2 =.54 (0.12) *** B L1 =.67 (0.05) *** B =.23 (0.21) Indirect effect = 0.22 (0.11)* De Meyer J.*, Tallir I.*, Soenens B., Vansteenkiste M., Speleers L., Aelterman N., Van den Berghe L. & Haerens L. (Accepted pending minor revisisons). Relation between observed controlling teaching behavior and students’ motivation in physical education. Journal of Educational Psychology. *Equal contribution

41  Although teachers do not engage often in controlling behavior students do notice  Controlling teaching behavior is related to less optimal forms of motivation  Controlled motivation and amotivation are related with lower levels of PA in and outside PE (Aelterman et al., 2012 and Haerens et al. 2010) 41

42 PART I: Teaching for health based physical education: what does it mean? Conclusion

43 Teaching for youngsters to be more likely to value and enjoy physical activity for life so that they become/remain active outside physical education Conclusion INTERVENTIONS/CPD FOR TEACHERS NEEDED! WHAT IS HBPE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS? TEACHERS NEED TO BE STIMULATED TO TEACH IN A MORE NEED SUPPORTIVE & LESS CONTROLLING WAY!

44 PART I: Teaching for health based physical education: what does it mean? Objectives 1.Stimulate evidence-based reflective thinking on the most appropriate content and pedagogy for health-based physical education (HBPE) 2.Providing an overview of Self-determination Theory and linking its key principles to HBPE

45 1.PART I: Teaching for health based physical education: what does it mean? 2.PART II: Training teachers for health based physical education: what is needed?

46  Intervention and experimental studies needed  Better insight into antecedents of teachers’ behaviors

47 1. Antecedents of need supportive and need thwarting teaching behaviors?

48 General causality orientation = The source of initiation and regulation of behavior in daily life. E.g., you are asked to plan a picnic for yourself and your fellow employees. Your style for approaching this project could most likely be characterized as: … A. Seek participation: get inputs from others before you make the final plans. B. Take charge: that is, you would make most of the major decisions yourself. Autonomy Orientation Controlled Orientation

49 Need Support Need Thwarting Autonomy support Structure before activity Structure during activity Relatedness support Chaos Control Cold interactions

50 Need to explore a wider range of antecedents in order to be able to design effective interventions for teachers! Within Above Below Need support / thwarting Antecedents

51 2. Development of a theory driven intervention for PE teachers

52  Intervention need-supportive teaching style (Aelterman et al., 2013)  Content: one-day training: 3 parts Part I : Theoretical background principles SDT Partl II : Overview of motivating/need-supportive teaching strategies illustrated by case studies and video images Autonomy-support Structure Relatedness-support Partl III : Application exercise  Method of delivery ‧ ‘Teach as you preach’ Aelterman, N., Vansteenkiste, M. Van Keer, H., De Meyer, J., Van den Berghe, L., & Haerens, L. (2013). Development and evaluation of a training on need-supportive teaching in physical education: Qualitative and quantitative findings. Teaching and Teacher Education.

53 Theoretical framing is always important. Without this information, I don’t really think you know what you’re doing. Theoretical framing is essential Autonomy-supportive strategies are more innovative and useful Opportunities for interactive discussion and reflection Application exercises: microteaching and role-playing Teach as you preach! (= congruent teaching) Well, I think we can learn the most from autonomy-support. Structure we are already quite familiar with. ‘I think it would be more fun to do a practical session in the gym.’ ‘Wouldn’t it be interesting to have four different lesson plans to start from?’ ‘If the training would have taken till 4 o’clock pm, there would have been a good balance between theory and practice.’ ‘I think it would be more fun to do a practical session in the gym.’ ‘Wouldn’t it be interesting to have four different lesson plans to start from?’ ‘If the training would have taken till 4 o’clock pm, there would have been a good balance between theory and practice.’ ‘You could start from a couple of concrete class situations to introduce the different strategies’ ‘Maybe you can ask the audience for concrete examples from their practical experience?’ ‘You could start from a couple of concrete class situations to introduce the different strategies’ ‘Maybe you can ask the audience for concrete examples from their practical experience?’

54

55 Illustration: Part 2 of the intervention

56 Providing autonomy support HINT 1: Stimulating initiative

57 Question: ‣How does the teacher stimulates his pupils to take initiative? Fragment 2: ‣6 years of teaching experience; ‣Baseball ‣Girls ‣Vocational education ‣Final year of secondary school

58 HINT 1a: Try to integrate choice into your lessons to stimulate pupils to take initiative

59 Situation Although children can not always choose the topic of the lesson or the exerices themselves, there is still a possibility to incorporate choice into your lesson. In a series of lessons on handstand the teachers wants to provide opportunities for choice, how would you provide choice in such a lesson?

60 Evolution in global appreciation of the training

61 3. Is the intervention effective?

62 METHOD Sample  39 PE teachers out of 19 different schools (79.5% men; M age= ± years)  669 students (63.4% boys; M age = ± 1.92 years) Design Intervention N = 15 Control N = 24 WS 2 Pretest Intervention Posttest PretestPosttest Pretest WS 1 Intervention Posttest T1 T2 Random assignment Aelterman, N., Vansteenkiste, M., Van den Berghe, L., De Meyer, J., & Haerens, L. (in preparation). Multi-informant effects of an intervention on need-supportive teaching in physical education.

63 Outcomes “Proximal” outcomes “Distal” outcomes Beliefs Behavior TeacherStudent Observer EffectiveFeasible

64 Intervention effects on teachers’ perceived effectiveness of autonomy-support and structure ES =.12 ES =.11

65 Intervention effects on teachers’ perceived feasibility of autonomy-support and structure ES =.11 ES =.14

66 Intervention effects on teachers’ autonomy-support ES =.06 ES =.24 β =.06

67 Three informants Teacher Student Observer Effective Feasible Autonomy-support Relatedness support Autonomy- support Belief Autonomy- support Structure Autonomy- support Structure Behavior Structure Behavior

68 Need satisfaction training Defiance toward change Controlled motivation to apply the strategies Autonomous motivation to apply the strategies -.27* -.21*.32** -.22* ns.36** Intention to apply the strategies Aelterman, N., Vansteenkiste, M., Van den Berghe, L., De Meyer, J., & Haerens, L. (in preparation). Multi-informant effects of an intervention on need-supportive teaching in physical education.

69 Training teachers for health based physical education: what is needed? Conclusion

70 Antecedents of teaching behaviors?! Collaborate with experienced PE teachers in terms of research. TEACH AS YOU PREACH Authenticity to the message by maximizing PE teachers’ opportunities for basic psychological need satisfaction

71 What’s next? Ongoing projects building on this work 1.Exploring motivational dynamics in vocational education 2.Motivating role of after school sport programs 3.How to translate SDT’s ideas towards motivational assessment? 4.Exploring the interplay between actual and perceived competence 5.Investigating reasons for non-engagment, defiance

72 Thanks to all collaborating researchers for their input for this presentation! Thanks to you for your interest in our work!


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