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Responsible Study Abroad Contributed by: Wendy Williamson Available at Adapted from presentations offered by Michigan.

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Presentation on theme: "Responsible Study Abroad Contributed by: Wendy Williamson Available at Adapted from presentations offered by Michigan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Responsible Study Abroad Contributed by: Wendy Williamson Available at Adapted from presentations offered by Michigan State University and the School for Field Studies, with permission. 1

2 2 Responsible Study Abroad Revised January 2010 Know… Your Risks Your Students Your Responsibility How to Prepare How to Respond

3 Know your Risks

4 So What Can Happen? Accidental Death Alcohol Poisoning Automobile Accident Assault and Rape Broken Bones Drug Overdoses Emergency Surgery Food Poisoning Hospitalization Kidnapping and Ransom Natural Disaster Psychiatric Commitment Snake and Insect Bites Suicide Terrorist Attacks … ANYTHING 4

5 Death Reports of Americans Abroad ( U.S. Dept of State ) 5 Death in Study Abroad doesn’t usually get in the news. Lawsuits are usually settled out of court.

6 Well-Known Tragedies -Antioch college students working on an academic project in Costa Rica found shot to death in remote area of the country. -Faculty member and student drowned in Mexico after their boat capsized. -Grinnell College student murdered during a robbery attempt in Northern India. -St. Mary’s College (Maryland) students brutally raped and all 16 people in the group, including the professors, were robbed when a group of armed bandits flagged down their bus at gunpoint. -Earlham College was sued by a student who alleged she was sexually assaulted by the host father of the family with whom she was living in Japan. University didn’t move her after she complained of previous advances. Case settled. 6

7 Well-Known Tragedies -Bus accident in India claimed the lives of 4 American College students participating in the Semester at Sea program run by the University of Pittsburgh (last minute scheduling error when transporting by bus instead of plane). -Fire on Semester at Sea ship claimed lives of several crew members, due to lack of on-board sprinkler systems. -Faculty member and university sued for contributing bottle of wine to party that resulted in a rape. -Student with mental disorder sued for false imprisonment when he had to be physically restrained while in Mexico. -Ohio State University graduate student died from complications related to altitude sickness in the Himalayas. 7

8 Poverty Greater Geography (floods, volcanoes, etc.) Underdeveloped Infrastructure Underdeveloped Regulatory Systems Irregular Regulation Enforcement Little to no Liability Protection Poorer Sanitation Higher Disease Risk Political Instability 8 Greater Risks with Fewer Resources

9 Things to Think About Transportation Driving Culture Vehicle Safety Laws & Regulations Law Enforcement Tort law (Duty, Break, Injury, Linkage) Emergency Medical Services Medical Tropical disease Vectors/Bites Health Care/Facilities ▫Standards ▫Diagnosis/Treatment ▫Response Time Medical care strategy 9

10 Know your Students

11 The Generations 11 A generation is a society-wide peer group, over the course of approximately 20 years, which possess common traits.

12 The Different Generations 12 Shaped by history and events, social and economic conditions, technology, and pop culture.

13 Millennials (1982 to present) 13 The most child-centric in our history (sheltered, conventional, extremely close with parents, youth safety---baby on board, home school, car seats) Experiential Learners (learn by doing, don’t like to read, like interactivity, project- based assignments, games, simulations, vast information/less in-depth) Results-oriented Achievers (focus on grades and performance, expect to do well, expect high standards and fairness, over programmed, high stress/anxiety, ambitious/unrealistic, competition) Structure and Feedback are important to them (specific direction and guidance) Personalized learning (expect choices, customized learning, and flexibility) Technology savvy (expect technology, use social medias)

14 Psychological Issues/Disabilities Increased childhood illnesses (ADD, Asthma, Obesity, Depression, etc.) Psychotropic med use tripled among college students from 1994 to 2004 Abuse of prescription drugs has increased dramatically since the mid-1990s according to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) Suicide is the second leading cause of death for North Americans of college age College counseling centers growing Cutting has become more common Rate of eating disorders remain the same Helicopter Parents Lack coping skills Significant alcohol use and abuse More than double the students register with Disability Services than 10 years ago. 14

15 Alcohol & Drugs Alcohol accounts for 1,400 college student deaths annually. College students have higher rates of alcohol or drug addiction than the general public (CASA). Nearly half the students said they drank or used drugs to relax, reduce stress or forget about problems (CASA). Nearly half of America's full-time college students drink alcohol and/or use drugs at least once a month (CASA) The percentage of students who reported smoking marijuana heavily — at least 20 days during the past month — more than doubled, from 1.9% in 1993 to 4% in 2005 The percentage of students who reported using illegal drugs other than marijuana, such as cocaine and heroin, in the past month jumped from 5.4% in 1993 to 8.2% in 2005. In general, students are drinking more hard liquor, longer weekends, drinking games, binging Anecdotal evidence that hospitalizations for alcohol OD have greatly increased. 15

16 Aren’t they adults? Yes and No - study abroad is different from the home campus in many ways Greater Risks Fewer Resources Student Naiveté Travel Psychology Additional Stress Lack of Usual Support Mental Health Issues Youths take more Risks Drinking age is usually lower abroad, coupled with inexperienced drinkers, US binge drinking culture In loco parentis? Duty to act or no duty? What’s the expectation? 16

17 Know your Responsibility

18 Faculty Director Duties 18 In loco parentis? In place of parents. High level of responsibility, highest possible standard of care in the eyes of courts Follow university policies and procedures The law never “is”; it’s always becoming. Stay within the 4 C’s of safe territory. Great big broad perimeters to bounce around in…

19 4 C’s (Legal Boundaries) Constitutional ▫State Action / Public Institution Codes (statutes) ▫Federal Funding mandates voluntary laws (affirmative action, disability codes…) Contractual ▫Offer, Accordance, Consideration (benefit detriment) Contacts (torts) ▫DBIL Duty, Breach, Injury, Linkage 19

20 20 FERPA/HIPAA  Protect students’ academic/medical privacy Title IX Prohibition Against Sex Discrimination  Don’t hold office hours in your hotel room  Don’t room or drink with students Americans With Disabilities Act The ADA (1990 and 2000) prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. The Rehabilitation Act (1973) states that no otherwise qualified individual with a disability shall be excluded from the participation in any federally funded program or activity. Codes ( Statutes )

21 Contractual Handbooks, codes, catalogs, materials, etc. Your marketing materials are a contract Consideration (benefit/detriment) Must be realistic/truthful. Present benefits and drawbacks as well as realistic risks. Do NOT put costs on your materials that have not been approved by CE 21

22 Contact (tort) Duty, Breach, Injury, Linkage between a Breached Duty and Injury=Tort Court-Defined Duties: ▫ Train  Consider special characteristics of the population you are serving and train them for the activity…base on national standards. ▫ Supervise  Look at many factors (age, foreseeability of harm, etc.)  Be available, confront issues, document everything, respond effectively and efficiently ▫ Maintain Equipment/Facilities ▫ Warn in Impending Danger (reasonable care)  Think about what might happen and accommodate for it. Point out dangers and what students can do to protect themselves. 22

23 Negligence (category of tort) Negligence is the doing of something which a reasonably prudent person would not do, or the failure to do something which a reasonably prudent person would do, under circumstances similar to those shown by the evidence. It is the failure to use ordinary or reasonable care. So how can you avoid negligence? By taking charge of your… ▫Engineering (program structure) ▫Legislation (policies, rules, protocols) ▫Education 23

24 1. Engineer Your Program Choosing Program ▫Where you go ▫What you do ▫How you do it Vetting ▫Transportation ▫Accommodations ▫Medical Facilities Technology ▫Vehicles ▫Seat belts ▫Communication Creating Functions ▫Student screening ▫Positions/roles ▫Protocols 24

25 2. Legislate Your Program Policies Rules Protocols Discipline Mission and purpose-driven Structuring entire program Keeping students busy Hold students to high academic standards (schedule exams for Monday morning) Explain implications of negative behavior on others 25

26 3. Educate Your Students Marketing materials Pre-course information Syllabus and materials Orientations (pre-departure and on-site) Language and cultural education Time spent in country Teachable moments 26

27 What are Misbehaviors? Drinking too much Illegal drugs Trusting predators Cheating Taking high profile risks Breaking rules Exercising poor judgment/decision- making 27

28 Dodging “Misbehaviors” Facilitate the development of healthy relationships (student-professor, student-student, student-locals), not student-predators as one often finds with drinking. Empower students by helping them to set realistic expectations, to get involved (group contract, etc.), and to become culturally & socially competent. Ensure that there is healthy fun built into your program (activities, events, free time). 28

29 Know how to Prepare

30 Prepare Yourself! ▫Read your Handbook ▫Pre-Departure Checklist ▫Emergency Contact Form ▫Emergency Action Plan ▫Upon Arrival Checklist ▫Cell Phone (do not pack) ▫Get and Stay Informed 30

31 Prepare Your Students ▫Make sure students are ready, and feel ready, too. ▫Do not give medical advice to students – refer them to CDC Traveler’s Health, Health Services, or their Doctor ▫Most challenges are not emergency situations, but rather student behavior. It is important to discuss student conduct expectations and behavior-related problems during your pre-departure orientation. ▫Talk about rules and regulations 31

32 Prepare for Unforeseen Emergencies ▫Know how to respond in the event of an emergency ▫Know your institution’s priorities  Safety of students/staff  Public Image ▫Know who to contact, and how, for what and when ▫Have a back-up plan in case something above fails 32

33 Immediately Upon Arrival ▫ACTIVATE Cell/Satellite PHONE immediately ▫Notify your institution of no- shows or missing students ▫Call your institution if they do not already have your cell phone number ▫Refrain from turning off you cell phone for long periods of time 33

34 Shortly After Arrival ▫Advise students to never leave w/o money and ID ▫Advise students to inform you when leaving site and provide contact information ▫Advise students to avoid travel to dangerous locations ▫Remind students about known health and safety risks ▫Remind students of your Emergency Action Plan (EAP), communication tree, and buddy system ▫Plan reflection time ▫Conduct on-site orientation 34 Obtain/share cell phone numbers for faculty leaders and students Make sure all students have completed info on their emergency cards Pass out sheet with addresses and phone numbers for all your hotels/residences Designate a primary and secondary meeting place Designate a student leader

35 Know how to Respond

36 What is a medical emergency? 36 ANY HOSPITALIZATION – no matter how brief Rape or sexual assault Severe food poisoning Severe allergic reaction Anything of a psychiatric nature Any incident involving injuries or potential injuries

37 Responding to Medical Emergencies 1.Seek appropriate medical care. 2.Call your Emergency Assistance Provider 24/7 3.Notify home institution of your location and status. 4.Work with home institution to maintain communications with your group’s insurance company and the local treatment facilities. 5.Protect student’s right to medical privacy. 6.File the appropriate report with home institution. 37

38 What is a general emergency? 38 Natural Disasters Terrorist Attacks Protests/Civil Unrest Foiled Terrorist Plot Military Coups Widespread Riots Anything “newsworthy” regardless of its impact on students or programs.

39 Responding to General Emergencies 1.Secure a safe location. Account for all students. 2.Contact or respond to directions of local authorities. 3.Notify your institution of your location and status.* 4.Wait for further instructions from your home institution. 5.Communicate instructions/information to students. 6.Maintain communications with your home institution. * Note that e-mail may be the best form of communication, so use and check e-mail often during a crisis, particularly if it is widespread. 39

40 Best Practices for Emergencies ▫Communicate with the home institution. ▫Never leave students alone without appropriate supervision. ▫Account for all students, staff and faculty. ▫Respond to concerned and worried callers. ▫Provide the home institution with regular updates. ▫Assess safety for continued program. ▫Communicate assessment to students. 40

41 Psychological Intervention Behaviors that require a response: ▫Withdrawal ▫Compulsiveness ▫Self-destructiveness ▫Depression ▫Suicide threats ▫Anything else that negatively impacts the well being of an individual or the group Behavior contracts may be necessary Work with Counseling Center to get help 41

42 Disciplinary Intervention 42 Communicate regularly with home institution and keep informed Some violations call for immediate dismissal (threat to self or others) Levels of Violation  1 st - Verbal Warning  2 nd - Written Warning  3 rd – Dismissal Paperwork – Documentation is very important, for student’s file

43 Upon Return 43 Submit a program report to your college and study abroad office upon completion of the program Talk to your home institution about problems

44 The End.

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