Presentation on theme: "abandonment: the relinquishing of a right or interest with the intention of never again claiming it."— Presentation transcript:
abandonment: the relinquishing of a right or interest with the intention of never again claiming it.
ABC’s: airway, breathing, and circulation; assessment begins with ABC’s.
abdominal evisceration: an open wound where organs protrude from the abdominal cavity.
abrasion: an open wound caused by scraping, shearing away, or rubbing the outermost skin layer.
advanced directive: documents a patient’s request to withhold specific medical care.
AED: automated external defibrillator
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; caused by HIV.
airborne disease: any infection spread from person to person through the air; caused by breathing in microscopic, disease-bearing organisms called pathogens.
amniotic sac: the bag of fluid surrounding the fetus.
amputation: the gross removal of an appendage, complete or incomplete.
anaphylaxis: a severe allergic reaction in which air passages swell and restrict breathing; caused by insect bites or stings, pollen, medications, foods, chemicals, or other substances.
arterial bleeding: bright red blood spurting from a wound, indicating a severed or damaged artery.
asthma: results from the narrowing of airway passages, causing breathing difficulties.
AVPU: method for identifying four levels of patient responsiveness: alert, verbal, pain, and unresponsiveness.
avulsion: an injury characterized by a flap of skin, torn or cut, that may not be completely loose from the body.
birth canal: the passage the fetus is pushed through during delivery.
breach of duty: the failure of an officer to act or failure to act appropriately.
bruising: an obvious discoloration (black and blue) of the soft tissue at the injury site.
BSI (body substance isolation): controlling infection by separating patients from each other; includes two basic behaviors: the use of medical PPE and personal behaviors that reduce risk.
capillary bleeding: dark red blood oozing from a wound, indicating damaged capillaries.
cardiac muscles: the muscles in the heart that constantly work to expand and contract it.
CDC: Center for Disease Control & Prevention
central nervous system: located in the brain and spinal cord; components are the body’s mainframe computer where all communication and control originate.
cervix: the neck of the uterus; contains a mucus plug.
chemical burn: occurs when a burning chemical comes into contact with skin.
circulatory system: pumps blood throughout the body; consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
closed chest injury: results from blunt trauma to the chest area; damages internal organs and/or causes internal bleeding.
closed fracture: a fracture in which the skin at the injury site remains intact.
CO (carbon monoxide): a potentially poisonous byproduct of combustion.
contusion: a closed injury that is discolored and painful at the injury site.
CPR: cardiopulmonary resuscitation
cyanosis: changes in circulation causing the lips, palms, and nail beds to turn blue.
diabetes: a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin.
digestive system: ingests and digests food and nutrients; includes the stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and small and large intestines.
dilation: the first stage of labor; begins with the initial contraction and continues until the fetus enters the birth canal.
dislocation: an injury occurring when the end of a bone comes out of its socket at the joint.
DNR/DNRO: Do Not Resuscitate or Do Not Resuscitate Order; documents the terminally or chronically ill patient’s wish to refuse resuscitation.
DOTS: deformities, open injuries, tenderness, and swelling; injuries and symptoms to look for during a physical assessment of a potentially injured person.
Drug induced psychosis: a form of psychosis which can result from drug use, typically causing hallucinations and/or delusions (DFSG).
duty to act: the duty to take some action to prevent harm to another and for the failure of which an officer may be liable depending on the relationship of the parties and the circumstances.
electrical burn: occurs when manmade or natural (lightning) electricity comes into contact with the skin and body, causing the skin or internal organs to burn.
Emergency move: a relocation performed when a patient is in immediate danger or when the patient’s location prevents providing care to him or her or another patient.
EMS system (emergency medical services system): network of trained professionals linked to provide advanced, out-of-hospital care for victims of a sudden traumatic injury or illness.
EMT (emergency medical technician): emergency medical technicians who have advanced, specialized training that enables them to provide comprehensive care to patients.
evisceration: an open wound where the organs protrude.
expressed consent: consent that is clearly and unmistakably stated.
expulsion: the second stage of labor; the fetus moves through the birth canal and is delivered.
femur: thighbone; the longest and strongest bone in the human body.
flail chest: a closed chest injury that occurs when two or more adjacent ribs are fractured in two or more places and become free floating.
fracture: a bone break
frostbite: a localized injury from overexposure to cold.
full thickness burn: a third-degree burn that damages all skin layers and affects muscles and nerves; causes skin to look waxy, white, or charred.
Good Samaritan Act: protects physicians who render emergency care from civil suits; Florida’s Good Samaritan Act also protects first aid providers.
heart attack: caused by oxygen deprivation to part of the heart, typically from a blocked blood vessel.
hematoma: a closed injury that evidences as a discolored lump (see swelling).
hepatitis A virus: a highly infectious disease spread by person-to-person contact, generally through fecal contamination or oral ingestion.
hepatitis B virus: a highly infectious disease spread through sexual contact, sharing contaminated needles (through intravenous drug use), or through blood transfusions.
hepatitis C virus: the most common chronic bloodborne infection; primarily transmitted through direct contact with human blood, from sharing needles or drug paraphernalia, or from an infected mother delivering her baby.
HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996): protects the rights of patients and restricts the release of patient information.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus): bloodborne virus that attacks the immune system and causes AIDS; transmission occurs primarily during sexual contact with an infected individual, when intravenous drug users share contaminated needles, from infected mother to unborn child, and from contact with blood, certain body fluids, and tissue from an infected individual.
hyperthermia: occurs when the body cannot recover from fluid loss.
hypothermia: the excessive cooling of the body’s core temperature.
ICS: Incident Command System
implied consent: consent inferred from conduct rather than from direct expression.
informed consent: a person’s agreement to allow something to happen, made with full knowledge of the risks involved and the alternatives.
inhalation burn: occurs when a patient has a burn to any part of the airway.
insulin: the hormone needed to convert sugar, starches, and other food into energy needed for daily life.
involuntary muscles: smooth muscles that carry out many automatic body functions.
labor: the final phase of pregnancy; begins the birthing process.
laceration: an open wound in soft tissue.
LOC (level of consciousness): a patient’s mental status due to illness or injury.
MCI (multiple casualty incident): an incident that involves more than one victim.
medic alert: a bracelet, necklace, or card that alerts medical personnel to a specific medical condition.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus): a type of bacteria that is highly contagious and resistant to certain antibiotics; causes a skin infection that is red, swollen, painful, or warm to the touch; may have purulent drainage or appear to be a spider bite, pimple, or boil.
muscular system: gives the body shape, protects internal organs, and provides body movement.
negligence: failure to use due or reasonable care in a situation, resulting in harm to another (Legal); failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonably prudent person would have exercised in a similar situation; conduct that falls below the legal standard established to protect others against unreasonable risk of harm, except for conduct that is intentionally, wantonly, or willfully disregardful of other’s rights.
nervous system: controls voluntary and involuntary body activity, supports higher mental functions such as thought and emotion, allows the individual to be aware of and react to the environment, and keeps the rest of the body’s systems working together.
open chest injury: an injury that occurs when penetration opens the chest area.
open fracture: a fracture where the skin at the injury site is broken, and the bone may protrude through the skin.
partial thickness burn: second-degree burn that damages the first two skin layers, which blister and feel very painful.
peripheral nervous system: includes nerves that connect to the spinal cord and branch out to every other part of the body; serve as a two- way communication system.
placenta: the disk-shaped inner lining of the uterus; provides nourishment and oxygen to a fetus.
placental: the third stage of labor during which the placenta separates from the uterine wall and moves through the birth canal for delivery.
PMS: when examining extremities for potential injuries, indicates what to check for: pulse, and motor and sensory function.
positional asphyxia: death as a result of a body position that interferes with one’s ability to breathe.
PPE (personal protective equipment): items that protect individuals from harmful substances, infections, or other people; includes eye protection, gloves, shields, and biohazard bags.
puncture wound: the result of driving a sharp or blunt, pointed object into soft tissue.
recovery position: a position where the patient is rolled over (preferably onto the left side) with knees slightly bent; helps maintain an open airway if the patient vomits and may prevent positional asphyxia.
respiratory system: delivers oxygen to and removes carbon dioxide from the blood.
SAMPLE: signs and symptoms, allergies, medications, past history, last oral intake, events; method to help an officer acquire information useful in determining causes of injury or illness.
shock: failure of the heart and blood vessels (circulatory system) to maintain enough oxygen-rich blood flowing to the vital organs of the body.
skeletal system: the supporting framework for the body, giving it shape and protecting vital organs; attains mobility from the attached muscles and manufactures red blood cells.
skin: the protective covering for the inside of the body; provides a barrier against bacteria and other harmful substances and organisms; acts as a communication organ; helps regulate body temperature.
START (Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment): a method of triage that assesses a large number of victims rapidly using personnel with limited medical training.
STD (sexually transmitted disease): infection transmitted through sexual contact; among the most common infectious diseases.
stroke: damage to part of the brain due to the rupture or blockage of a blood vessel.
sucking chest injury: type of open chest injury in which air and/or blood escapes into the area surrounding the lungs, creating a change in the pressure in the chest cavity.
superficial burn: first-degree burn that damages the first layer of skin; becomes red and feels very painful.
swelling: soft tissue that is raised when blood or other body fluids pool beneath the skin at the injury site.
TB (tuberculosis): a highly infectious airborne disease.
thermal burn: a burn that occurs when an external heat source comes into contact with the skin.
triage: a system of sorting and classifying of patients; determines order in which patients receive medical attention; assesses a large number of victims rapidly.
umbilical cord: connects the fetus and the mother; provides nourishment to the fetus.
universal precautions: procedures designed to prevent transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and other blood-borne pathogens.
USDOT: United States Department of Transportation.
uterus: the organ that holds the developing fetus.
venous bleeding: bleeding where dark red blood flows steadily from a wound, indicating a severed or damaged vein.
voluntary muscles: muscles used for deliberate acts, such as chewing, lifting, and running.