frostbite: a localized injury from overexposure to cold.
full thickness burn: a third-degree burn that damages all skin layers and affects muscles and nerves; causes skin to look waxy, white, or charred.
Good Samaritan Act: protects physicians who render emergency care from civil suits; Florida’s Good Samaritan Act also protects first aid providers.
heart attack: caused by oxygen deprivation to part of the heart, typically from a blocked blood vessel.
hematoma: a closed injury that evidences as a discolored lump (see swelling).
hepatitis A virus: a highly infectious disease spread by person-to-person contact, generally through fecal contamination or oral ingestion.
hepatitis B virus: a highly infectious disease spread through sexual contact, sharing contaminated needles (through intravenous drug use), or through blood transfusions.
hepatitis C virus: the most common chronic bloodborne infection; primarily transmitted through direct contact with human blood, from sharing needles or drug paraphernalia, or from an infected mother delivering her baby.
HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996): protects the rights of patients and restricts the release of patient information.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus): bloodborne virus that attacks the immune system and causes AIDS; transmission occurs primarily during sexual contact with an infected individual, when intravenous drug users share contaminated needles, from infected mother to unborn child, and from contact with blood, certain body fluids, and tissue from an infected individual.
hyperthermia: occurs when the body cannot recover from fluid loss.
hypothermia: the excessive cooling of the body’s core temperature.
LOC (level of consciousness): a patient’s mental status due to illness or injury.
MCI (multiple casualty incident): an incident that involves more than one victim.
medic alert: a bracelet, necklace, or card that alerts medical personnel to a specific medical condition.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus): a type of bacteria that is highly contagious and resistant to certain antibiotics; causes a skin infection that is red, swollen, painful, or warm to the touch; may have purulent drainage or appear to be a spider bite, pimple, or boil.
muscular system: gives the body shape, protects internal organs, and provides body movement.
negligence: failure to use due or reasonable care in a situation, resulting in harm to another (Legal); failure to exercise the standard of care that a reasonably prudent person would have exercised in a similar situation; conduct that falls below the legal standard established to protect others against unreasonable risk of harm, except for conduct that is intentionally, wantonly, or willfully disregardful of other’s rights.
nervous system: controls voluntary and involuntary body activity, supports higher mental functions such as thought and emotion, allows the individual to be aware of and react to the environment, and keeps the rest of the body’s systems working together.
open chest injury: an injury that occurs when penetration opens the chest area.
open fracture: a fracture where the skin at the injury site is broken, and the bone may protrude through the skin.
partial thickness burn: second-degree burn that damages the first two skin layers, which blister and feel very painful.
peripheral nervous system: includes nerves that connect to the spinal cord and branch out to every other part of the body; serve as a two- way communication system.
placenta: the disk-shaped inner lining of the uterus; provides nourishment and oxygen to a fetus.
placental: the third stage of labor during which the placenta separates from the uterine wall and moves through the birth canal for delivery.
PMS: when examining extremities for potential injuries, indicates what to check for: pulse, and motor and sensory function.
positional asphyxia: death as a result of a body position that interferes with one’s ability to breathe.
PPE (personal protective equipment): items that protect individuals from harmful substances, infections, or other people; includes eye protection, gloves, shields, and biohazard bags.
puncture wound: the result of driving a sharp or blunt, pointed object into soft tissue.
recovery position: a position where the patient is rolled over (preferably onto the left side) with knees slightly bent; helps maintain an open airway if the patient vomits and may prevent positional asphyxia.
respiratory system: delivers oxygen to and removes carbon dioxide from the blood.
SAMPLE: signs and symptoms, allergies, medications, past history, last oral intake, events; method to help an officer acquire information useful in determining causes of injury or illness.
shock: failure of the heart and blood vessels (circulatory system) to maintain enough oxygen-rich blood flowing to the vital organs of the body.
skeletal system: the supporting framework for the body, giving it shape and protecting vital organs; attains mobility from the attached muscles and manufactures red blood cells.
skin: the protective covering for the inside of the body; provides a barrier against bacteria and other harmful substances and organisms; acts as a communication organ; helps regulate body temperature.
START (Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment): a method of triage that assesses a large number of victims rapidly using personnel with limited medical training.
STD (sexually transmitted disease): infection transmitted through sexual contact; among the most common infectious diseases.
stroke: damage to part of the brain due to the rupture or blockage of a blood vessel.
sucking chest injury: type of open chest injury in which air and/or blood escapes into the area surrounding the lungs, creating a change in the pressure in the chest cavity.
superficial burn: first-degree burn that damages the first layer of skin; becomes red and feels very painful.
swelling: soft tissue that is raised when blood or other body fluids pool beneath the skin at the injury site.
TB (tuberculosis): a highly infectious airborne disease.
thermal burn: a burn that occurs when an external heat source comes into contact with the skin.
triage: a system of sorting and classifying of patients; determines order in which patients receive medical attention; assesses a large number of victims rapidly.
umbilical cord: connects the fetus and the mother; provides nourishment to the fetus.
universal precautions: procedures designed to prevent transmission of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and other blood-borne pathogens.
USDOT: United States Department of Transportation.
uterus: the organ that holds the developing fetus.
venous bleeding: bleeding where dark red blood flows steadily from a wound, indicating a severed or damaged vein.
voluntary muscles: muscles used for deliberate acts, such as chewing, lifting, and running.