2Confidentiality/Privacy 42 CFR Part 2 – The alcohol and substance abuse treatment confidentiality rule.HIPAA – New federal rules covering all health related information.Confidentiality, also known as “Privacy” involves the protection of patient information and is protected by three major rules.42 CFR part 2 – the alcohol and substance abuse treatment confidentiality rule.Most states also have specific laws that cover the release of HIV information.HIPAA – are new federal rules covering all health related information.
3Confidentiality laws & HIPAA This is simply a bunch of laws that can be read, understood, and waived.There is no REAL clarityIn some places it conflicts with the ConstitutionNobody was contemplating Drug CourtsReally not the real challenge for counsel in the “big picture”.
442 U.S. Code 290dd 42 CFR Part 2 First issued 1975, revised 1987 Designed to help deal with the stigma of addiction.Requires notification of confidentiality, consent forms, prohibition of redisclosure“I’m sorry I cannot acknowledge whether someone is or isn’t in our treatment program”.42 CFR part 2 is the set of confidentiality laws that treatment providers have been operating under since 1975, with a major revision of those rules in 1987.They were designed to help patients avoid the stigma associated with addiction by keeping their treatment information confidential. It also allowed for patients to honestly talk about their drug and alcohol use, without fear that someone would obtain their information and then use it against them.This law requires the treatment providers to provide patients with a “notification of confidentiality”,…to sign consent forms to disclose information,…and requires the “prohibition of re-disclosure” form that is sent out with any patient information.The law is so strict that providers cannot even acknowledge whether someone is or isn’t in their treatment program. And the protection is so strong, that it survives death.
5What 42 CFR Covers:“Any program or activity relating to substance abuse education, prevention, training, treatment, rehabilitation or research which is directly or indirectly assisted by any department or agency of the United States.”
6HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 45 CFR Parts 160 and 164, Subparts A and EDesigned to ensure maintenance of health insurance coverage when you change jobs.Administrative simplification – Healthcare processes becoming very complex – look to standardize information – make it easier.Protect confidentiality and security of patient informationHIPAA, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, was designed to ensure that people could maintain their health insurance coverage when they switched jobs.It also contains provisions referred to as “Administrative Simplification”. Operating Health Care programs has become very complicated with many different insurance companies, regulatory requirements, and various data systems. Administrative Simplification calls for the standardization of information so that all parties use the same billing codes, diagnostic codes, and service codes. This would hopefully make healthcare operations much simpler.HIPAA also contains important provisions regarding protection of the confidentiality of patient information.
7Privacy StandardsPlaces restrictions on the use and/or disclosure of “Protected Health Information” –PHIEffective 4/14/03Essentially applies “42 CFR p.2-like” requirements to all health care.Privacy Standard place restrictions on the use and disclosure of what is known as “ Protected Health Information” also called “PHI”. We’ll get back to PHI in a moment.The privacy standards are effective on 4/14/03, and effect the whole healthcare industry. Basically, these standards apply requirements similar to 42-CFR part 2 to all of healthcare.
8Protected Health Information (PHI) Any health information:Oral , paper, or electronicIncluding identifying demographic informationRelating to:Physical or mental health (treatment) of individual,Provision of health care to an individual (operations)Payment for provision of health care to individualProtected Health Information, PHI, is any health information, whether it’s oral, paper, or electronic that includes information that could identify a patient in any way. The information relates to the treatment of physical and mental Health, providing that healthcare, called operations, and the payment for that healthcare.
9Security Standards Security of information against non-approved access Electronic creation, transmission, and storage of information a significant concern – hackersRequirements for logging of access, automatic log offs, encryption of information sent by internet.Regulations took effect in 4/05Another component of HIPAA are the security standards. Security references protection of PHI from non-approved access. Electronic creation, transmission and storage of information is a significant concern. Recently, a hacker obtained access to over 400,000 military health records. The security standards attempt to put into play safeguards to protect this from happening.The standards will contain requirements for logging on to computers, automatic log offs when the computer is unattended, and encryption of information sent via the internet, like external .These regulations were recently finalized and are scheduled to tale effect in 2/2005.
10Minimum Necessary Standard When using/disclosing PHI, only the minimum necessary information should be shared.The disclosure should cover only the authorized informationIndividuals, family, visitors, etc. who do not have a need to know PHI should not have access to it.An important aspect of the HIPAA rules is the “Minimum Necessary Standard”. This requirement stipulates that only the minimum necessary information be shared when using and disclosing information. When disclosing information to an outside party, only that information which authorized by the patient may be shared. We are already familiar with this through our consent forms.Individuals, family, visitors, and others who do not have a need to know PHI should not have access to it. At an ATC, certain staff members will have a “need to know” only certain information. For example, a food service worker may need to know of certain health issues, like diabetes, when preparing and serving meals to the patient. The food service worker does not need to know other aspects of the patient’s information. The ATC’s will determine which staff members will have complete access to PHI, and which will have restricted access.
11HIPAA v. 42 CFR Part 2 The laws cover a lot of the same material. Some points of difference – more specific or more recent rule usually applies.For the CD Treatment providers, in most cases the rules of 42 CFR Part 2 are more stringentIn several cases HIPAA wins.HIPAA has required your treatment provider and your drug court to make some changes in your confidentiality practices. HIPAA and 42 CFR cover a lot of the same material. When the two standards differ, the rule of law is that the more specific or more recent rule applies. With regards to chemical dependency treatment, 42 CFR is more stringent than HIPAA in many ways. A lot of what drug courts and treatment does has remained the same. In several cases, HIPAA has required some changes.
12Do These Laws Apply to Problem-Solving Court Practitioners Do These Laws Apply to Problem-Solving Court Practitioners? How Do We Know They Apply?
13HIPAA doesn’t apply to courts Contrary to myth, HIPAA covered entities do not include the courts, court personnel, accrediting agencies like JCAHO and law enforcement personnel including police or probation officers.GAINS CENTER, “Dispelling the Myths…” Feb. 2007Just because court and law enforcement are not HIPAA covered does not mean your treatment provider is not, the HIPAA administrative order and the consent should make the treatment provider disclosures HIPAA cpmpliant13
14Persons who are protected as “Patients” A person is a “patient” if they have sought or received a treatment programs services.If someone fails to appear for an initial appointment, that information is protected because they have “sought” treatment.
15Defining the ProgramA unit a office of the problem-solving court itself provide diagnosis, treatment or makes referrals to CD treatment.Is a “Program” under 42 CFR Part 2.Is a “Covered Entity” if it transmits PHI electronically.Requires a valid multi-party consent to disclose information to the problem-solving court team.
16Defining the ProgramThe program is independent of the problem-solving court.Requires valid multiparty consents for re-disclosure of information to the problem-solving court team.
17General Rule of Disclosure “Treatment Programs may only release information or records that will directly or indirectly identify a problem-solving court participant as a substance abuser:With a knowing and written consent from the participant, ANDlimited exceptions
18How do You Obtain Written Consent from Your Participants?
19Elements of a ConsentName of person or organization that may make the disclosure;Name or title of person (or organization) to whom disclosure may be made;Participant’s name;Purpose of the disclosure;How much and what kind of information may be disclosed;Participant’s signature;Date on which the consent was signed;Date, event, or condition upon which the consent will expire(Consent cannot be revoked unless in a civil or juvenile court setting)
20And under HIPAA Must be in plain language Can be signed by a personal representative (then, must contain a description of the representative’s authority to act on patient’s behalf)Patients must be given copy of written formPrograms must keep copy of form for six years from expiration dateProgram must ensure that consent complies with applicable requirements of 45 CFR section
21ConsentsA proper consent can authorize all parties involved in the problem-solving court to share information necessary to monitor treatment progress and compliance.To be effective the consent form should be signed at the earliest possible time.Judge, coordinator, probation, etc., should get consent and fax it to treatment before 1st appointment.Before the drug court participant is seen by someone at the treatment agency for the first screening or assessment, the consent needs to be signed. The treatment agency cannot share any information without the consent.You have in your materials a copy of a model consent including HIPAA and 42 CFR requirements. In the monographs on confidentiality, on the DCPI website, and in 42 CFR itself, there are examples of consents to use.
22Requiring ConsentsHIPAA prohibits a program from conditioning treatment on a patient signing a consent, butThe judge (problem-solving court) can condition participation in the court program on the defendant signing the consent form.
23Consent Guidelines Criminal Justice System (CJS) consents Determine whether assessment and treatment participation is an official condition that the person must meet.CJS consents have special rules under 42 CFR part 2 – irrevocable until expiration.HIPAA requires all consent be revocable.
24Satisfying 42 CFR and HIPAA HIPAA requires all consents to be revocable, butHIPAA also allows for the use of an administrative order for information disclosure. Therefore,Programs that provide both substance abuse and mental health treatment services can pair their 42 CFR consent with a HIPAA administrative order and/or build HIPAA language into their consent
25Option 1- Court Order & Irrevocable Consent Use of Court Order (court or administrative body) – Satisfies HIPAA“Standing order”“Limited HIPAA Order”Irrevocable consent – 42 CFR Part 2
26Option 2 – Revocable Consents “Unlikely” the individual will revoke consent if it means they will be in violation of terms of sentence.Saves Court work – no ordersIf revoked, programs will have to inform court that a 42 CFR Part 2 court order is needed.Consent needs to describe specifically how disclosed info will be used.
27Use and RedisclosureUnder 42 CFR § 2.35, information from a CJS release may be redisclosed and used only in connection to their official duties with respect to the particular criminal proceeding.The information may not be used in other proceedings, for other purposes or with respect to other individuals. (42 CFR § 2.12(d)(1))
28Mandatory disclosure -no consent State child or elder abuse lawsA valid court orderState laws relating to cause of deathDuty to protect others, to warn of imminent, serious harmThis is one example of where 42 CFR is much stricter than HIPAA. HIPAA, information can be released with a subpoena. With 42 CFR, a subpoena isn’t sufficient. Information can only be released on a court order, based on information gathered in a court hearing, where both sides are given notice. The judge must decide whether the need to know the information outweighs the person’s need for confidentiality.(I would also discuss here whether the supervision officers are mandatory reporters of child or elderly abuse.)
29Permitted disclosures -no consent Medical emergencyCrimes on the premisesCrimes against staffAdministration / qualified service programs working with treatment facility (must have business associate agreement under HIPAA—see 67 Federal Register for sample contract language—published by HHS office for Civil Rights)Outside auditors, central registries and researchersNo re-disclosures unless permittedAll disclosures must be documented
30Subpoenas v. Court Orders Part 2 allows information to be released by subpoena if patient has signed consent permitting releaseIf no consent, then see 42 CFR Part 2, Subpart E for procedures the court must follow, findings, and limitsHIPAA allows information release under subpoena with assurance patient has been given notice (or reasonable efforts made to give notice) with the opportunity to object
31Can a Judge share treatment information in open court? The Judge may decide that sharing information about progress/difficulty in treatment is a “legitimate part of the court’s official duties and responsibilities with respect to the criminal proceedings”.Remember the Minimum Necessary Information standard.
32Slowly we get answers: open courts The provisions of 42 CFR 2.35 and the need for open courtrooms required denial of motion to close proceedings. Sec. 2.35:need to disclose as a condition of participation in programdisclosure only to those in criminal justice system on a need to know basisconsentPublic courtroom trumps 42 cfr. The issue then becomes what about staffings—current wisdom at NDCI is they are not open to the public, but no case law and rationale for closing is more detailed 42 cfr info is discussed. Definitely a tough issueFlorida v. Noelle Bush, Circuit Court (Oct. 2002)32
33And Ethics…. Tough for defense Seriously strange for prosecution Odd for CourtWhat to do??
34So… What are the legal rules that guide our conduct? What are the ethical rules that guide our conduct?What are the informal rules that guide our conduct?How does a system built on vigorous advocacy work to solve problems in a “non-adversarial” way?
35What is the difference between confidentiality laws, evidentiary privileges and ethical duties? Confidentiality laws are statutes and regulations that prohibit specified disclosures (usually subject to specified exceptions). Improper disclosures of information covered by confidentiality laws can lead to criminal prosecutions and civil lawsuits.Unlike confidentiality laws, evidentiary privileges generally do not constrain those who choose to disclose information. Instead, privileges protect against compelled disclosure.Like confidentiality laws, ethical duties prohibit the disclosure of information. Ethical duties, which are ordinarily embodied in professional canon, apply to communications between professionals and those they serve.35
36Quiz:A participant in the drug court approaches the prosecutor in the court hallway and begins talking to them about “life”A participant in the drug court approaches the prosecutor in the court hallway and hugs them.A participant in the drug court calls the DA from the street and asks for help with a police matter involving a DV incident.
38Question:A participant tells you that they are cheating on the drug tests. What do you do?A participant tells you they are using and dirty and they just took a test that will prove it. What do you do?A participant is trying to set up a fight between you and the treatment provider. What do you do?
39Ethical puzzles for the defense A team? How does that work?Where does the duty lie? More than one place?What is the short term vs. long term view for the client’s interests?In most areas of law, except criminal defense…counsel give advice about long term matters. IT is important to talk to clients about what happens after sentencing…after completion. Drug Court is just the beginning, and it is not over after graduation.
40Ethical & Skill Challenges The distinction between Attorney at Law and Counselor at LawWhen do you wear each hat?Legal work vs. Social Work?Because you hone the one skill does not mean that you are abandoning the other.
41Ethical puzzles for the defense What about privileged information or information/conduct that constitutes a fraud upon the Court?How to work through new crimes.Advocacy in the face of the 10 Key components-a delicate balance.
42Ethical puzzles for the defense The Courtroom as a classroom-what are your other clients hearing when you speak? What is the impact?How to handle conflicts if you are the only defense attorney in the court.
43Counsel relations: On a team with a prosecutor? Your peers may have different feelingsWhy aren’t you doing REAL legal work?Are you sure you ARE working?The other defense “dump truck”What do you do when you must advocate for a client, but your credibility with the team and DA would be harmed as you do. “My client would like the court to know…”What to do when private counsel have you appear for them…over and over. Ethical quandary=legal error
44Counsel relations: You’re selling out your clients! FIGHT! When the model comes clear to you…how do you feel about your peers and their work?What about your clients wanting to talk to the prosecutor?
45Ethics in Drug Court: Thorny issues Ex Parte Communications and StaffingJudicial Fraternization/ImpartialityRole of the Defense CounselJust dealing with 3 issues that frequently arise45
46Ex parte Communication Ex parte communication must be specifically waived or asserted (Model Code Judicial Conduct, Canon 3B(7))Who is present at staffing?Is it ok to attend team meetings w/out client?How many levels of hearsay in staffing?Are 42 CFR waivers executed for everyone present?Brown v. State, MD Ct of Appeal46
47Ex parte staffingPermissible to have ex parte communications at staffing with appropriate waivers and outside of drug courtBest practice to inform defense counsel of content and nature of communicationsNY has specific administrative orders permitting such communicationNY Opinion 04-88: March 10, 2005, Advisory Committee on Judicial Ethics, NY State Unified Court System47
48ABA Rule 2.9(5) No ex parte communications except: (5) A judge may initiate, permit, or consider any ex parte communication when expressly authorized by law to do so.48
49ABA Rule 2.9Comment A judge may initiate, permit, or consider ex parte communications …when serving on therapeutic or problem-solving courts, mental health courts, or drug courts. In this capacity, judges may assume a more interactive role with parties, treatment providers, probation officers, social workers, and others.49
50State judicial ethics amendments Idaho, Maryland, Montana, Minnesota, New York, Indiana and ArkansasAmended their Codes to specifically address and permit ex parte communications in problem-solving courts including staffingsPerhaps a better approach would be amending the Rules of Prof. Resp. for counsel requiring them to be present at staffing and progress reports50
51Out-of-court contact with participants DTC picnicBowling night51
52The Judge and Drug Court Participants Judge attends group activities, softball games, bowling night, holiday party, spring picnic, Disneyland trip, with drug court participants.52
53Judicial discipline Matter of Blackman, 591A.2d1339 (N.J. 1991) “[J]udges who attends a public or social event will be perceived as endorsing or supporting not only the event itself but also persons associated with the event.”In re Jones, 581 N.W.2d 876 (Neb. 1998)Canon 1 and Canon 2 violation to meet individually with probationers.53
55Defense’s duty “Duty of zealous representation” of client C.f., reasonable diligence and competence in ABA Model Rule 1.3; “devotion and courage” in advocacy in ABA (“Defense Function Guidelines”)To competently represent client in DTC must familiarize self with tx, procedures, bases for sanctions or termination, etc. (ABA Model Rule 1.1)55
57Smith v. State FL Ct.App. 4th Dist. 3/19/03 Lawyers must educate themselves about drug court programs.They cannot effectively advise their clients otherwise“To ignore the need to learn about the drug court process is to ignore the evolution of the justice system”“For lawyers to do otherwise is for them to become legal dinosaurs”57
58Questions for Defense Counsel in DTCs Will the client spend more time in jail?Attend court more frequently?FTA more frequently?Provide judge with personal information?Examine the root cause of addictive behavior?Focus on long-term rather than short-term goals?58
59Respect Role of Defense National Legal Aid and Defender Association:Nothing in the problem solving court policies or procedures should compromise counsel’s ethical responsibility to…challenge evidence or findings and the right to recommend alternative treatments or sanctions.Too many drug court teams condemn PDs for doing their jobs—this needs to stop59
60Best PracticesEnsure that DA and Defense Counsel attend staffings and review hearingsAdvocate change in CanonsJudges: avoid public activities (non-judicial) with participants, except for cameo appearanceRespect ethical obligations of defense counsel60
61Due ProcessProcedural protections are due under the 5th and 14th Amendments when the defendant will potentially suffer a loss to a recognized liberty or property right.If due process applies, the question remains what process is due.Fuentes v. Shevin, 407 U.S. 67 (1972).Morrissey v. Brewer, 408 U.S. 471 (1972).61
62What new skills do you get? Addiction knowledgeMotivational InterviewingEngagement strategies
63Additional Challenges Do you get a lot of support from other defense counsel and public defenders?
65First: the strange stuff A prosecutor as part of the treatment teamReal prosecutors don’t hug thugs.Shunning by “real prosecutors”Promotions go to real trial lawyersWhat to do with your files in your officeEthical concerns that arise from the clients
66In my worst nightmare, I never dreamed….. That I would be covered by medical confidentiality laws.That I would have to hide my files from my peers.
67After all these years, I’m no longer a “real DA” in my “hug a thug” program Peers question my sanityPeers talk about real trial workWinning trials gets the promotions.Peers shun the assignment like a bad case of the flu.
68Ethical surprises abound Clients see me as a support and they want to talk to me.They phone me for helpThey approach me on the streetThey are all represented by counsel, and I’m not allowed to speak with them…but it is darned hard to avoid it!
69Engagement strategies count The role of the Prosecutor is very powerfulWe can use that power to motivate performance.Next to the Judge, we’re the ones who can really make a difference with our praise.Our use of our trial skills can translate into improved outcomes in drug courts.Don’t underestimate your power to inspire!
70We have many roles Monitor court to maintain balance Protect the public safetyMake the best possible programs with the best possible outcomesAvoid violating the 10 Key ComponentsUse our skills to facilitate change, and be aggressive about addiction just as we are about crime.
71I get information About drug dealers that I can’t use About snitches that I can’t shareAbout other crimes that can’t be used
72So, what to do…How do you handle it?What is the toughest part?What new skills have you learned?How might they translate into standard prosecutorial functions?
73ResourcesLEGAL ACTION CENTER, “Confidentiality and Communication”, (LAC 2006)NDCI, “Ethical Considerations for Judges and Attorneys in Drug Court” (May 2001)NDCI, “Federal Confidentiality Laws and How They Affect Drug Court Practitioners” (2001)NDCI, “Critical Issues for Defense Attorneys in Drug Court” (2003)GAINS CENTER, “Dispelling the Myths…” Feb. 2007Chapters in Judicial Manual on Ethics, Confidentiality &Legal Issues73