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REGULATION AND PRACTICE OF HANDLING TRANSPORT CONTAINERS: A PILOT STUDY IN DENMARK Balázs Ádám, Randi Nørgaard and Jørgen Riis Jepsen Centre of Maritime.

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Presentation on theme: "REGULATION AND PRACTICE OF HANDLING TRANSPORT CONTAINERS: A PILOT STUDY IN DENMARK Balázs Ádám, Randi Nørgaard and Jørgen Riis Jepsen Centre of Maritime."— Presentation transcript:

1 REGULATION AND PRACTICE OF HANDLING TRANSPORT CONTAINERS: A PILOT STUDY IN DENMARK Balázs Ádám, Randi Nørgaard and Jørgen Riis Jepsen Centre of Maritime Health and Society University of Southern Denmark

2 REGULATIONS INFLUENCING HEALTH AND SAFETY OF CONTAINER HANDLING IN DENMARK Regulation on international, national and local levels in the areas of OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY CHEMICAL SAFETY PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES

3 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS Occupational Safety and Health Convention, No. 155 (1981, ILO) Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation, No. 164, (1981, ILO) 89/391/EEC Health and safety at work „Framework Directive” 89/654 Directive concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the workplace 89/656 Directive on the minimum health and safety requirements for the use by workers of personal protective equipment at the workplace 98/24 Directive on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work 2004/37 Directive on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work

4 THE DANISH WORKING ENVIRONMENT ACT FRAMEWORK ACT LAYS DOWN THE GENERAL OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS IN RELATIONS TO WORKING ENVIRONMENT IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE EMPLOYER TO ENSURE THAT THE WORKING CONDITIONS ARE SAFE AND SOUND IN ANY WAY A NUMBER OF REGULATIONS SUPPLEMENT THE ACT IN RELATION TO SAFETY OF CONTAINER HANDLING

5 DANISH WORKING ENVIRONMENT REGULATIONS REGULATIONS RELATED TO HANDELING OF CONTAINERS Regulation No. 559 on the performance of work Regulation No. 1181 on companies´ safety and health work Regulation No. 1706 on use of personal protective equipment Regulation No. 96 on organization of permanent workplaces Regulation no. 518 on safety signs and other forms of signalling Regulation No. 507 on limit values for substances and materials Regulation No. 908 on measures for prevention of exposure to carcinogenic substances and materials Regulation No. 292 on work with substances and materials (chemical agents)

6 REGULATIONS ON CHEMICAL USE AT WORK SAFETY IN THE USE OF CHEMICALS AT WORK (1993, ILO) -The practical recommendations of this code of practice are intended for the use of all those who have a responsibility for safety in the use of chemicals -Flow of information from the manufacturers or importers THE INTERNATIONAL MARITIME DANGEROUS GOODS (IMDG) CODE THE RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE SAFE USE OF PESTICIDES IN SHIPS (2008, IMO)

7 DANISH REGULATION ON CHEMICAL SAFETY DANISH CHEMICALS ACT Declaration, sale, classification, packaging, labelling and storage of chemicals INFORMATION SOURCE SEAHEALTH CHEMICALS DATABASE Database of more than 4500 products used on Danish ships

8 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES (ISPM 15) – regulation of treatment of wood packaging material in international trade (2009, IPPC) −MONTEREAL PROTOCOL ON SUBSTANCES THAT DEPLETE THE OZONE LAYER −HANDBOOK ON CRITICAL USE NOMINATIONS FOR METHYL BROMIDE EU REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD PACKING MATERIAL & DUNNAGE DANISH REGULATION NO. 1301 ON IMPORT OF PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS ECT. PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES

9 Associations of international and Danish national regulations relevant to the prevention of chemical exposures from transport containers Occupational Safety and Health Convention 155 (ILO) Directive 89/391/EEC on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work Danish Working Environment Act - Regulation no. 559 on the performance of work - Regulation no. 1181 on companies safety and health work - Regulation no. 1706 on use of personal protective equipment - Regulation no. 96 on organization of permanent workplaces - Regulation no. 518 on safety signs and other forms of signaling - Regulation no. 507 on limit values for - substances and materials - Regulation no. 908 for measures for prevention of exposure to carcinogenic substances and materials - Regulation no. 292 on work with substances and materials (chemical agents) Directive 89/654/EEC concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the workplace Directive 89/656/EEC on the minimum health and safety requirements for the use by workers of personal protective equipment at the workplace Directive 98/24/EEC on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work Directive 2004/37/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens or mutagens at work Occupational Safety and Health Recommendation 164 (ILO) Safety in the use of chemicals at work (ILO) Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods (United Nations) IMDG Code + Recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships (IMO) The Danish Chemicals Act International standards for phytosanitary measures. ISPM 15 (IPPC) EU requirements for wood packaging material & dunnage - Regulation no. 1301 on import of plants and plant products etc. Montereal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Handbook on Critical use Nominations for Methyl Bromide Occupational health and safety Chemical safety Phytosanitary measures

10 SAFETY INSTRUCTION No. 23 – CONTROL OF CONTAINERS SAFETY INSTRUCTION No. 26 – STORAGE AND WAREHOUSING The safety instructions relate to IMDG CODE EUROPEAN DIRECTIVES DANISH DIRECTIVES SEAHEALTH (KNOWLEGDE OF CHEMICALS) LOCAL INSTRUCTIONS CUSTOMS OFFICE

11 Safety instruction no. 23 and 26 Regulation on the performance of work Directive 89/654 Directive 98/24/EC Regulation on work with substances and materials (chemical agents) Directive 89/654 Regulation on use of personal protective equipment Directive 89/654 Directive 98/24/EC Directive 89/656 Regulation on safety signs and other forms of signalling Directive 89/654 Directive 98/24/EC SeaHealth Knowledge of chemicals IMDG code

12 GROUP POLICIES follow the vision for conducting business in a safe manner committed to comply with applicable laws and regulations OWN SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS structured easily available no stated relation to national and international regulations LOCAL INSTRUCTIONS CONTAINER LOGISTIC COMPANY

13 IDENTIFICATION OF DANGEROUS CONTAINERS certificate for fumigation labeled as “dangerous goods” ventilation valves in the container are closed SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS IN CASE OF SUSPICION ventilation mask – filter gloves LOCAL INSTRUCTIONS

14 PRACTICE OF CONTAINER HANDLING IN DENMARK Structured interviews with managers and safety representatives of Danish container inspecting authorities Container logistic company Interview template Work activity Exposure Health effects Preventive measures Harmonised with the interview template for container treatment.

15 INSPECTION Opened on a ramp by the driver Entering the container is frequently needed Unloading is required sometimes, typically the driver or a company does it UNLOADING From ramp Manual Forklift sometimes used DIRECT CONTACT WITH CONTAINERS

16 KNOWLEDGE OF THE REGULATORY BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE OF REGULATIONS* International regulations ARD (International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road) and its sea transport equivalent UN numbers National regulations Regulations by the Working Environment Authority Local rules, instructions Specific own rules Handbook on workplace health and safety *Regulations that could be named by interviewees

17 EXPOSURE EXTENT OF EXPOSURE Number of containers handled 20-80 containers per week Frequency of containers labelled as fumigated <5% Frequency of exposure20% (5%-50%) Significance of exposureMay chronically damage human health (It may cause harm – Can be very dangerous) Workers` risk perceptionIncreasing awareness but little specific information Fear is not typical

18 CHEMICALS AND THEIR HEALTH EFFECTS CHEMICALS AND THEIR EFFECTS Chemicals released from containers Methyl bromide Naphthalene Little or no information about other chemicals Symptoms that might be related to chemical exposure Headache Eye irritation Unspecified discomfort Diseases that might be related to chemical exposure Some unspecific sickness in the past No reported intoxication/occupational disease

19 PREVENTIVE MEASURE METHODCONCERNS OF APPLICATION Identification of contaminated containers Review of documentation for previous chemical treatment Suspicion generated by the odour, type of goods (rice, fish food, furniture, wood, electronics) and country of origin (Far East, South America, Africa) Air monitoring Chemical treatment of containers is rarely documented Suspicion is subjective, some of the hazardous chemicals have no perceivable odour Devices used in practice can measure only methyl bromide but no other fumigants and typical industrial pollutants PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND CON- CERNS OF THEIR USE IN PRACTICE

20 PREVENTIVE MEASURE METHODCONCERNS OF APPLICATION VentilationPassive ventilation (aeration) Active ventilation (extraction or inflation) Aeration time varies (2 to 48 hours, repeated measurement) and may not be enough to reduce chemical concentration to a safe level Not used in practice Personal protective equipment Respiratory protection Gloves Protective clothing Filter masks are rarely used Dust masks do not provide adequate protection Limited use due to discomfort of wearing PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND CON- CERNS OF THEIR USE IN PRACTICE

21 21 CONCLUSIONS Based on the review of the regulation and practice of container handling in Denmark Exposure to harmful chemicals during handling transport containers is likely to be frequent Health effects are rarely seen There is limited knowledge about the related regulations and the local instructions may not give specific practical advice Little information on potentially exposing chemicals Difficulty with the identification of dangerous containers No standard regimes for risk management

22 22 THANK YOU


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