ENHANCE PROSPERITY Commerce: Hyper-local advertising Out-“local” Groupon New York Times, “In Groupon’s $6 Billion Wake, a Fleet of Start-Ups” Enhanced location-based services More targeted ads, more customer interest Government: Laws, Regulations and Revenues Online sales tax California Law ~= $300 million a year! 1 Commercial Applications (Geo-DRM) Geo-Digital Rights Management 2 MLB.com, Hulu 1 http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jun/30/business/la-fi-amazon-tax-20110630 2 Bishr, M., Wytzisk, A., Morales, J., (2007) “GeoDRM: Towards Digital Management of Intellectual Property Rights for Spatial Data Infrastructures” in Research and Theory in Advancing Spatial Data Infrastructure Concepts, ed. Onsrud, H, Redlands, CA: ESRI Press
ENHANCE SECURITY Geo-location authentication to strengthen passwords Access Restrictions Limit access based on geo-location Applications Prevent phishing, cyber-crime, identity theft Internet fraud reduction Banks look at location of Internet clients May have prevented Wikileaks Geographic restrictions on Internet routes Cloud Computing Geographic restriction of data storage location and transfer routes Some countries demand readability of all data packets passing through territory
ENHANCE CIVILITY Anonymity often leads to increased aggression 1 Facilitates cyber-crime, such as phishing attacks, flash mobs “Flash Mob Crime surges: Social Media an enabler?” http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504943_162-20096316-10391715.html Knowing location of message sources may… Reduce phishing attacks May reduce incivility Need to balance with censorship risks Eric Schmidt of Google “True anonymity is too dangerous…” 2 1 Wikipedia, “Social psychology (psychology),” 2011. 2 http://articles.sfgate.com/2011-08-12/opinion/29879141_1_online-anonymity-collateral-damage-randi-zuckerberg
HOW HARD IS THIS PROBLEM? Possibly Undecidable Fully automatic solutions may not be possible May need a collection of humans and computers Volunteer Geographic Information OpenStreetMaps during Haiti earthquake 2009 DARPA Red Balloon Challenge AI & Machine Learning IBM Watson hypotheses generation Validating geo-location once we have it? Authentication & Authorization An undecidable problem is a decision problem for which it is impossible to construct a single algorithm that always leads to a correct yes-or-no answer.
VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION (VGI) Human geo-locating of media: Ability to quickly match objects even at different angles Can handle changes in seasons Proven effective for mapping, crisis support, etc Humans can’t search massive data Exhaustion, attention-span, etc Humans can slowly find exact matches Computers can quickly find rough matches
HOW TO FIND VOLUNTEERS? Local knowledge Currently residing nearby Migrants from that location Frequent visitors Mapping knowledge Location specification via gazetteer, GPS, street addresses, etc Location disambiguation (e.g., 100’s of MLK St. in USA) Motivation Provide appropriate incentives for quality submissions
MACHINE LEARNING IBM’s Watson can play Jeopardy, what else can it play? Using clues to perform vast searches, evaluate hundreds of conjectures James Hays, Alexei A. Efros. IM2GPS: estimating geographic information from a single image. Proceedings of the IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2008.
HOW TO AUTHENTICATE GEO-LOCATION? Challenge Protocols Varying power levels, location-specific questions, etc Authentic and Secure Geo-Location Reporting A RSA keyfob with GPS built in? Geo-enable Internet Infrastructure Geo-fencing, routing restrictions, expiration policies Geo-hardware?? RSA + GPS