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Presentation on theme: "Presented by: Randi Barney PERSONAL CHOICES THAT AFFECT A FETUS."— Presentation transcript:


2 OBJECTIVES Understand how alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs affect the mother Understand how alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs affect the fetus Understand the importance of nutrition during pregnancy

3 INTRODUCTION When a woman is pregnant, anything she eats, drinks, or smokes can affect not only herself, but her baby as well. Most of what the mother eats, drinks, and breathes is passed along to the baby. How the baby is exposed The baby’s umbilical cord is it’s lifeline. It is attached to the placenta, which is what provides nutrients and oxygen to the baby. Drugs pass directly through the placenta into the baby’s blood instantly

4 TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, DRUGS, & PREGNANCY Using tobacco, alcohol, and/or drugs while pregnant is very dangerous. First, they may harm the mother’s own health, interfering with her ability to support the pregnancy. Second, they can directly impair prenatal development. The most crucial stage of development is the first ten weeks of pregnancy (1 st trimester) After the tenth week, it is still dangerous to consume harmful substances

5 SMOKING AND PREGNANCY If a woman smokes when she is pregnant, her baby is exposed to harmful chemicals such as tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide. Nicotine causes blood vessels to constrict, so less oxygen and nutrients reach the fetus. Depresses the appetite. Carbon monoxide lowers the amount of oxygen the baby receives.

6 *SMOKING AND PREGNANCY Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have: An ectopic pregnancy Vaginal bleeding Placental abruption A stillbirth A miscarriage Babies born to women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to be born: At a low birth weight (less than 5 ½ pounds) Have birth defects Prematurely With mental retardation

7 SMOKING AFTER BIRTH Smoking hurts the baby after birth, too. The baby may breathe in harmful amounts of secondhand smoke. Breathing secondhand smoke increases the risk of: Asthma Bronchitis Pneumonia Ear infections Slow lung growth Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

8 *ALCOHOL AND PREGNANCY When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, it quickly reaches her fetus. The same amount of alcohol that is in her blood is in her baby’s blood. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS is a group of mental and physical defects that may include: Microcephaly Mental retardation Heart defects Cleft palate Abnormal facial features Impeded growth

9 *DRUGS AND PREGNANCY As many as 1 in 10 babies may be born to women who use illegal drugs during their pregnancies Different drugs may affect the fetus in different ways Cocaine and Methamphetamine These are powerful stimulants of the central nervous system. They suppress the mother’s appetite and exert other drastic forces on her body, causing the blood vessels to constrict, the heart to beat faster, and the blood pressure to soar. Consequences: Hindered fetal growth Miscarriage Premature labor

10 *DRUGS AND PREGNANCY Heroin Consequences: Premature birth Low birth weight Breathing difficulties Hypoglycemia Intracranial hemorrhage Babies of narcotics-dependent mothers are often born dependent themselves and suffer withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, vomiting and diarrhea, and joint stiffness Marijuana Studies of marijuana use by pregnant women are inconclusive because marijuana is often used with other drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol Consequences: Premature birth Low birth weight

11 HOW TO GET HELP Alcoholics Anonymous Telephone: 212-870-3400 Web site: http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Telephone: 800-662-HELP Fax: 301-443-8751 Web site: http://findtreatment.samhsa.gov http:/

12 *NUTRITION AND PREGNANCY The foods you eat are the main source of nutrients for your baby. Healthy eating during pregnancy may take a little effort, but it will be a major benefit for you and your baby. NutrientWhy you and your baby need it Best Sources CalciumHelps build strong bones and teeth Milk, cheese, yogurt, sardines Vitamin AForms healthy skin and helps eyesight Carrots; dark, leafy greens, sweet potatoes Vitamin CPromotes healthy gums, teeth, and bones. Citrus fruit, broccoli, tomatoes, strawberries Vitamin DHelps build your baby’s bones and teeth Sunlight, vitamin D fortified milk, salmon Vitamin BHelps form red blood cells Beef, liver, pork, bananas, poultry, milk

13 *NUTRIENTS CONT. 2 of the most important nutrients during pregnancy are Iron and Folic acid Folic acid is needed to reduce the risk of neural tube defects Iron is needed to support the growth of the baby and to produce extra blood NutrientWhy it is good for you and your baby Best Sources Folate (folic acid)Needed to produce blood and protein Green, leafy vegetables, liver, orange juice, legumes, nuts, vitamins IronHelps red blood cells deliver oxygen to the baby Lean red meat, dried beans and peas, iron-fortified cereals, prune juice

14 *SPECIAL CONCERNS Women who are pregnant should not eat certain kinds of fish because the contain high levels of a form of mercury that can be harmful to the developing fetus Expectant mothers should avoid: Shark Swordfish King Mackerel Tilefish

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