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Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools

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2 Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools
Four big ideas in psychology Why do psychology? How do psychologists ask and answer questions? Frequently asked questions about psychology

3 Psychology’s Roots Psychological science is born
Contemporary psychology

4 Psychological Science Is Born
“Magellans of the mind” (Hunt, 1993) William Wundt Darwin Freud Piaget James Whiton Calkins Washburn Senses have evolved to enable each animal to obtain essential information. Examples Frogs have cells in their eyes that respond only to small, dark moving objects Male silkworms' odor receptors can detect the sex attractant of a female a mile away Human ears are most sensitive to frequencies that include human voices, especially a baby's cry

5 Psychological Science Is Born
Early definitions until 1920s Psychology: Science of mental life Watson and Skinner from 1920s into 1960s Psychology: Objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Freud Psychology: Emphasis on unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences

6 Psychological Science Is Born
Rogers and Maslow Psychology: Humanistic view with emphasis on growth potential of healthy people Cognitive psychologists Psychology: Scientific exploration of how information is perceived, processed, and remembered Cognitive neuroscientists Psychology: Scientific exploration of brain activity underlying mental activity

7 Humanistic psychology
Science of behavior and mental processes. Behaviorism View that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Humanistic psychology Emphasized the growth potential of healthy people.

8 Psychological Science Is Born
Today Psychology: Science of behavior and mental processes Behavior: Anything a human or nonhuman animal does Mental processes: Internal states inferred from behavior Science: Key word! AP Photo/Paul Sakuma, File Psychology students, such as Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg (who majored in psychology and computer science while at Harvard), end up in varied careers.

9 What event defined the start of scientific psychology
What event defined the start of scientific psychology? How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology? ANSWER: Scientific psychology began in Germany in 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology Laboratory ANSWER: It led the field back to its early interest in mental processes and made them acceptable topics for scientific study

10 Psychology’s Current Perspectives

11 Psychology’s Current Perspectives

12 How many of these careers can you identify?
Psychology is both a science and a profession. It can take you down many paths! Ted Fitzgerald, Pool/ AP Photo Basic research Applied research Many interesting careers and perspectives How many of these careers can you identify? PSYCHOLOGY IN COURT Forensic psychologists apply psychology’s principles and methods in the criminal justice system. They may consult on witnesses, or testify about a defendant’s state of mind and future risk. Biological psychologists exploring the links between brain and mind. Developmental psychologists studying our changing abilities from womb to tomb. Cognitive psychologists experimenting with how we perceive, think, and solve problems. Personality psychologists investigating our persistent traits. Social psychologists exploring how we view and affect one another. Counseling psychologists helping people cope with personal and career challenges by recognizing their strengths and resources. Health psychologists investigating the psychological, biological, and behavioral factors that promote or impair our health. Clinical psychologists assessing and treating mental, emotional, and behavior disorders. (By contrast, psychiatrists are medical doctors who also prescribe drugs when treating psychological disorders.) Industrial-organizational psychologists studying and advising on behavior in the workplace.

13 The ________ perspective in psychology focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture. The________ perspective emphasizes how we learn observable responses? ANSWER: social-cultural ANSWER: behavioral

14 Four Big Ideas in Psychology
Critical thinking The biopsychosocial approach The two-track mind Exploring human strengths Let’s take a closer look at each of these.

15 Big Idea 1: Critical Thinking Is Smart Thinking
Science supports thinking that examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, and tests conclusions. Critical thinkers ask critical questions. Questions How do we know that? Who benefits from this? Is the conclusion based on guesswork and gut feelings, or on evidence? How do we know one event caused the other? How else could we explain things?

16 Big Idea 2: Behavior Is a Biopsychosocial Event
Human behavior can be viewed from three levels Biological Psychological Social-cultural Each level’s viewpoint provides a valuable insight into a behavior or mental process. Together these provide the most complete picture. Humans share a biologically rooted human nature. Yet cultural and psychological influences fine-tune our assumptions, values, and behaviors.

17 Biopsychosocial Approach: Three Paths to Understanding

18 Biopsychosocial approach
Critical thinking Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, and assesses conclusions. Biopsychosocial approach Approach that integrates different but complementary views from biological, psychological, and social-cultural viewpoints. Culture Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and handed down from one generation to the next.

Roy Toft/National Geographic/ Getty Images Antonia Brune A SMILE IS A SMILE THE WORLD AROUND Throughout this course, you will see and hear examples not only of our cultural and gender diversity but also of the similarities that define our shared human nature. People in different cultures vary in when and how often they smile, but a naturally happy smile means the same thing anywhere in the world.

20 Can you think of any of these?
Nature versus nurture This is an age-old controversy focuses on the relative influence of genes and experience in the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s psychological science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture. In most cases, nurture works on what nature endows. Psychologists explore this by asking many interesting and important questions. Can you think of any of these? Examples How are differences in intelligence, personality, and psychological disorders influenced by heredity and by environment? Is our sexual orientation written in our genes or learned through our experiences? Can life experiences affect the activity of our heredity (our genes)?

Big Cheese Photo LLC / Alamy Westend61 / SuperStock NATURE-MADE NATURE-NURTURE EXPERIMENT Identical twins (left) have the same genes. This makes them ideal participants in studies designed to shed light on hereditary and environmental influences on personality, intelligence, and other traits. Fraternal twins (right) have different genes but often share the same environment. Twin studies provide a wealth of findings—described in later chapters—showing the importance of both nature and nurture.

22 Big Idea 3: We Operate With a Two-Track Mind (Dual Processing)
Much of thinking, feeling, sensing, and acting operates outside awareness. The brain works on two tracks through dual processing. Conscious mind Unconscious mind Contemporary psychological science explores this dual-processing capacity.

23 Dual processing Positive psychology
Principle that, at the same time, our mind processes information on separate conscious and unconscious tracks. Positive psychology Scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.

24 Big Idea 4: Psychology Explores Human Strengths as Well as Challenges
Early psychology focused on understanding and treating difficulties. Contemporary psychology continues this tradition and extends research to include human flourishing. Positive psychology uses scientific methods to explore Positive emotions Positive character traits Positive institutions Positive emotions, such as satisfaction with the past, happiness with the present, and optimism about the future. Positive character traits, such as creativity, courage, compassion, integrity, self-control, leadership, wisdom, and spirituality. Current research examines the roots and fruits of such qualities, sometimes by studying the lives of individuals who offer striking examples. Positive institutions, such as healthy families, supportive neighborhoods, effective schools, and socially responsible media.

25 Positive Psychology Is the scientific study of human functioning
Courtesy Martin Seligman Is the scientific study of human functioning Has goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrives MARTIN E. P. SELIGMAN “The main purpose of a positive psychology is to measure, understand, and then build the human strengths and the civic virtues.” Positive psychology Supports research on human flourishing Focuses on building a “good life” that engages skills and a meaningful life beyond self Suggests that happiness is by-product of pleasant, engaged, and meaningful life

26 Exploring Human Strengths
Positive psychology uses scientific methods to explore Positive emotions Positive character traits Positive institutions Will psychology have a more positive mission in this century? Can it help us all to flourish? Positive emotions, such as satisfaction with the past, happiness with the present, and optimism about the future. Positive character traits, such as creativity, courage, compassion, integrity, self-control, leadership, wisdom, and spirituality. Current research examines the roots and fruits of such qualities, sometimes by studying the lives of individuals who offer striking examples. Positive institutions, such as healthy families, supportive neighborhoods, effective schools, and socially responsible media.

27 What advantage do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach to studying psychological events?
What is contemporary psychology’s position on the nature-nurture debate? ANSWER: By considering different levels of analysis, the biopsychosocial approach can provide a more complete view than any one perspective could offer. ANSWER: Psychological events often stem from the interaction of nature and nurture, rather than from either of them acting alone

28 Why Do Psychology? The limits of intuition and common sense
The scientific attitude: Curious, skeptical, and humble

29 The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense
Research shows that thinking, memory, and attitudes often open automatically without awareness. But…intuitive thinking has three common flaws. Hindsight bias Overconfidence Perceiving patterns in random events

30 Did we know it all along? Hindsight bias
REUTERS/ U.S. Coast Guard/ Handout Hindsight bias Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it. Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon. HINDSIGHT BIAS When drilling the Deepwater Horizon oil well in 2010, oil industry employees took some shortcuts and ignored some warning signs, without intending to harm the environment or their companies’ reputations. After the resulting Gulf oil spill, with the benefit of 20/20 hindsight, the foolishness of those judgments became obvious.

31 The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense
WREAT → WATER ETRYN → ENTRY GRABE → BARGE Overconfidence People tend to think they know more than they do. This occurs in academic and social behavior. About how many seconds do you think it would take you to unscramble each anagram? Knowing the answer makes us overconfident. The average problem solver spends 3 minutes.

32 Perceiving order in random events
People perceive patterns to make sense of their world. Even in random, unrelated data people often find order, because random sequences often do not look random. People trust their intuition more than they should because intuitive thinking is flawed. Maciej Oleksy /Shutterstock In actual random sequences, patterns and streaks (such as repeating numbers) occur more often than people expect.

33 Perceiving order in random events
Roland Weihrauch/ dpa/ picture-alliance/ Newscom During the 2010 World Cup, a German octopus—Paul, “the oracle of Oberhausen”—was offered two boxes, each with mussels and with a national flag on one side. Paul selected the right box eight out of eight times in predicting the outcome of Germany’s seven matches and Spain’s triumph in the final. GIVEN ENOUGH RANDOM EVENTS, SOME WEIRD-SEEMING STREAKS WILL OCCUR:

34 Why, after friends start dating, do we often feel that we knew they were meant to be together?
ANSWER: We often suffer from hindsight bias—after we’ve learned a situation’s outcome, that outcome seems familiar and therefore obvious.

35 The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble
Curiosity Includes a passion to explore and understand the world without misleading or being misled Questions to consider What do you mean? How do you know?

36 The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble
Skepticism Supports questions about behavior and mental processes: What do you mean? How do you know? AP Photo/ Alan Diaz THE AMAZING RANDI: Magician and skeptic James Randi has tested and debunked a variety of psychic phenomena.

37 The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble
Humility Involves awareness that mistakes are possible and willingness to be surprised One of psychology’s early mottos: “The rat is always right.”

38 “For a lot of bad ideas, science is society’s garbage disposal
“For a lot of bad ideas, science is society’s garbage disposal.” Describe what this tells us about the scientific attitude. ANSWER: The scientific attitude combines (1) curiosity about the world around us, (2) skepticism about unproven claims and ideas, and (3) humility about our own understanding. To find out whether an idea matches the facts, psychologists use scientific tests. Ideas that don’t hold up will then be discarded.

39 How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions?
The scientific method Description Correlation Experimentation

40 The Scientific Method

41 Operational definition
Theory Explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events Hypothesis Testable prediction, often implied by a theory Operational definition Carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study Replication Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

42 A Good Theory… Effectively organizes Leads to clear predictions Often stimulates research May be replicated Theory Effectively organizes a range of self reports and observations Leads to clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory Often stimulates research that leads to a revised theory which better organizes and predicts what we know May be replicated and supported by similar findings

43 The Scientific Method Testing hypothesis and refining theories
Descriptive methods Correlational methods Experimental methods Descriptive methods describe behaviors, often by using case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations. Correlational methods associate different factors. (You’ll see the word factor often in descriptions of research. It refers to anything that contributes to a result.) Experimental methods manipulate, or vary, factors to discover their effects.

44 What does a good theory do? Why is replication important?
ANSWER: 1. It organizes observed facts. 2. It implies hypotheses that offer testable predictions and, sometimes, practical applications. 3. It often stimulates further research. ANSWER: Psychologists watch eagerly for new findings, but they also proceed with caution—by awaiting other investigators’ repeating the research. Can the finding be confirmed (the result replicated)?

45 Description Case studies Examines one individual in depth
Provides fruitful ideas Cannot be used to generalize Naturalistic observations Records behavior in natural environment Describes but does not explain behavior Can be revealing Surveys and interviews Examines many cases in less depth Wording effect Random sampling Utilizes random sampling of population for best results Objective and systematic observation and description

46 Naturalistic observation
Case study Descriptive technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles Naturalistic observation Descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation Survey Descriptive technique for obtaining the self- reported attitudes or behaviors of a group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of that group

47 Population Random sample
All those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country’s whole population.) Random sample Sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

48 We cannot assume that case studies always reveal general principles that apply to all of us. Why not? What are the advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic observation, such as the EARs study? What is an unrepresentative sample, and how do researchers avoid it? ANSWER: Case studies focus on one individual, so we can’t know for sure whether the principles observed would apply to a larger population. ANSWER: In the EARs study, researchers were able to carefully record and describe naturally occurring behaviors outside the artificial environment of the lab. However, they were not able to explain the behaviors because they could not control all the factors that may have influenced them. What is an unrepresentative sample, and how do researchers avoid it? ANSWER: An unrepresentative sample is a survey group that does not represent the population being studied. Random sampling helps researchers form a representative sample because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included.

49 Correlation Positive correlation (between 0 and +1.00)
Indicates a direct relationship, meaning that two things increase together or decrease together Negative correlation (between 0 and −1.00) Indicates an inverse relationship: As one thing increases, the other decreases. Correlation coefficient Provides a statistical measure of how closely two things vary together and how well one predicts the other

This chart displays data from 20 imagined people, each represented by a data point. The scattered points reveal an upward slope, indicating a positive correlation.

51 The slope of the dots suggests the direction
Correlation Measure of the extent to which two events vary together, and thus of how well either one predicts the other. Correlation coefficient Mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from −1.00 to +1.00, with 0 indicating no relationship. Scatterplot Graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two factors. The slope of the dots suggests the direction of the relationship between the two factors. How much the dots are scattered suggests the strength of the correlation (with little scatter indicating high correlation).

52 Indicate whether each of the following statements describes a positive correlation or a negative correlation. 1. The more children and youth used various media, the less happy they were with their lives (Kaiser, 2010). 2. The more sexual content teens saw on TV, the more likely they were to have sex (Collins et al., 2004). 3. The longer children were breast-fed, the greater their later academic achievement (Horwood & Ferguson, 1998). 4. The more income rose among a sample of poor families, the fewer symptoms of mental illness their children experienced (Costello et al., 2003). ANSWERS: 1. negative, 2. positive, 3. positive, 4. negative

53 Length of marriage correlates with hair loss in men
Length of marriage correlates with hair loss in men. Does this mean that marriage causes men to lose their hair (or that balding men make better husbands)? Nancy Brown/Getty Images ANSWER: In this case, as in many others, a third factor can explain the correlation: Golden anniversaries and baldness both accompany aging.

People low in self-esteem are more likely to report depression than are those high in self-esteem. One possible explanation of this negative correlation is that a bad self-image causes depressed feelings. But, as the diagram indicates, other cause-effect relationships are possible.

55 Experimentation With experiments, researchers can focus on the possible effects of one or more factors in several ways. Manipulating the factors of interest to determine their effects Holding constant (“controlling”) other factors Experimental group Control group Experimental group in an experiment: Group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. Control group in an experiment: Group not exposed to the treatment; the control group serves as a comparison with the experimental group for judging the effect of the treatment.

56 Experimentation Double-blind procedure: Eliminating bias
Neither those in the study nor those collecting the data know which group is receiving the treatment. Treatment’s actual effects can be separated from potential placebo effect. Placebo effect Effect involves results caused by expectations alone.

57 What measures do researchers use to prevent the placebo effect from confusing their results?
ANSWER: Research designed to prevent the placebo effect randomly assigns participants to an experimental group (which receives the real treatment) or to a control group (which receives a placebo). A comparison of the results will demonstrate whether the real treatment produces better results than belief in that treatment.

58 Experimentation Variables Independent variable in an experiment
Confounding variable in an experiment Dependent variable in an experiment Factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied Factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect Factor that is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated

59 Experimentation To study cause-effect, psychologists may randomly assign some participants to an dependent variable (intelligence score in later childhood) will determine the effect of the independent variable (type of milk).

60 Comparing Research Methods
Each of psychology’s research methods has strengths and weaknesses

61 Match the term on the left with the description on the right.
Double-blind procedure a. helps researchers generalize from a small set of survey responses to a large population. Random sampling b. helps minimize preexisting differences between experimental and control groups. Random assignment c. controls for the placebo effect; neither researchers nor participants know who receives the real treatment. ANSWERS: 1. c, 2. a, 3. b

62 Why, when testing a new drug to control blood pressure, would we learn more about its effectiveness from giving it to half the participants in a group of 1000 than to all 1000 participants? ANSWER: We learn more about the drug’s effectiveness when we can compare the results of those who took the drug (the experimental group) with the results of those who did not (the control group). If we gave the drug to all 1000 participants, we would have no way of knowing whether the drug is serving as a placebo or is actually medically effective.

63 Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology
How do simplified laboratory conditions help us understand general principles of behavior? (1-10) Purpose of experiment is to test theoretical principles. Resulting principles, not specific findings, help explain everyday behaviors. Psychologists are less interested in particular behaviors than in the general principles that help explain many behaviors.

64 Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology
Why do psychologists study animals, and what ethical guidelines safeguard human and animal research participants? (1-11) Some psychologists study animals to understand about different species. Others study animals to learn about humans in a variety of ways (e.g., insulin; vaccines for polio and rabies; transplants). Use of animals for research is debated among psychologists. APA has an ethical code applying to all research.

65 Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology
How do personal values influence psychologists’ research and application? Does psychology aim to manipulate people? (1-12) Values impacts what is studied, how it is studied, and how results are interpreted. Applied psychology contains hidden values. There is some concern that psychology is becoming too powerful. What do you think?

66 How are human research participants protected?
ANSWER: Researchers using human participants should obtain informed consent, protect them from harm and discomfort, treat personal information confidentially, and fully debrief them after their participation. Ethical principles have been developed by international psychological organizations, and most universities also have ethics committees that safeguard participants’ well-being.

67 Improve Your Retention-and Your Grades
arabianEye /Getty Images How can psychological principles help you learn and remember? (1- 13) Strategies Using self-testing and rehearsal Implementing SQ3R study method Distributing study time Learning to think critically Actively processing class information Overlearning SQ3R is an acronym—an abbreviation formed from the letter of each of its five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve,7 Review.

68 The ________ describes the improved memory that results from repeated retrieval (as in self- testing) rather than from simple rereading of new information. What does SQ3R mean? ANSWER: testing effect ANSWER: SQ3R is an acronym—an abbreviation formed by the first letters in five words: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, and Review.

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