2Psychology’s Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools Four big ideas in psychologyWhy do psychology?How do psychologists ask and answer questions?Frequently asked questions about psychology
3Psychology’s Roots Psychological science is born Contemporary psychology
4Psychological Science Is Born “Magellans of the mind” (Hunt, 1993)William WundtDarwinFreudPiagetJamesWhiton CalkinsWashburnSenses have evolved to enable each animal to obtain essential information.ExamplesFrogs have cells in their eyes that respond only to small, dark moving objectsMale silkworms' odor receptors can detect the sex attractant of a female a mile awayHuman ears are most sensitive to frequencies that include human voices, especially a baby's cry
5Psychological Science Is Born Early definitions until 1920sPsychology: Science of mental lifeWatson and Skinner from 1920s into 1960sPsychology: Objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.FreudPsychology: Emphasis on unconscious thought processes and emotional responses to childhood experiences
6Psychological Science Is Born Rogers and MaslowPsychology: Humanistic view with emphasis on growth potential of healthy peopleCognitive psychologistsPsychology: Scientific exploration of how information is perceived, processed, and rememberedCognitive neuroscientistsPsychology: Scientific exploration of brain activity underlying mental activity
7Humanistic psychology Science of behavior and mental processes.BehaviorismView that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.Humanistic psychologyEmphasized the growth potential of healthy people.
8Psychological Science Is Born TodayPsychology: Science of behavior and mental processesBehavior: Anything a human or nonhuman animal doesMental processes: Internal states inferred from behaviorScience: Key word!AP Photo/Paul Sakuma, FilePsychology students, such as Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg (who majored in psychologyand computer science while at Harvard), end up in varied careers.
9What event defined the start of scientific psychology What event defined the start of scientific psychology? How did the cognitive revolution affect the field of psychology?ANSWER: Scientific psychology began in Germany in1879 when Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychologyLaboratoryANSWER: It led the field back to its early interest inmental processes and made them acceptable topics forscientific study
12How many of these careers can you identify? Psychology is both a science and a profession. It can take you down many paths!Ted Fitzgerald, Pool/ AP PhotoBasic researchApplied researchMany interesting careers and perspectivesHow many of these careers can you identify?PSYCHOLOGY IN COURT Forensic psychologists apply psychology’sprinciples and methods in the criminal justice system. They may consult on witnesses, or testify about a defendant’s state of mind and future risk.Biological psychologists exploring the links between brain and mind.Developmental psychologists studying our changing abilities from womb to tomb.Cognitive psychologists experimenting with how we perceive, think, and solve problems.Personality psychologists investigating our persistent traits.Social psychologists exploring how we view and affect one another.Counseling psychologists helping people cope with personal and career challenges by recognizing their strengths and resources.Health psychologists investigating the psychological, biological, and behavioral factors that promote or impair our health.Clinical psychologists assessing and treating mental, emotional, and behavior disorders. (By contrast, psychiatrists are medical doctors who also prescribe drugs when treating psychological disorders.)Industrial-organizational psychologists studying and advising on behavior in the workplace.
13The ________ perspective in psychology focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture. The________ perspective emphasizes how we learn observable responses?ANSWER: social-culturalANSWER: behavioral
14Four Big Ideas in Psychology Critical thinkingThe biopsychosocial approachThe two-track mindExploring human strengthsLet’s take a closer look at each of these.
15Big Idea 1: Critical Thinking Is Smart Thinking Science supports thinking that examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, and tests conclusions.Critical thinkers ask critical questions.QuestionsHow do we know that?Who benefits from this?Is the conclusion based on guesswork and gut feelings, or on evidence?How do we know one event caused the other?How else could we explain things?
16Big Idea 2: Behavior Is a Biopsychosocial Event Human behavior can be viewed from three levelsBiologicalPsychologicalSocial-culturalEach level’s viewpoint provides a valuable insight into a behavior or mental process.Together these provide the most complete picture.Humans share a biologically rooted human nature. Yet cultural and psychological influences fine-tune our assumptions, values, and behaviors.
17Biopsychosocial Approach: Three Paths to Understanding
18Biopsychosocial approach Critical thinkingThinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, and assesses conclusions.Biopsychosocial approachApproach that integrates different but complementary views from biological, psychological, and social-cultural viewpoints.CultureEnduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and handed down from one generation to the next.
19A SMILE IS A SMILE THE WORLD AROUND Roy Toft/National Geographic/ Getty ImagesAntonia BruneA SMILE IS A SMILE THE WORLD AROUNDThroughout this course, you will see and hear examples not only of our cultural and gender diversity but also of the similarities that define our shared human nature.People in different cultures vary in when and how often they smile, but a naturally happy smile means the same thing anywhere in the world.
20Can you think of any of these? Nature versus nurtureThis is an age-old controversy focuses on the relative influence of genes and experience in the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s psychological science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.In most cases, nurture works on what nature endows.Psychologists explore this by asking many interesting and important questions.Can you think of any of these?ExamplesHow are differences in intelligence, personality, and psychological disorders influenced by heredity and by environment?Is our sexual orientation written in our genes or learned through our experiences?Can life experiences affect the activity of our heredity (our genes)?
21NATURE-MADE NATURE-NURTURE EXPERIMENT Big Cheese Photo LLC / AlamyWestend61 / SuperStockNATURE-MADE NATURE-NURTURE EXPERIMENTIdentical twins (left) have the same genes. This makes them ideal participants in studies designed to shed light on hereditary and environmental influences on personality, intelligence, and other traits. Fraternal twins (right) have different genes but often share the same environment. Twin studies provide a wealth of findings—described in later chapters—showing the importance of both nature and nurture.
22Big Idea 3: We Operate With a Two-Track Mind (Dual Processing) Much of thinking, feeling, sensing, and acting operates outside awareness.The brain works on two tracks through dual processing.Conscious mindUnconscious mindContemporary psychological science explores this dual-processing capacity.
23Dual processing Positive psychology Principle that, at the same time, our mind processes information on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.Positive psychologyScientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.
24Big Idea 4: Psychology Explores Human Strengths as Well as Challenges Early psychology focused on understanding and treating difficulties.Contemporary psychology continues this tradition and extends research to include human flourishing.Positive psychology uses scientific methods to explorePositive emotionsPositive character traitsPositive institutionsPositive emotions, such as satisfaction with the past, happiness with the present, and optimism about the future.Positive character traits, such as creativity, courage, compassion, integrity, self-control, leadership, wisdom, and spirituality.Current research examines the roots and fruits of such qualities, sometimes by studying the lives of individuals who offer striking examples.Positive institutions, such as healthy families, supportive neighborhoods, effective schools, and socially responsible media.
25Positive Psychology Is the scientific study of human functioning Courtesy Martin SeligmanIs the scientific study of human functioningHas goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrivesMARTIN E. P. SELIGMAN “The main purpose of a positive psychology is to measure, understand, and then build the human strengths and the civic virtues.”Positive psychologySupports research on human flourishingFocuses on building a “good life” that engages skills and a meaningful life beyond selfSuggests that happiness is by-product of pleasant, engaged, and meaningful life
26Exploring Human Strengths Positive psychology uses scientific methods to explorePositive emotionsPositive character traitsPositive institutionsWill psychology have a more positive mission in this century? Can it help us all to flourish?Positive emotions, such as satisfaction with the past, happiness with the present, and optimism about the future.Positive character traits, such as creativity, courage, compassion, integrity, self-control, leadership, wisdom, and spirituality.Current research examines the roots and fruits of such qualities, sometimes by studying the lives of individuals who offer striking examples.Positive institutions, such as healthy families, supportive neighborhoods, effective schools, and socially responsible media.
27What advantage do we gain by using the biopsychosocial approach to studying psychological events? What is contemporary psychology’s position on the nature-nurture debate?ANSWER: By considering different levels of analysis,the biopsychosocial approach can provide a more completeview than any one perspective could offer.ANSWER: Psychological events often stem from theinteraction of nature and nurture, rather than fromeither of them acting alone
28Why Do Psychology? The limits of intuition and common sense The scientific attitude: Curious, skeptical, and humble
29The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense Research shows that thinking, memory, and attitudes often open automatically without awareness.But…intuitive thinking has three common flaws.Hindsight biasOverconfidencePerceiving patterns in random events
30Did we know it all along? Hindsight bias REUTERS/ U.S. Coast Guard/ HandoutHindsight biasTendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it.Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.HINDSIGHT BIAS When drilling the Deepwater Horizon oil well in 2010, oil industry employees took some shortcuts and ignored some warning signs, without intending to harm the environment or their companies’ reputations.After the resulting Gulf oil spill, with the benefit of 20/20 hindsight, the foolishness of those judgments became obvious.
31The Limits of Intuition and Common Sense WREAT → WATERETRYN → ENTRYGRABE → BARGEOverconfidencePeople tend to think they know more than they do.This occurs in academic and social behavior.About how many seconds do you think it would take you to unscramble each anagram?Knowing the answer makes us overconfident.The average problem solver spends 3 minutes.
32Perceiving order in random events People perceive patterns to make sense of their world.Even in random, unrelated data people often find order, because random sequences often do not look random.People trust their intuition more than they should because intuitive thinking is flawed.Maciej Oleksy /ShutterstockIn actual random sequences, patterns and streaks (such as repeating numbers) occur more often than people expect.
33Perceiving order in random events Roland Weihrauch/ dpa/ picture-alliance/ NewscomDuring the 2010 World Cup, a German octopus—Paul, “the oracle of Oberhausen”—was offered two boxes, each with mussels and with a national flag on one side.Paul selected the right box eight out of eight times in predicting the outcome of Germany’s seven matches and Spain’s triumph in the final.GIVEN ENOUGH RANDOM EVENTS, SOME WEIRD-SEEMING STREAKS WILL OCCUR:
34Why, after friends start dating, do we often feel that we knew they were meant to be together? ANSWER: We often suffer from hindsight bias—after we’ve learned a situation’s outcome, that outcome seems familiar and therefore obvious.
35The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble CuriosityIncludes a passion to explore and understand the world without misleading or being misledQuestions to considerWhat do you mean?How do you know?
36The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble SkepticismSupports questions about behavior and mental processes: What do you mean? How do you know?AP Photo/ Alan DiazTHE AMAZING RANDI: Magician and skeptic James Randi has tested and debunked a variety of psychic phenomena.
37The Scientific Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble HumilityInvolves awareness that mistakes are possible and willingness to be surprisedOne of psychology’s early mottos: “The rat is always right.”
38“For a lot of bad ideas, science is society’s garbage disposal “For a lot of bad ideas, science is society’s garbage disposal.” Describe what this tells us about the scientific attitude.ANSWER: The scientific attitude combines (1) curiosity about the world around us, (2) skepticism about unproven claims and ideas, and (3) humility about our own understanding. To find out whether an idea matches the facts, psychologists use scientific tests. Ideas that don’t hold up will then be discarded.
39How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? The scientific methodDescriptionCorrelationExperimentation
41Operational definition TheoryExplanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or eventsHypothesisTestable prediction, often implied by a theoryOperational definitionCarefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research studyReplicationRepeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
42A Good Theory…Effectively organizesLeads to clear predictionsOften stimulates researchMay be replicatedTheoryEffectively organizes a range of self reports and observationsLeads to clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theoryOften stimulates research that leads to a revised theory which better organizes and predicts what we knowMay be replicated and supported by similar findings
43The Scientific Method Testing hypothesis and refining theories Descriptive methodsCorrelational methodsExperimental methodsDescriptive methods describe behaviors, often by using case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations.Correlational methods associate different factors. (You’ll see the word factor often in descriptions of research. It refers to anything that contributes to a result.)Experimental methods manipulate, or vary, factors to discover their effects.
44What does a good theory do? Why is replication important? ANSWER: 1. It organizes observed facts. 2. It implies hypotheses that offer testable predictions and, sometimes, practical applications. 3. It often stimulates further research.ANSWER: Psychologists watch eagerly for new findings, but they also proceed with caution—by awaiting other investigators’ repeating the research. Can the finding be confirmed (the result replicated)?
45Description Case studies Examines one individual in depth Provides fruitful ideasCannot be used to generalizeNaturalistic observationsRecords behavior in natural environmentDescribes but does not explain behaviorCan be revealingSurveys and interviewsExamines many cases in less depthWording effectRandom samplingUtilizes random sampling of population for best resultsObjective and systematic observation and description
46Naturalistic observation Case studyDescriptive technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principlesNaturalistic observationDescriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situationSurveyDescriptive technique for obtaining the self- reported attitudes or behaviors of a group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of that group
47Population Random sample All those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country’s whole population.)Random sampleSample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
48We cannot assume that case studies always reveal general principles that apply to all of us. Why not? What are the advantages and disadvantages of naturalistic observation, such as the EARs study? What is an unrepresentative sample, and how do researchers avoid it?ANSWER: Case studies focus on one individual, so we can’t know for sure whether the principles observed would apply to a larger population.ANSWER: In the EARs study, researchers were able to carefully record and describe naturally occurring behaviors outside the artificial environment of the lab. However, they were not able to explain the behaviors because they could not control all the factors that may have influenced them.What is an unrepresentative sample, and how do researchers avoid it?ANSWER: An unrepresentative sample is a survey group that does not represent the population beingstudied. Random sampling helps researchers form a representative sample because each member of the population has an equal chance of being included.
49Correlation Positive correlation (between 0 and +1.00) Indicates a direct relationship, meaning that two things increase together or decrease togetherNegative correlation (between 0 and −1.00)Indicates an inverse relationship: As one thing increases, the other decreases.Correlation coefficientProvides a statistical measure of how closely two things vary together and how well one predicts the other
50SCATTERPLOT FOR HEIGHT AND WEIGHT This chart displays data from 20 imagined people, each represented by a data point. The scattered points reveal an upward slope, indicating a positive correlation.
51The slope of the dots suggests the direction CorrelationMeasure of the extent to which two events vary together, and thus of how well either one predicts the other.Correlation coefficientMathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from −1.00 to +1.00, with 0 indicating no relationship.ScatterplotGraphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two factors.The slope of the dots suggests the directionof the relationship between the two factors.How much the dots are scattered suggests thestrength of the correlation (with little scatterindicating high correlation).
52Indicate whether each of the following statements describes a positive correlation or a negative correlation.1. The more children and youth used various media, the less happy they were with their lives (Kaiser, 2010).2. The more sexual content teens saw on TV, the more likely they were to have sex (Collins et al., 2004).3. The longer children were breast-fed, the greater their later academic achievement (Horwood & Ferguson, 1998).4. The more income rose among a sample of poor families, the fewer symptoms of mental illness their children experienced (Costello et al., 2003).ANSWERS: 1. negative, 2. positive, 3. positive, 4. negative
53Length of marriage correlates with hair loss in men Length of marriage correlates with hair loss in men. Does this mean that marriage causes men to lose their hair (or that balding men make better husbands)?Nancy Brown/Getty ImagesANSWER: In this case, as in many others, a third factor can explain the correlation: Golden anniversaries and baldness both accompany aging.
54THREE POSSIBLE CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS People low in self-esteem are more likely to report depression than are those high in self-esteem. One possible explanation of this negative correlation is that a bad self-image causes depressed feelings. But, as the diagram indicates, other cause-effect relationships are possible.
55ExperimentationWith experiments, researchers can focus on the possible effects of one or more factors in several ways.Manipulating the factors of interest to determine their effectsHolding constant (“controlling”) other factorsExperimental groupControl groupExperimental group in an experiment: Group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.Control group in an experiment: Group not exposed to the treatment; the control group serves as a comparison with the experimental group for judging the effect of the treatment.
56Experimentation Double-blind procedure: Eliminating bias Neither those in the study nor those collecting the data know which group is receiving the treatment.Treatment’s actual effects can be separated from potential placebo effect.Placebo effectEffect involves results caused by expectations alone.
57What measures do researchers use to prevent the placebo effect from confusing their results? ANSWER: Research designed to prevent the placebo effect randomly assigns participants to an experimental group (which receives the real treatment) or to a control group (which receives a placebo). A comparison of the results will demonstrate whether the real treatment produces better results than belief in that treatment.
58Experimentation Variables Independent variable in an experiment Confounding variable in an experimentDependent variable in an experimentFactor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studiedFactor other than the independent variable that might produce an effectFactor that is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated
59ExperimentationTo study cause-effect, psychologists may randomly assign some participants to an dependent variable (intelligence score in later childhood) will determine the effect of the independent variable (type of milk).
60Comparing Research Methods Each of psychology’s research methods has strengths and weaknesses
61Match the term on the left with the description on the right. Double-blind procedure a. helps researchers generalize from a small set of survey responses to a large population.Random sampling b. helps minimize preexisting differences between experimental and control groups.Random assignment c. controls for the placebo effect; neither researchers nor participants know who receives the real treatment.ANSWERS: 1. c, 2. a, 3. b
62Why, when testing a new drug to control blood pressure, would we learn more about its effectiveness from giving it to half the participants in a group of 1000 than to all 1000 participants?ANSWER: We learn more about the drug’s effectiveness when we can compare the results of those who took the drug (the experimental group) with the results of those who did not (the control group). If we gave the drug to all 1000 participants, we would have no way of knowing whether the drug is serving as a placebo or is actually medically effective.
63Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology How do simplified laboratory conditions help us understand general principles of behavior? (1-10)Purpose of experiment is to test theoretical principles.Resulting principles, not specific findings, help explain everyday behaviors.Psychologists are less interested in particular behaviors than in the general principles that help explain many behaviors.
64Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology Why do psychologists study animals, and what ethical guidelines safeguard human and animal research participants? (1-11)Some psychologists study animals to understand about different species.Others study animals to learn about humans in a variety of ways (e.g., insulin; vaccines for polio and rabies; transplants).Use of animals for research is debated among psychologists.APA has an ethical code applying to all research.
65Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology How do personal values influence psychologists’ research and application? Does psychology aim to manipulate people? (1-12)Values impacts what is studied, how it is studied, and how results are interpreted.Applied psychology contains hidden values.There is some concern that psychology is becoming too powerful.What do you think?
66How are human research participants protected? ANSWER: Researchers using human participants should obtain informed consent, protect them from harm and discomfort, treat personal information confidentially, and fully debrief them after their participation. Ethical principles have been developed by international psychological organizations, and most universities also have ethics committees that safeguard participants’ well-being.
67Improve Your Retention-and Your Grades arabianEye /Getty ImagesHow can psychological principles help you learn and remember? (1- 13)StrategiesUsing self-testing and rehearsalImplementing SQ3R study methodDistributing study timeLearning to think criticallyActively processing class informationOverlearningSQ3R is an acronym—an abbreviation formed from the letter of each of its five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve,7 Review.
68The ________ describes the improved memory that results from repeated retrieval (as in self- testing) rather than from simple rereading of new information. What does SQ3R mean?ANSWER: testing effectANSWER: SQ3R is an acronym—an abbreviation formed by the first letters in five words: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, and Review.