4Technological Marvels Tremendous technological progress in dairy farming (i.e. genetics, nutrition, reproduction, disease control, cow comfort)Modern dairy farms have been described as “technological marvels” (Philpot, 2003)The next “technological marvel” in the dairy industry may be in Precision Dairy Farming
51. Changing Dairy Landscape Fewer, larger dairy operationsNarrow profit marginsIncreased feed and labor costsCows are managed by fewer skilled workers
62. Consumer Focus Continuous quality assurance “Natural” or “organic” foodsGreenhouse gas reductionsZoonotic disease transmissionReducing the use of medical treatmentsIncreased emphasis on animal well-being
73. Information Era Unlimited on-farm data storage Faster computers allow for more sophisticated on-farm data miningTechnologies adopted in larger industries have applications in smaller industries
84. Cow Challenges Finding cows in heat Finding and treating lame cows Finding and treating cows with mastitisCatching sick cows in early lactationUnderstanding nutritional status of cowsFeed intakeBody condition (fat or thin)Rumen health (pH/rumination time)
9Precision Dairy Management The use of automated, mechanized technologies toward refinement of dairy management processes, procedures, or information collection
10Automated Milking Systems Increased reliabilityDutch work shows similar profitabilityEconomics highly dependent on labor costsQuality of life
14Precision Dairy Monitoring Using technologies to measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicatorsFocus on preventive health and performance at the cow levelMake more timely and informed decisions
15Areas to Monitor a Dairy Cow Fatness or ThinnessRumination/pHTemperatureAreas to Monitor a Dairy CowFeed intakeMethane emissionsMilk contentRespirationHeart rateMastitisChewing activityAnimal position/locationLying/standing behaviorMobilityHoof Health
16Precision Dairy Farming Benefits Improved animal health and well-beingIncreased efficiencyReduced costsImproved product qualityMinimized adverse environmental impactsRisk analysis and risk managementMore objective (less observer bias and influence)
29Summer 2013 UK Coldstream Dairy Monitoring Capabilities TechnologyParameter(s) MeasuredSmartBowPosition, MovementVelPhoneCalving Time, Vaginal TemperatureAlanyaTemperature, Lying Time, Activity, Locomotion, BehaviorAfiLabFat, Protein, LactosePedometer PlusLying Time, StepsHR TagRumination Time, Neck ActivityTrack-a-CowLying Time, Time at FeedbunkMastilineSomatic Cell CountCowManager SensoorRumination Time, Feeding Time, Ear Skin Temperature, ActivityIceQubeLying Time, Steps, LocomotionAnemonVaginal Temperature, EstrusTempTrackReticulorumen TemperatureFeverTagTympanic TemperatureAccuBreedMounting ActivityCowScoutLeg ActivityThank You to All our Consortium Sponsors!
30Automated Body Condition Scoring Reduced labor requirementsLess stressful on animalMore objective, consistent measureIncreased observation frequencyEarly identification of sick animalsTracking BCS trends of individual animals and management cohorts
31Body Condition Scoring 100% of predicted BCS were within 0.50 points of actual BCS.93% were within 0.25 points of actual BCS.Bewley et al., 2008
36Lau, Shelley, Sterrett, and Bewley, 2013 Early Test ResultsLau, Shelley, Sterrett, and Bewley, 2013
37Donohue, Llhamon, O’Hara, Klefot, and Bewley, 2013 Cow Sleep MonitoringSleep Quality = Improved Immunity?New Way to Measure Cow Comfort?Donohue, Llhamon, O’Hara, Klefot, and Bewley, 2013
38What automatic monitoring technologies do you currently have on your dairy? Most Used ParametersRespondentPercentageDaily milk yield52.3%Cow activity41.3%Not applicable131.2%Mastitis25.7%Milk components (e.g. fat, protein, and SCC)24.8%Standing heat21.1%Feeding behavior12.8%TemperatureBody weight11.0%Rumination10.1%Rumen activity9.2%Divide into two slidesRound to 0 digits to make easiero read1Respondents replying “Not applicable,” were those not currently utilizing precision technologies on their farms.Matthew Borchers et al.
39Rate the importance of the following criteria for evaluating technology purchases ItemMean ± SDBenefit: cost ratio4.57 ± 0.66Total investment cost4.28 ± 0.83Simplicity and ease of use4.26 ± 0.75Proven performance through independent research4.24 ± 0.75Availability of local support4.12 ± 0.95Compatibility with existing dairy practices and systems4.12 ± 0.86Time involved using the technology4.07 ± 0.88Increase font sizeDecrease width of columns1Results calculated by assigning the following values to response categories: Not important: 1, Of little importance: 2, Moderately important: 3, Important: 4, Very important: 5.Matthew Borchers et al.
40Rate the potential usefulness of the following measures Most Useful ParametersMean ± SDMastitis4.77 ± 0.47Standing heat4.75 ± 0.55Daily milk yield4.72 ± 0.62Cow activity4.60 ± 0.83Temperature4.31 ± 1.04Feeding behavior4.30 ± 0.80Milk components (e.g. fat, protein, and SCC)4.28 ± 0.93Lameness4.25 ± 0.90Rumination4.08 ± 1.07Hoof health4.06 ± 0.891Results calculated by assigning the following values to response categories: Not useful: 1, Of little usefulness: 2, Moderately useful: 3, Useful: 4, Very useful:5.Matthew Borchers et al.
41Rate the potential usefulness of the following measures Least Useful ParametersMean ± SDRumen activity3.94 ± 1.10Lying and standing behavior3.79 ± 1.05Rumen pH3.62 ± 1.16Jaw movement and chewing activity3.61 ± 1.15Respiration rate3.40 ± 1.15Body weight3.26 ± 1.20Body condition score3.26 ± 1.15Heart rate3.07 ± 1.15Animal position and location2.75 ± 1.26Methane emissions2.20 ± 1.161Results calculated by assigning the following values to response categories: Not useful: 1, Of little usefulness: 2, Moderately useful: 3, Useful: 4, Very useful: 5.Matthew Borchers et al.
42Comparisons Between Countries for Parameters Currently Measured Matthew Borchers et al.
43What Are the Limitations of Precision Dairy Farming?
44PDF Reality CheckMaybe not be #1 priority for commercial dairy producers (yet)Many technologies are in infancy stageNot all technologies are good investmentsEconomics must be examinedPeople factors must be considered
45Ideal Technology Explains an underlying biological process Can be translated to a meaningful actionCost-effectiveFlexible, robust, reliableInformation readily available to farmerCommercial demonstrationsContinuous improvement and feedback loops
46Data HandlingIndustry needs to establish guidelines for farmers to followWhat questions should they be asking?What to do with information provided?
49Economic Considerations Need to do investment analysisNot one size fits allEconomic benefits observed quickest for heat detection/reproductionIf you don’t do anything with the information, it was uselessSystems that measure multiple parameters make most senseSystems with low fixed costs work best for small farms
50Purdue/Kentucky Investment Model Investment decisions for PDF technologiesFlexible, partial-budget, farm-specificSimulates dairy for 10 yearsIncludes hundreds of random valuesMeasures benefits from improvements in productivity, animal health, and reproductionModels both biology and economics
51Tornado Diagram for Deterministic Factors Affecting NPV NPV establishes what the value of future earnings from a project is in today's money.
52Technology Pitfalls“Plug and play,” “Plug and pray,” or “Plug and pay”Technologies go to market too quicklyNot fully-developedSoftware not user-friendlyDeveloped independently without consideration of integration with other technologies and farmer work patterns
53Technology Pitfalls Too many single measurement systems Lack of large-scale commercial field trials and demonstrationsTechnology marketed without adequate interpretation of biological significance of dataInformation provided with no clear action plan
54Be prepared for little things to go wrong Be careful with early stage technologiesNeed a few months to learn how to use dataData integration is challengingRead the manual
55Sometimes When You’re Sitting on the Cutting Edge, It Hurts your Butt Dr. Mike Schutz
57Sociological FactorsLabor savings and potential quality of life improvements affect investment decisions (Cantin, 2008)Insufficient market researchFarmers overwhelmed by too many options (Banhazi and Black, 2009)Which technology should I adopt?End up adopting those that are interesting or where they have an expertiseNot necessarily the most profitable ones
58Why Have Adoption Rates Been Slow? Rebecca Russell
59Reason #1. Not familiar with technologies that are available
71Customer Service is Key More important than the gadgetComputer literacyNot engineersTime limitsFailure of hardware and software
72Cautious Optimism Critics say it is too technical or challenging We are just beginningPrecision Dairy won’t change cows or peopleWill change how they work togetherImprove farmer and cow well-being
73Path to Success Continue this rapid innovation Maintain realistic expectationsRespond to farmer questions and feedbackNever lose sight of the cowEducate, communicate, and collaborate
74Future Vision New era in dairy management Exciting technologies Improved quality of lifeNew ways of monitoring and improving animal health, well-being, and reproductionAnalytics as competitive advantageEconomics and human factors are key
75Questions? Jeffrey Bewley, PhD, PAS 407 W.P. Garrigus Building Lexington, KYOffice:Cell:Fax: