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_____________________________________________________ PRESENTATION “Arkansas Higher Education: Moving Toward Success” SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS Dr. Karen Hodges.

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Presentation on theme: "_____________________________________________________ PRESENTATION “Arkansas Higher Education: Moving Toward Success” SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS Dr. Karen Hodges."— Presentation transcript:

1 _____________________________________________________ PRESENTATION “Arkansas Higher Education: Moving Toward Success” SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS Dr. Karen Hodges Dr. Sally A. Roden Mr. R. David Ray _____________________________________________________________________________ ARKANSAS LEGISLATIVE TASK FORCE ON HIGHER EDUCATION REMEDIATION, RETENTION AND GRADUATION RATES


3 LEARNING IS A CONTINUUM OF DEVELOPMENT  Different learners are at different places of development in different subjects when they enter post-secondary education. *__________ *__________*___________ Math 10 English 12 Reading C

4 DEFINITION OF REMEDIATION States have defined “remediation” in various ways along this continuum: StateMathematicsEnglishReading ArkansasACT 19 LouisianaACT 19ACT 18 KentuckyACT 22ACT 19 FloridaACT 19ACT 17 ColoradoACT 19ACT 18ACT 17 AlabamaACT 20 ACT 14 MississippiACT 16 if c.p. and 2.5 gpa

5 DEFINITION OF REMEDIATION Other common terms for “remedial”:  Developmental (courses)  Provisional (type of admission)  Probational (student)

6 HOW MANY STUDENTS ARE PROVISIONAL, REMEDIAL, PROBATIONAL? In Arkansas in 2004  56.1% of community college first-year students  28.6% of four-year college/university students NCES data Across the nation in 2004  42% of community college first-year students  20% of four-year college/university students

7 2004 COLLEGE REMEDIAL ENROLLMENTS LocationMathematicsEnglishReading United States35%23%20% Arkansas43.5%29.6%26.%

8 DOES REMEDIATION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?  Sometimes and probably and it depends  Recent Studies illustrate point:  Martorell and McFarlin (2007) – gains in math.  Bettinger and Long (2007) – positive for transfer and graduation.  Jepsen (2006) – positive for persistence and graduation.  Calcagno (2007) – returned for second year but many did not graduate.

9 RECENT TRENDS IN REMEDIATION  Focus on improving high school, especially senior year – North Carolina is one model.  Mandatory testing of students during their junior year of high school – Colorado is one model.  Collaboration among high schools and colleges: pre-college communication, workshops, summer programs, dual enrollment, P-16 councils, partnerships between high school and college faculty.

10 RECENT TRENDS IN REMEDIATION (continued)  Innovative approaches to remediation such as “stretch courses” and independent learning.  Offering institutional credit, not degree credit, for remedial classes.  Experimenting with new ways of funding college remedial classes – charging the high schools, charging students additional fees, limiting number of times students may take courses.

11 RECOMMENDATIONS  Establish a definition of “remediation” that is the same for all colleges.  Establish a college readiness test separate from admission tests that is the same for all colleges.  Make Act 881 (2007) mandatory rather than voluntary and test all high school juniors for college readiness.

12 RECOMMENDATIONS (continued)  Revamp the senior year of high school as a transition into either college or the workplace, focusing on remediation and/or acceleration.  Establish statewide assessment criteria for college remediation/developmental programs.


14 PERCENT OF POPULATION OVER 25 WITH BACHELORS DEGREES 2000 – Population Statistics 2006 – Population Statistics 2000 – American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau 2006 – American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau

15 REAL NUMBERS FOR OVER 25 POPULATION WITH BACHELORS DEGREES 2000 and 2006 Comparison 20002006% Change Population1,731,2001,847,3256.7% Degrees288,428336,21316.6% 2000 and 2006 – American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau

16 REAL NUMBERS FOR OVER 25 AFRICAN AMERICANS WITH BACHELORS DEGREES 2000 and 2006 Comparison 20002006% Change Population225,985248,3089.8% Degrees23,09829,53327.8% 2000 and 2006 – American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau

17 State Supported vs. State Assisted State Funds FY 2000 $41,010,668 FY 2006 $45,215,930

18 E xperts in the fields of remediation, retention and graduation rates say -  John Gardner, Executive Director, Policy Center on the First Year of College - “If you accept the desirability of improving retention, the first year of college cries out for attention, study, and especially action!”  Dr. Vincent Tinto, Associate Director, National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning and Assessment - “Research has long documented the fact that student involvement is important not only to student persistence but also to student learning. “  Dr. George D. Kuh, Director, Center for Postsecondary Research - “Assessment of undergraduate student learning and personal development, campus cultures, and the institutional conditions foster student learning.” WE KNOW:

19 EXPERTS IN THE FIELD (CONTINUED)  Dr. Hunter Boylan, Director of the National Center for Developmental Education - “… a year spent taking a few remedial courses might represent a very sound investment of student time and money.”  Dr. Claire Ellen Weinstein, Co-Director of the LASSI Learning Test - Certainly, motivation is a critical ingredient, but the key to learning is knowing how to do it.”  Kati Haycock, Director of the Education Trust - “….all students will learn to high levels when they are taught at high levels.”

20 Professional organization services and surveys are available - ORGANIZATIONS  Noel-Levitz - A professional consultant organization that partners with higher education and provides services for recruitment, retention, professional development and student success.  Goalquest - A software company that provides communication objectives in recruiting, retention, student development, and skills enhancement.  CollegeBoard - A not-for-profit association whose mission is to connect student’s to college success and opportunity. WE KNOW:

21 SURVEYS  CIRP (Cooperative Institutional Research Program)  COLLEGE READINESS STANDARDS  COLLEGE STUDENT INVENTORY  FESSIE (Community College Faculty Survey of Student Engagement)  LASSI (Learning and Study Strategies Inventory)  NSSE (National Survey of Student Engagement)

22 WE DON’T KNOW: Which of the –  experts  organizations, or  surveys is appropriate or best for each individual institution.

23 A profile of at-risk students is available. * *Laurie Schreiner’s modified profile of “at-risk” students. Randi Levitz (1993). Recruitment and Retention. A profile can be divided into three important areas: WE KNOW: demographics,characteristicsand behavior

24  commuter  minority  low income  non-traditional  first-generation college AT-RISK DEMOGRAPHICS

25  low self-esteem, emotional conflicts  family difficulties  low expectations of academic success  poor study habits  poor campus social adjustment  weak educational values  low academic motivation  lack of financial security AT-RISK CHARACTERISTICS

26  doesn’t live on campus  rarely leaves dorm room  resident student, but goes home every weekend  frequent class absences  questions the worth of “core” or required courses  late application, didn’t attend orientation activities  one of the last to see his/her advisor AT-RISK BEHAVIOR

27 The weight or priority of each item listed. Which items have the most influence on attrition. WE DON’T KNOW:

28 The beginning college experience is one of transition! Important factors:  Redefining roles among students and family members  Understanding the role of higher education  Choosing a major field of study  Developing good study habits  Developing positive attitudes and interacting with faculty  Establishing a good grade point average  Developing long term relationships  Developing positive attitudes toward the campus  Introducing students to civic engagement WE KNOW:

29 Why, specifically, the greatest attrition occurs between the first and second years. WE DON’T KNOW:

30 Effective intervention initiatives -  Academic Advising Centers  Orientation  First-Year Seminar  Learning Communities  Linked or Clustered Classes  Residential Colleges  Supplemental Instruction  Summer Bridge Programs  Service Learning  Brand Loyalty  Co-curricular Organizations WE KNOW:

31 Which particular interventions (or how many) are being used in Arkansas state colleges and universities. WE DON’T KNOW:

32 Research shows-  Assisting students early in their college experience increases retention and graduation rates.  First-year students are less likely to succeed when there is lack of centralized leadership and coordination and no overriding rationale or goal.  Universities must take responsibility for student success and retention. WE KNOW:

33  If central plans, grand designs, core principles or student outcomes have been designed within a comprehensive retention strategy by each Arkansas college and university.  If Arkansas institutions have undertaken a comprehensive, institution-wide study where the unit of analysis is the institution and its first year. (Foundations of Excellence) WE DON’T KNOW:

34 1) Each Arkansas college and university identify a centralized leader/office to coordinate retention efforts and prepare reports to the Department of Higher Education. WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW: Considering what we know and what we don’t know, should this committee request that: 2) All Arkansas colleges and universities engage in a self-study, report the findings to the Department of Higher Education, submit a plan based on the findings, and set goals for increasing persistence from 1st to 2nd year and graduation rates.














48  Establish a mandatory college readiness test for high school juniors in order to revamp the senior high school year for college or the workplace.  Engage in a state-wide college/university first- year review resulting in a plan of action.  Move higher education to number one priority in funding. TOP THREE RECOMMENDATIONS:

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