# _____________________________________________________ PRESENTATION “Arkansas Higher Education: Moving Toward Success” SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS Dr. Karen Hodges.

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_____________________________________________________ PRESENTATION “Arkansas Higher Education: Moving Toward Success” SUBCOMMITTEE MEMBERS Dr. Karen Hodges Dr. Sally A. Roden Mr. R. David Ray _____________________________________________________________________________ ARKANSAS LEGISLATIVE TASK FORCE ON HIGHER EDUCATION REMEDIATION, RETENTION AND GRADUATION RATES

A LOOK AT REMEDIATION Dr. Karen Hodges

LEARNING IS A CONTINUUM OF DEVELOPMENT  Different learners are at different places of development in different subjects when they enter post-secondary education. *__________ *__________*___________ Math 10 English 12 Reading C

DEFINITION OF REMEDIATION States have defined “remediation” in various ways along this continuum: StateMathematicsEnglishReading ArkansasACT 19 LouisianaACT 19ACT 18 KentuckyACT 22ACT 19 FloridaACT 19ACT 17 ColoradoACT 19ACT 18ACT 17 AlabamaACT 20 ACT 14 MississippiACT 16 if c.p. and 2.5 gpa

DEFINITION OF REMEDIATION Other common terms for “remedial”:  Developmental (courses)  Provisional (type of admission)  Probational (student)

HOW MANY STUDENTS ARE PROVISIONAL, REMEDIAL, PROBATIONAL? In Arkansas in 2004  56.1% of community college first-year students  28.6% of four-year college/university students NCES data Across the nation in 2004  42% of community college first-year students  20% of four-year college/university students

2004 COLLEGE REMEDIAL ENROLLMENTS LocationMathematicsEnglishReading United States35%23%20% Arkansas43.5%29.6%26.%

DOES REMEDIATION MAKE A DIFFERENCE?  Sometimes and probably and it depends  Recent Studies illustrate point:  Martorell and McFarlin (2007) – gains in math.  Bettinger and Long (2007) – positive for transfer and graduation.  Jepsen (2006) – positive for persistence and graduation.  Calcagno (2007) – returned for second year but many did not graduate.

RECENT TRENDS IN REMEDIATION  Focus on improving high school, especially senior year – North Carolina is one model.  Mandatory testing of students during their junior year of high school – Colorado is one model.  Collaboration among high schools and colleges: pre-college communication, workshops, summer programs, dual enrollment, P-16 councils, partnerships between high school and college faculty.

RECENT TRENDS IN REMEDIATION (continued)  Innovative approaches to remediation such as “stretch courses” and independent learning.  Offering institutional credit, not degree credit, for remedial classes.  Experimenting with new ways of funding college remedial classes – charging the high schools, charging students additional fees, limiting number of times students may take courses.

RECOMMENDATIONS  Establish a definition of “remediation” that is the same for all colleges.  Establish a college readiness test separate from admission tests that is the same for all colleges.  Make Act 881 (2007) mandatory rather than voluntary and test all high school juniors for college readiness.

RECOMMENDATIONS (continued)  Revamp the senior year of high school as a transition into either college or the workplace, focusing on remediation and/or acceleration.  Establish statewide assessment criteria for college remediation/developmental programs.

WHAT WE KNOW AND WHAT WE DON’T KNOW Dr. Sally A. Roden

PERCENT OF POPULATION OVER 25 WITH BACHELORS DEGREES 2000 – Population Statistics 2006 – Population Statistics 2000 – American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau 2006 – American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau

REAL NUMBERS FOR OVER 25 POPULATION WITH BACHELORS DEGREES 2000 and 2006 Comparison 20002006% Change Population1,731,2001,847,3256.7% Degrees288,428336,21316.6% 2000 and 2006 – American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau

REAL NUMBERS FOR OVER 25 AFRICAN AMERICANS WITH BACHELORS DEGREES 2000 and 2006 Comparison 20002006% Change Population225,985248,3089.8% Degrees23,09829,53327.8% 2000 and 2006 – American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau

State Supported vs. State Assisted State Funds FY 2000 \$41,010,668 FY 2006 \$45,215,930

E xperts in the fields of remediation, retention and graduation rates say -  John Gardner, Executive Director, Policy Center on the First Year of College - “If you accept the desirability of improving retention, the first year of college cries out for attention, study, and especially action!”  Dr. Vincent Tinto, Associate Director, National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning and Assessment - “Research has long documented the fact that student involvement is important not only to student persistence but also to student learning. “  Dr. George D. Kuh, Director, Center for Postsecondary Research - “Assessment of undergraduate student learning and personal development, campus cultures, and the institutional conditions foster student learning.” WE KNOW:

EXPERTS IN THE FIELD (CONTINUED)  Dr. Hunter Boylan, Director of the National Center for Developmental Education - “… a year spent taking a few remedial courses might represent a very sound investment of student time and money.”  Dr. Claire Ellen Weinstein, Co-Director of the LASSI Learning Test - Certainly, motivation is a critical ingredient, but the key to learning is knowing how to do it.”  Kati Haycock, Director of the Education Trust - “….all students will learn to high levels when they are taught at high levels.”

Professional organization services and surveys are available - ORGANIZATIONS  Noel-Levitz - A professional consultant organization that partners with higher education and provides services for recruitment, retention, professional development and student success.  Goalquest - A software company that provides communication objectives in recruiting, retention, student development, and skills enhancement.  CollegeBoard - A not-for-profit association whose mission is to connect student’s to college success and opportunity. WE KNOW:

SURVEYS  CIRP (Cooperative Institutional Research Program)  COLLEGE READINESS STANDARDS  COLLEGE STUDENT INVENTORY  FESSIE (Community College Faculty Survey of Student Engagement)  LASSI (Learning and Study Strategies Inventory)  NSSE (National Survey of Student Engagement)

WE DON’T KNOW: Which of the –  experts  organizations, or  surveys is appropriate or best for each individual institution.

A profile of at-risk students is available. * *Laurie Schreiner’s modified profile of “at-risk” students. Randi Levitz (1993). Recruitment and Retention. A profile can be divided into three important areas: WE KNOW: demographics,characteristicsand behavior

 commuter  minority  low income  non-traditional  first-generation college AT-RISK DEMOGRAPHICS

 low self-esteem, emotional conflicts  family difficulties  low expectations of academic success  poor study habits  poor campus social adjustment  weak educational values  low academic motivation  lack of financial security AT-RISK CHARACTERISTICS

 doesn’t live on campus  rarely leaves dorm room  resident student, but goes home every weekend  frequent class absences  questions the worth of “core” or required courses  late application, didn’t attend orientation activities  one of the last to see his/her advisor AT-RISK BEHAVIOR

The weight or priority of each item listed. Which items have the most influence on attrition. WE DON’T KNOW:

The beginning college experience is one of transition! Important factors:  Redefining roles among students and family members  Understanding the role of higher education  Choosing a major field of study  Developing good study habits  Developing positive attitudes and interacting with faculty  Establishing a good grade point average  Developing long term relationships  Developing positive attitudes toward the campus  Introducing students to civic engagement WE KNOW:

Why, specifically, the greatest attrition occurs between the first and second years. WE DON’T KNOW:

Effective intervention initiatives -  Academic Advising Centers  Orientation  First-Year Seminar  Learning Communities  Linked or Clustered Classes  Residential Colleges  Supplemental Instruction  Summer Bridge Programs  Service Learning  Brand Loyalty  Co-curricular Organizations WE KNOW:

Which particular interventions (or how many) are being used in Arkansas state colleges and universities. WE DON’T KNOW:

Research shows-  Assisting students early in their college experience increases retention and graduation rates.  First-year students are less likely to succeed when there is lack of centralized leadership and coordination and no overriding rationale or goal.  Universities must take responsibility for student success and retention. WE KNOW:

 If central plans, grand designs, core principles or student outcomes have been designed within a comprehensive retention strategy by each Arkansas college and university.  If Arkansas institutions have undertaken a comprehensive, institution-wide study where the unit of analysis is the institution and its first year. (Foundations of Excellence) WE DON’T KNOW:

1) Each Arkansas college and university identify a centralized leader/office to coordinate retention efforts and prepare reports to the Department of Higher Education. WHAT WE NEED TO KNOW: Considering what we know and what we don’t know, should this committee request that: 2) All Arkansas colleges and universities engage in a self-study, report the findings to the Department of Higher Education, submit a plan based on the findings, and set goals for increasing persistence from 1st to 2nd year and graduation rates.

ARKANSAS HIGHER EDUCATION: MEETING THE CHALLENGE Mr. R. David Ray

 Establish a mandatory college readiness test for high school juniors in order to revamp the senior high school year for college or the workplace.  Engage in a state-wide college/university first- year review resulting in a plan of action.  Move higher education to number one priority in funding. TOP THREE RECOMMENDATIONS:

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