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1 Liberty Seated Coinage: A Collector’s Overview August 10, 2010 Bill Bugert.

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1 1 Liberty Seated Coinage: A Collector’s Overview August 10, 2010 Bill Bugert

2 2 Basic Liberty Seated Design Minted Designed by Christian Gobrecht ½ dimes and dimes – wreath and laurel, legend, and denomination ½ dimes and dimes – wreath and laurel, legend, and denomination Later wreath of agricultural products Later wreath of agricultural products Other denominations – eagle with shield, olive branch, and arrows Other denominations – eagle with shield, olive branch, and arrows Goddess Liberty Goddess Liberty In a flowing dressIn a flowing dress Seated on rockSeated on rock Shield symbolizes defense Shield symbolizes defense Pole with cap symbolizing freedom Pole with cap symbolizing freedom 13 stars = 13 colonies 13 stars = 13 colonies

3 3 Many Liberty Seated Design Variations (Types) Flying eagle in field of stars/no stars Flying eagle in field of stars/no stars With/without Gobrecht’s name With/without Gobrecht’s name Stars/no stars obverse Stars/no stars obverse Drapery/no drapery below Liberty’s elbow Drapery/no drapery below Liberty’s elbow Large rock support/reduced rock support Large rock support/reduced rock support 2 or 3 vertical obverse shield stripes 2 or 3 vertical obverse shield stripes 6, 9, 10 horizontal stripes on reverse shield 6, 9, 10 horizontal stripes on reverse shield Tilted/upright obverse shield Tilted/upright obverse shield Eagle, wreath & Laurel, agricultural reverse Eagle, wreath & Laurel, agricultural reverse Minutes hub variations – open/closed claws, open/closed buds Minutes hub variations – open/closed claws, open/closed buds Arrows/no arrows at date Arrows/no arrows at date Outstretching rays on reverse Outstretching rays on reverse Motto/no Motto Motto/no Motto Stars obverse, legend obverse Stars obverse, legend obverse Small/large stars on obverse Small/large stars on obverse

4 4 For the Die Hard Collectors! Countless die marriages and interesting varieties Countless die marriages and interesting varieties Double dies, double dates, misplaced dates, repunched dates, repunched mintmarks, etc.Double dies, double dates, misplaced dates, repunched dates, repunched mintmarks, etc. Half DollarsHalf Dollars San Francisco – , 230 die marriages San Francisco – , 230 die marriages Carson City – , 97 die marriages Carson City – , 97 die marriages New Orleans – , 417 die marriages New Orleans – , 417 die marriages Philadelphia – , 1,000+ die marriages Philadelphia – , 1,000+ die marriages These totals don’t include the reed count variations! These totals don’t include the reed count variations!

5 5 Food for Thought! Plenty in the Liberty Seated series to spark your collector interest Plenty in the Liberty Seated series to spark your collector interest Collect by: Collect by: TypeType DenominationDenomination Date setDate set VarietiesVarieties Complete set Complete set Specific number Specific number Date, Mint, etc. Date, Mint, etc. What’s popular or what’s unpopularWhat’s popular or what’s unpopular Attractive coinsAttractive coins BudgetBudget

6 6 Christian Gobrecht ( ) 1785: Born in Hanover, PA (South-central PA) 1785: Born in Hanover, PA (South-central PA) Clockmaker, inventor, diemaker, engraver Clockmaker, inventor, diemaker, engraver 1811: Moved to Philadelphia 1811: Moved to Philadelphia 1823: Applied for Chief Engraver 1823: Applied for Chief Engraver : Second Engraver : Second Engraver : Chief Engraver : Chief Engraver Patterns, medals, regular issue Liberty Seated coinage Patterns, medals, regular issue Liberty Seated coinage

7 7 Gobrecht’s Birthplace and Grave Trinity United Church of Christ parking lot, Hanover, PA Site of the old Emmanuel Church Lawnview Memorial Park, Rockledge, PA

8 8 1830s: Evolution of the 2 nd US Mint “The inadequacy of the present accomodations of the Mint has become so obvious and the unsightly aspect which the buildings present is so little suitable to its character as a National Institution….” ---Mint Director Samuel Moore, 1828 First United States Mint in Philadelphia, 7 th Street & Sugar Alley, c : Second U.S. Mint opens in Philadelphia at Chestnut/Juniper Streets

9 9 Changes in Minting Technology (Coincidental with change from bust to seated design) : Franklin Peale tours Europe, brings back latest minting technology : Franklin Peale tours Europe, brings back latest minting technology 1836: Portrait lathe introduced; engravers now working with clay/wax models instead of die steel 1836: Portrait lathe introduced; engravers now working with clay/wax models instead of die steel 1836: Steam press replaces manual screw press for minting coins 1836: Steam press replaces manual screw press for minting coins 1840: Compound date punches used 1840: Compound date punches used

10 10 Bust/Seated Transition 1840-O WB-101, reverse of Bust half (obverse matched to O-mint regular dies)

11 11 Bust/Seated Transition

12 12 Establishment of the New Orleans Branch Mint Southern territorial gold dating in 1830’s Southern territorial gold dating in 1830’s Southern Branch mints (New Orleans, Charlotte, Dahlonega) enacted in 1835 in response to southern gold mining and increasing commerce through New Orleans Southern Branch mints (New Orleans, Charlotte, Dahlonega) enacted in 1835 in response to southern gold mining and increasing commerce through New Orleans Built in 1837, Liberty Seated coinage began with half dimes and dimes in 1838 Built in 1837, Liberty Seated coinage began with half dimes and dimes in 1838

13 O Dime

14 14 San Francisco Branch Mint Gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill near Coloma, CA Gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill near Coloma, CA Influx of prospectors - thriving economy Influx of prospectors - thriving economy No nearby source of legal circulating coinage No nearby source of legal circulating coinage Congress authorized SF Branch Mint Congress authorized SF Branch Mint Dies received Dies received Silver coinage commenced in 1855 thru 1891 for Liberty Seated design Silver coinage commenced in 1855 thru 1891 for Liberty Seated design

15 15 Early SF Coinage: 1855-S Branch Mint Proof 50c DLRC Richmond III 3/2005: known

16 16 Early SF Coinage: 1856-S/s 25c Stack’s 2007 ANA 8/2007:525, NGC AU58 $40,000

17 s Types: 1853 A&R Quarter

18 18 Civil War Coinage: 1861-O “Confederate” Half Dollar Diagnostic: die crack to from rim to Liberty’s nose (WB-102) See also: R. Wiley, GJs #94, 97

19 19 With Motto Coinage Precipitated by the horrors seen in the Civil War and American belief in God Precipitated by the horrors seen in the Civil War and American belief in God Initially adopted by Congress on the Two Cent piece in 1864 Initially adopted by Congress on the Two Cent piece in 1864 Related pattern coinage beginning in 1861Related pattern coinage beginning in 1861 The Act of March 3, 1865 mandated that all silver and gold coins of sufficient size bear the motto, The Act of March 3, 1865 mandated that all silver and gold coins of sufficient size bear the motto, In God We Trust

20 20 With Motto Coinage : 1870-CC Half Dollar

21 21 Carson City Branch Mint Discovery of the Comstock Lode led to a large amount of gold and silver bullion being mined in the area Discovery of the Comstock Lode led to a large amount of gold and silver bullion being mined in the area CC Nevada assay office authorized by Congress CC Nevada assay office authorized by Congress Construction began Construction began Building completed; dies shipped Building completed; dies shipped Coinage began Coinage began Liberty Seated silver coinage Liberty Seated silver coinage Carson City silver coinage often found with porous surfaces (coin planchets procured locally) Carson City silver coinage often found with porous surfaces (coin planchets procured locally)

22 22 Carson City Coinage:

23 23 Carson City Coinage: 1873-CC 10c

24 24 Expanding Silver Coinage Specie Payment Redemption Act of January 1875 declared that large quantities of silver coinage be issued to redeem fractional paper money Specie Payment Redemption Act of January 1875 declared that large quantities of silver coinage be issued to redeem fractional paper money U.S. Mint purchased large quantities of silver bullion in 1875 and 18 76U.S. Mint purchased large quantities of silver bullion in 1875 and Increased quantities of 10¢, 25¢, and 50¢ minted at all mints Increased quantities of 10¢, 25¢, and 50¢ minted at all mints

25 25 Expanding Silver Coinage: 1876-S 25c

26 26 Late Date Seated Coinage Bland-Allison Act of 1878 mandated that the U.S. Treasury purchase $2M - $4M of silver bullion each month for coining silver dollars Bland-Allison Act of 1878 mandated that the U.S. Treasury purchase $2M - $4M of silver bullion each month for coining silver dollars Sec. Treasurer John Sherman suspended production of subsidiary coinage in Feb Sec. Treasurer John Sherman suspended production of subsidiary coinage in Feb Reduced production of minor coinage Reduced production of minor coinage

27 27 Late Date Seated Coinage: 1881 Quarter

28 Liberty Seated Denominations Overview 28

29 29 Liberty Seated Half Dimes Minted from at 3 Mints (P,O,S) Minted from at 3 Mints (P,O,S) Type coins Type coins No Obverse Stars ( )No Obverse Stars ( ) Obverse Stars, No Drapery ( )Obverse Stars, No Drapery ( ) Obverse Stars, With Drapery ( and )Obverse Stars, With Drapery ( and ) With Arrows at Date ( )With Arrows at Date ( ) With Obverse Legend ( )With Obverse Legend ( )

30 30 Liberty Seated Half Dimes Complete business strike set contains 70 coins Complete business strike set contains 70 coins Difficulty level: Challenging Difficulty level: Challenging Key coins: 1846, 1853-O No Arrows, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866 and 1867 Key coins: 1846, 1853-O No Arrows, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866 and 1867

31 31 Liberty Seated Half Dimes Die variety collecting becoming more popular Die variety collecting becoming more popular The Complete Guide to Liberty Seated Half Dimes Al Blythe, DLRC Press 1992

32 32 Liberty Seated Dimes Minted from at 4 Mints Minted from at 4 Mints Type coins Type coins No Obverse Stars ( )No Obverse Stars ( ) Obverse Stars, No Drapery ( )Obverse Stars, No Drapery ( ) Obverse Stars, With Drapery ( and )Obverse Stars, With Drapery ( and ) With Arrows at Date ( )With Arrows at Date ( ) With Obverse Legend ( and )With Obverse Legend ( and ) With Arrows at Date ( )With Arrows at Date ( )

33 33 Liberty Seated Dimes Complete business strike set contains 114 coins Complete business strike set contains 114 coins Difficulty level: Extremely challenging Difficulty level: Extremely challenging Key coins: 1844, 1846, 1856-S, 1858-S, 1859-S, 1860-O, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1870-S, 1871-CC, 1872-CC, 1873-CC, CC, and 1885-S Key coins: 1844, 1846, 1856-S, 1858-S, 1859-S, 1860-O, 1863, 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1870-S, 1871-CC, 1872-CC, 1873-CC, CC, and 1885-S

34 34 Liberty Seated Dimes Die variety collecting is popular Die variety collecting is popular Encyclopedia of United States Liberty Seated Dimes, Kamal M. Ahwash, Kamah Press 1977 The Complete Guide to Liberty Seated Dimes Brian Greer, DLRC Press 1992 Fortin Liberty Seated Dime Web Book Gerry Fortin,

35 35 Liberty Seated Twenty Cents Minted from at 3 Mints (P,S,CC) Minted from at 3 Mints (P,S,CC) 1877 and 1878 coins are all proofs 1877 and 1878 coins are all proofs One type coin for series One type coin for series Complete business strike set contains 4 coins, excluding the super rarity of 1876-CC Complete business strike set contains 4 coins, excluding the super rarity of 1876-CC Difficulty level: Easy Difficulty level: Easy Complete proof set contains 4 coins Complete proof set contains 4 coins Difficulty level: Attainable Difficulty level: Attainable No book on series No book on series Series not popular Series not popular

36 36 Liberty Seated Quarters Minted from at 4 Mints (P,O,S,CC) Minted from at 4 Mints (P,O,S,CC) Type coins Type coins No Drapery on Obverse ( )No Drapery on Obverse ( ) With Drapery on Obverse ( and )With Drapery on Obverse ( and ) With Arrows and Rays (1853)With Arrows and Rays (1853) With Arrows ( )With Arrows ( ) With Motto on Reverse ( and )With Motto on Reverse ( and ) With Arrows ( )With Arrows ( )

37 37 Liberty Seated Quarters Complete business strike set contains 108 coins Complete business strike set contains 108 coins Difficulty level: Extremely challenging Difficulty level: Extremely challenging Grade Rarity: 1859-S, 1861-S Grade Rarity: 1859-S, 1861-S Key coins: 1849-O, 1851-O, 1852-O, 1853 No Arrows, 1860-S, 1864-S, 1866, 1869, 1870-CC, 1871-CC, 1871-S, 1872-CC, 1872-S, 1873-CC, 1878-S, 1884, 1886, 1887, and O Key coins: 1849-O, 1851-O, 1852-O, 1853 No Arrows, 1860-S, 1864-S, 1866, 1869, 1870-CC, 1871-CC, 1871-S, 1872-CC, 1872-S, 1873-CC, 1878-S, 1884, 1886, 1887, and O

38 38 Liberty Seated Quarters Die variety collecting is becoming more popular Die variety collecting is becoming more popular The Comprehensive Encyclopedia Of United States Liberty Seated Quarters Larry Briggs, Larry Briggs Rare Coins, 1991

39 39 Liberty Seated Half Dollars Minted from at 4 Mints (P,O,S,CC) Minted from at 4 Mints (P,O,S,CC) Type coins Type coins No Drapery on Obverse (1839)No Drapery on Obverse (1839) With Drapery on Obverse, No Motto ( and )With Drapery on Obverse, No Motto ( and ) With Arrows and Rays (1853)With Arrows and Rays (1853) With Arrows ( )With Arrows ( ) With Motto on Reverse ( and )With Motto on Reverse ( and ) With Arrows ( )With Arrows ( )

40 40 Liberty Seated Half Dollars Complete business strike set contains 112 coins Complete business strike set contains 112 coins Difficulty level: Very challenging Difficulty level: Very challenging Key coins: 1850, 1851, 1852, S, 1866-S No Motto, 1870-CC, CC, 1873-CC No Arrows, 1874-CC, 1878-CC, 1878-S Key coins: 1850, 1851, 1852, S, 1866-S No Motto, 1870-CC, CC, 1873-CC No Arrows, 1874-CC, 1878-CC, 1878-S Super rarities Super rarities 1853-O NA - 3 known 1853-O NA - 3 known 1866 No motto - Unique 1866 No motto - Unique

41 41 Liberty Seated Half Dollars Die variety collecting is very popular Die variety collecting is very popular The Complete Guide to Liberty Seated Half Dollars Randy Wiley & Bill Bugert, DLRC Press, 1993 New Book – May 2009 SF Branch Mint Die Varieties By Bill Bugert New Book – May 2010 CC Branch Mint Die Varieties By Bill Bugert

42 42 Liberty Seated Dollars Minted from at 4 Mints (P,O,S,CC) Minted from at 4 Mints (P,O,S,CC) Type coins Type coins No Motto ( )No Motto ( ) With Motto ( )With Motto ( ) Complete business strike set contains 43 coins Complete business strike set contains 43 coins Difficulty level: Very challenging Difficulty level: Very challenging Key coins: 1851, 1852, 1854, 1855, 1861, 1862, 1870-CC, 1870-S, 1871-CC, 1872-CC, and 1873-CC Key coins: 1851, 1852, 1854, 1855, 1861, 1862, 1870-CC, 1870-S, 1871-CC, 1872-CC, and 1873-CC

43 43 Liberty Seated Dollars 1858 is a proof only issue that is highly valued 1858 is a proof only issue that is highly valued Die variety collecting is not popular Die variety collecting is not popular Silver Dollars and Trade Dollars of the United States (Volume One) Q. David Bowers, Bowers and Merena Galleries, 1993

44 44 Trade Dollars Thematic Liberty Seated influenced design by William Barber Thematic Liberty Seated influenced design by William Barber Issued for circulation in the Orient Issued for circulation in the Orient Minted from Minted from are proofs only are proofs only One type coin for series One type coin for series

45 45 Trade Dollars Complete business strike set contains 17 coins Complete business strike set contains 17 coins Difficulty level: Attainable Difficulty level: Attainable Key coin: 1878-CC Key coin: 1878-CC 1884 and 1885 proofs are extreme rarities 1884 and 1885 proofs are extreme rarities

46 46 Trade Dollars Die variety collecting is becoming more popular Die variety collecting is becoming more popular Chopmarked (counter-stamped Oriental characters) collecting is also becoming more popular Chopmarked (counter-stamped Oriental characters) collecting is also becoming more popular Modern Chinese counterfeits Modern Chinese counterfeits Silver Dollars and Trade Dollars of the United States (Volume One) Q. David Bowers, Bowers and Merena Galleries, 1993 The United States Trade Dollar John Willem, Whitman Publishing, 1965

47 47 Resources

48 48 Liberty Seated Collectors Club (LSCC) Dues are $20 per year. Three issues of The Gobrecht Journal are published annually. Web Site: John McCloskey, President and Editor: Club Memberships: Len Augsburger Secretary-Treasurer LSCC P.O. Box 6114, Vernon Hills, IL 60061

49 49 Additional Resources Walter Breen, Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins, 1988 Walter Breen, Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins, 1988 Don Taxay, U.S. Mint and Coinage, 1966 Don Taxay, U.S. Mint and Coinage, 1966 Neil Carothers, Fractional Money, 1930 Neil Carothers, Fractional Money, 1930 Gobrecht Journal, Collective Volumes 1-5 Gobrecht Journal, Collective Volumes 1-5

50 50 Electronic Resources E-Gobrecht E-Gobrecht Free monthly electronic newsletter available to allFree monthly electronic newsletter available to all 2006 and 2008 ANA “Best Electronic Publication”2006 and 2008 ANA “Best Electronic Publication” Subscribe via Bill Bugert at via Bill Bugert at LSCC Website LSCC Website Gobrecht Journal index, issues #1 - #99Gobrecht Journal index, issues #1 - #99 Free chat boardFree chat board E-Gobrecht archivesE-Gobrecht archives Fortin Seated Dime Web-Book Fortin Seated Dime Web-Book

51 51 Acknowledgements Len Augsburger Len Augsburger Q. David Bowers, Stack’s Q. David Bowers, Stack’s Christine Karstedt, Stack’s Christine Karstedt, Stack’s Jeremy Katz Jeremy Katz Steven Liu Steven Liu John McCloskey, President LSCC John McCloskey, President LSCC Heritage Galleries Heritage Galleries Rory Rea Rory Rea


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