Extra sensory perception (ESP) is the special ability to acquire information by paranormal means, other than the normal senses (taste, sight, touch, smell, hear). ESP is also sometimes referred to as a sixth sense like an intuition, an instinct or a weird vibe. The belief in the existence of ESP existed also in antiquity. In many ancient cultures such powers were supposed to be given for the use of second sight or communication with spirits. Types of ESP: There are a lot of seemingly different types of ESP. The main types are the following: E S P (Extra sensory perception)
The paranormal perception of events in other places
Precognition is like clairvoyance, except that this perception travels through time, that is to say the perception of events in other times like past or future.
The perception of aspects of others which most people cannot perceive.
The ability to communicate with people by means other than the normal senses.
The ability to move objects with the mind without manipulating them.
The scientific study of such paranormal phenomena as ESP is called parapsychology. The people who are capable of using SP are called psychics.
-There have been made lots of kinds of experiments, by using many different ways, to prove the existence (or non-existence) of ESP. Two famous types of testing are Zener cards and automated target- selection and data-recording in guessing the location of a future point of light. Some of the most known and important researchers are the Mathematician Samuel Soal, the scientist J.B.Rhine and his wife, Ina Jephson, and J.Hettinger. -Also, there have been shows and other alike public programs willing to prove the existence of ESP and inform the public about them, by giving generous amounts of money to “the ones who would manage to perform ESP powers”. Such shows have been set up by James Randi in 1996 and by the French Center CSICOP from 1987 to 2002.
-They say that ESP appearances occur under circumstances which are out of scientific control. Such experiments are believed to be much more accurate than the other ones. Furthermore, these reports have always been the basis for the authenticity of ESP phenomenon. However, it has been proved very difficult, almost impossible, to succeed in the realization of such experiences under controlled scientific conditions. That makes the results again inaccurate. -ESP, moreover, is thought to be associated with hypnosis. Some scientists have claimed that hypnosis activates these kind of powers in people. After lots of tests they have come to the conclusion that ESP exists when the mind and brain is relaxed and is somehow unconscious.
The most used way of testing the existence of ESP, as it was mentioned before, is with Zener cards. Zener Cards were designed in the early 1930s by Karl Zener for use in ESP experiments. There are five kinds of cards.
1. One continuous curve that makes a circle 2. Two straight lines that cross in the middle 3. Three wavy parallel vertical lines
4. Four straight lines that form a square and 5. A five-pointed star
Zener cards are cards marked with five characteristic symbols. When using them, one individual is determined the “sender” and another the “receiver”. The sender must select a random card and imagine the symbol on it, while the receiver determines that symbol. Statistically, the receiver has a 20% chance of randomly guessing the correct symbol, so in order to demonstrate telepathy or clairvoyance, they must repeatedly score a success rate that is significantly higher than 20% -Unfortunately, this kind of test, with Zener cards, cannot distinguish telepathy from clairvoyance. In other words, there would be no way to tell if a receiver was receiving information independently of the sender’s mind.
Many experiments, with positive results, were thought to be deceits. That’s because these kinds of tests may be faulty owing to some unnoticed details. For example, in some of the experiments Mr. J.B.Rhine set up, it finally showed up that some of the Zener cards he had used were very thin, allowing the receivers to see through the card and identify which icon the sender was looking at.
Numerous ESP studies have been made since 1920s, but most of them have failed to prove the existence of ESP powers. Because of that lots of scientists remain skeptical. For example, among the scientists in the National Academy of Sciences, the 96% called themselves “skeptical” about ESP. They say that they are not convinced yet because of the “lack of reliable theories and information”. Another factor of their disbelief is that, often, when psychics are tested by skeptics and fail to prove their ability to use ESP, they come up with all sorts of reasons for their failure, such as that the skeptic is affecting the experiment with “negative energy”. Nevertheless, the ESP phenomenon still remains a mystery and it will obviously remain for much more. Irene Katsikea,Fey Mezelidou, Papageorgiou Renia, E7 class in English
Telepathy, from the Greek τελε, tele meaning "remote" and πάθεια, patheia meaning "to be affected by“, describes the transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses.
Types of telepathy Latent Telepathy, formerly known as "deferred telepathy", is described as being the transfer of information. Precognitive Telepathy is described as being the transfer of information,about the future state of an individual's mind.
Skepticism and controversy Skeptics say that instances of what seem to be telepathy are explained as the result of fraud or self-delusion and that telepathy does not exist as a paranormal power. Magicians such as Ian Rowland and Derren Brown have demonstrated techniques and results similar to those of popular psychics, but they give psychological explanations. A technique which shows statistically significant evidence of telepathy on every occasion has yet to be discovered.
TEST FOR TELEPATHIC ABILITIES Various experiments have been used to test for telepathic abilities. Among the most well known are the use of Zener cards.
Unfortunately……. Many experiments, the results of which were positive enough, were thought to be deceits. That’s because the sureness of non-cheating is never reliable enough owing to some unnoticed details (very thin cards that allow the receivers to see through and identify which icon there is). Nevertheless, the telepathy phenomenon still remains a mystery and it will apparently remain for much more.………..
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