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Chapter 6 Perceiving the World Table of Contents Exit.

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1 Chapter 6 Perceiving the World Table of Contents Exit

2 Perception: Some Key Terms Definition: How we assemble sensations into meaningful patterns Size Constancy: Perceived size of an object remains constant, DESPITE changes in its retinal image size Native Perception: A perceptual experience based on innate processes Empirical Perception: A perception strongly influenced by prior experience Shape Constancy: The perceived shape of an object unaffected by changes in its retinal image Brightness Constancy: Apparent brightness of an object stays the same under changing lighting conditions Table of Contents Exit

3 Fig. 6.1 Shape constancy. (a) When a door is open its image actually forms a trapezoid. Shape constancy is indicated by the fact that it is still perceived as a rectangle. (b) With great effort you may be able to see this design as a collection of flat shapes. However, if you maintain shape constancy the distorted squares strongly suggest the surface of a sphere. (From Spherescapes-1 by Scott Walter and Kevin McMahon, 1983.) Table of Contents Exit

4 Perceptual Grouping Figure-Ground Organization: Inborn; part of a stimulus stands out as a figure (object) against a plainer background (ground) Reversible Figure: Figure and ground that can be reversed Table of Contents Exit

5 Fig. 6.2 A reversible figure-ground design. Do you see two faces in profile, or a wineglass? Table of Contents Exit

6 Gestalt Principles of Organization Nearness: Stimuli that are near each other tend to be grouped together Similarity: Stimuli that are similar in size, shape, color, or form tend to be grouped together Continuation, or Continuity: Perceptions tend toward simplicity and continuity Table of Contents Exit

7 Fig. 6.3 How we organize perceptions Table of Contents Exit

8 Gestalt Principles of Organization (cont.) Closure: Tendency to complete a figure so that it has a consistent overall form Contiguity: Nearness in time and space; perception that one thing has caused another Common Region: Stimuli that are found within a common area tend to be seen as a group Table of Contents Exit

9 Fig. 6.5 A challenging example of perceptual organization. Once the camouflaged insect (known as a giant walkingstick) becomes visible, it is almost impossible to view the picture again without seeing the insect. © E.R. Degginger/Animals Animals Table of Contents Exit

10 Depth Perception Definition: Ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances Visual Cliff: Apparatus that looks like the edge of an elevated platform or cliff Depth Cues: Features that supply information about distance and space Monocular Depth Cue: Depth cue that can be sensed with one eye Binocular Depth Cue: Depth cue that can be sensed with two eyes Table of Contents Exit

11 Muscular Cues for Depth Perception Accommodation: Bending of the lens of the eye to focus on nearby objects Convergence: Binocular cue; when you look at something 50 feet or closer, your eyes must turn in (converge) to focus the object Retinal Disparity: Discrepancy in the images that reach the right and left eyes Stereotopic Vision: Three-dimensional sight Table of Contents Exit

12 Fig. 6.10 The eyes must converge, or turn in toward the nose, to focus close objects. Table of Contents Exit

13 Pictoral Cues for Depth Features found in paintings, drawings, and photographs that supply information about space, depth, and distance Linear Perspective: Based on apparent convergence of parallel lines in environment Overlap: When one object partially blocks another Texture Gradients: Texture changes can contribute to depth perception; coarse texture implies closeness, fine texture implies distance Relative Motion (Motion Parallax): Nearby objects move a lot as your head moves; distant objects move slightly Table of Contents Exit

14 Fig. 6.14 (a) Linear perspective. (b) Relative size. (c) Light and shadow. (d) Overlap. (e) Texture gradients. Drawings in the top row show fairly “pure” examples of each of the pictorial depth cues. In the bottom row, the pictorial depth cues are used to assemble a more realistic scene. Table of Contents Exit

15 Fig. 6.15 On a dry lake bed, relative size is just about the only depth cue available for judging the camera’s distance from this vintage aircraft. What do you estimate the distance to be? Table of Contents Exit

16 Fig. 6.17 The apparent motion of objects viewed during travel depends on their distance from the observer. Apparent motion can also be influenced by an observer’s point of fixation. At middle distances, objects closer than the point of fixation appear to move backward; those beyond the point of fixation appear to move forward. Objects at great distances, such as the sun or moon, always appear to move forward. Table of Contents Exit

17 Some Illusions Moon Illusion: Apparent change in size that occurs as the moon moves from the horizon (large moon) to overhead (small moon) Apparent-Distance Hypothesis: Horizon seems more distant than the night sky Table of Contents Exit

18 Fig. 6.7 An impossible figure—the “three-pronged widget.” Table of Contents Exit

19 Fig. 6.19 The Ponzo illusion may help you understand the moon illusion. Picture the two white bars as resting on the railroad tracks. In the drawing, the upper bar is the same length as the lower bar. However, because the upper bar appears to be farther away than the lower bar, we perceive it as longer. The same logic applies to the moon illusion. Table of Contents Exit

20 Perceptual Learning Change in the brain that alters how we process sensory information Perceptual Habits: Ingrained patterns of organization and attention Other-Race Effect: Tendency to be better at recognizing faces from one’s own racial group than faces from other racial or ethnic groups Active Movement: Self-generated action; accelerates perceptual adaptation Context: Information surrounding a stimulus; affects perception Frames of Reference: Internal standards for judging stimuli Table of Contents Exit

21 Fig. 6.9 Human infants and newborn animals refuse to go over the edge of the visual cliff Table of Contents Exit

22 Animation – Ames Room Table of Contents Exit

23 Fig. 6.24 The Ames room. From the front, the room looks normal; actually, the right-hand corner is very short, and the left-hand corner is very tall. In addition, the left side of the room slants away from viewers. The diagram shows the shape of the room and reveals why people appear to get bigger as they cross the room toward the nearer, shorter right corner. Table of Contents Exit

24 Fig. 6.27 Some interesting perceptual illusions. Illusions are a normal part of perception. Table of Contents Exit

25 Fig. 6.28 Why does line (b) in the Müller-Lyer illusion look longer than line (a)? Probably because it looks more like a distant corner than a nearer one. Because the vertical lines form images of the same length, the more “distant” line must be perceived as larger. As you can see in the drawing on the right, additional depth cues accentuate the Müller-Lyer illusion. (After Enns & Coren, 1995.) Table of Contents Exit

26 Illusions: Is What You See What You Get? Illusion: Length, position, motion, curvature, or direction is constantly misjudged Hallucination: When people perceive objects or events that have no external basis in reality Stroboscopic Movement: Illusory motion perceived when objects are shown in rapidly changing positions Muller-Lyer Illusion: Two equal-length lines topped with inward or outward pointing V’s appear to be of different length; based on experience with edges and corners of rooms and buildings Table of Contents Exit

27 Attention and Perception Inattentional Blindness: Blindness caused by not attending to a stimulus Orientation Response: Bodily changes that prepare an organism to receive information from a particular stimulus Table of Contents Exit

28 Perceptual Expectancies Bottom-Up Processing: Analyzing information starting at the bottom (small units) and going upward to form a complete perception Top-Down Processing: Pre-existing knowledge that is used to rapidly organize features into a meaningful whole Perceptual Set: Past experiences, motives, contexts, or suggestions that prepare us to perceive in a certain way Table of Contents Exit

29 Fig. 6.22 The effects of prior experience on perception. The doctored face looks far worse when viewed right side up because it can be related to past experience. Table of Contents Exit

30 Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Perceptions Stress: High levels impair accuracy Weapon Focus: Presence of a weapon impairs eyewitness’ accuracy Exposure Time: Less time an eyewitness has to observe an event, the less s/he will perceive and remember it Accuracy-Confidence: Confidence is not a good predictor of his/her accuracy Cross-Racial Perceptions: Eyewitnesses are better at identifying members of their own race than of other races Table of Contents Exit

31 More Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Perceptions Post-Event Information: Testimony reflects not only what was actually seen but also information obtained later on Color Perception: Judgments of color made under monochromatic light are very unreliable Unconscious Transference: A culprit who is identified may have been seen in another situation or context Alcohol Intoxication: Impairs later ability to recall events Attitudes and Expectations: May affect eyewitness’ perception of events Table of Contents Exit

32 Implications of Eyewitness Testimony Reality Testing: Obtaining additional information to check your perceptions Habituate: Tend to respond less to predictable and unchanging stimuli Dishabituation: Reversal of habituation Table of Contents Exit

33 Extrasensory Perception (ESP): Fact or Fallacy? Parapsychology: Study of ESP and other psi phenomena (events that seem to defy accepted scientific laws) Clairvoyance: Purported ability to perceive events unaffected by distance or physical barriers Telepathy: Purported ability to read minds Precognition: Purported ability to accurately predict the future (“Minority Report” and the “Pre- Cogs,” like Agatha) Psychokinesis (Mind Over Matter): Purported ability to influence physical objects by willpower Table of Contents Exit

34 More ESP Issues Zener Cards: Deck of 25 cards, each having one of five symbols Run of Luck: Statistically unusual outcome that could occur by chance alone (e.g., getting five heads in a row, two jackpots within six pulls of a slot machine) Stage ESP: Simulation of ESP for entertainment purposes Conclusion: Existence of ESP has NOT been scientifically demonstrated; positive results are usually inconclusive and easily criticized In sum: Be skeptical! If it seems too good to be true, it probably is! Table of Contents Exit

35 Fig. 6.36 ESP cards used by J. B. Rhine, an early experimenter in parapsychology. Table of Contents Exit

36 Fig. 6.37 Fake psychokinesis. (a) The performer shows an observer several straight keys. While doing so, he bends one of the keys by placing its tip in the slot of another key. Normally, this is done out of sight, behind the “psychic’s” hand. It is clearly shown here so you can see how the deception occurs. (b) Next, the “psychic” places the two keys in the observer’s hand and closes it. By skillful manipulation, the observer has been kept from seeing the bent key. The performer then “concentrates” on the keys to “bend them with psychic energy.” (c) The bent key is revealed to the observer. “Miracle” accomplished! (Adapted from Randi, 1983.) (a) (b c) Table of Contents Exit

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