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The many theories of children and development ECED 2020 Shafer, PhD Leonardo da Vinci…………………..

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1 The many theories of children and development ECED 2020 Shafer, PhD Leonardo da Vinci…………………..

2 Is human development a continuous process or does it proceed by stages? CONTINUOUS – “a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with.” (continually refining skills) … STAGES (or discontinuous) – “a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.” (developmental milestones) …

3 NATURE vs. NURTURE, oh my. NATURE!!! Inborn biological givens – hereditary information received from the parents at the moment of conception – DNA and stuff – all things are programmed (IQ, temperament, etc. as well as physical characteristics … NURTURE!!! The complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth – products of our environments – IQ etc. are not static …

4 Aristotle & epigenesis EPIGENESIS: development is a gradual process of increasing complexity

5 Preformationism Believed that the individual is FULLY FORMED in the sperm of the male. Those who believed this were called HOMUNCULISTS, because that little person in the sperm is an homunculus. Do YOU believe this??

6 Preformationism, part 2 Believed that an individual is FULLY FORMED in the ovum of the female. Those who believed this were called OVISTS. The little man inside there? Still an homunculus. Can you dig it?

7 “If I have seen further... It is by standing upon the shoulders of Giants.” --Sir Isaac Newton Leonardo da Vinci

8 MEDIEVAL *500 – 1500 CE Children were viewed as miniature adults …as soon as a child could live without constant attention & help of a caregiver, the child belonged to adult society. Children worked like adults, dressed like adults, & could legally be married, crowned, or hanged like adults. ½ to ¾ of all children died during infancy

9 Medieval controversy … Some scholars and textbooks say that this is not true – that the people in this age did recognize that childhood was a separate phase of life. You must make your mind up who you believe. Well??? Who DO you believe? NEVERTHELESS …..

10 Medieval art …

11 Medieval … BLACK DEATH or Black Plague; 1347—1350 three forms, the bubonic, pneumonic, & septicemic Not only were the children affected physically, but also mentally. Exposure to public nudity, craziness, & (obviously) abundant death was premature. The death of family members left the children facing death & pain at an early age. Parents even abandoned their children, leaving them to the streets instead of risking the babies giving them the dreaded "pestilence". Children were especially unlucky if they were female. Baby girls would be left to die because parents would favor male children that could carry on the family name.

12 Marchione di Coppo Stefani Marchione di Coppo Stefani said this about the plague: “There was such a fear that no one seemed to know what to do. When it took hold in a house it often happened that no one remained who had not died. And it was not just that men & women died, but even sentient animals died. Dogs, cats, chickens, oxen, donkeys, sheep showed the same symptoms & died of the same disease. And almost none, or very few, who showed these symptoms, were cured. The symptoms were the following: a bubo in the groin, where the thigh meets the trunk; or a small swelling under the armpit; sudden fever; spitting blood & saliva (& no one who spit blood survived it). It was such a frightful thing that when it got into a house, as was said, no one remained. Frightened people abandoned the house & fled to another."

13 “Science is best defined as a careful, disciplined, logical search for knowledge about any & all aspects of the universe, obtained by the examination of the best available evidence & always subject to correction & improvement upon discovery of better evidence. What’s left is magic. And it doesn’t work.” -- James Randi Leonardo da Vinci

14 RENAISSANCE 1558 – 1603 CE "I have lost two or three suckling children, not without regret, but without being much disturbed." (Montaigne) Children were generally miniatures of their parents, & were expected to dress, talk, & act as adults. The only difference between adults & children was that children had no rights. BUT!!! In the middle & upper classes, regard toward children grew during the Renaissance. KAZOWIE!!! Let’s see what we mean by that …

15 Renaissance improvements … "Children were meant to play, to be shielded from the worries & harshnesses of the grown-up world, & to work hard at their studies in preparation for the time when their presumably carefree days would end." Charles L. Mee Jr. Education during the Renaissance became increasingly more important & popular.

16 “Think what a better world it would be if we all, the whole world, had cookies & milk about three o'clock every afternoon & then lay down on our blankets for a nap.” ~Barbara Jordan Sandra Bierman

17 Puritan views of children ~1600s In 1692, children were expected to behave under the same strict code as the adults—doing chores, attending church services, & repressing individual differences. Any show of emotion, such as excitement, fear, or anger, was discouraged, & disobedience was severely punished. Children rarely played, as toys & games were scarce. Puritans saw these activities as sinful distractions. "their Hearts naturally, are a mere nest, root, fountain of Sin, & wickedness." Benjamin Wadsworth of Puritan children.

18 Puritan views … Children are born evil & stubborn & have to be civilized. Harsh, restrictive child-rearing practices to tame the depraved child. ~Nature? Nurture?

19 “The purpose of learning is growth, & our minds, unlike our bodies, can continue growing as we continue to live.” --Mortimer Adler Leonardo da Vinci

20 John Locke, 1632 -- 1704 TABULA RASA (blank slate) British philosopher View is strictly nurture, yes? He regarded development as continuous. Children are, when born, nothing at all, & all kinds of experiences shape their characters.

21 John Locke: about school “ The child repeatedly beaten in school cannot look upon books & teachers without experiencing fear & anger.” (He strongly opposed physical punishment.)

22 “I have a ‘carpe diem’ mug &, truthfully, at six in the morning the words do not make me want to seize the day. They make me want to slap a dead poet.” ~Joanne Sherman Diji

23 Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1712 – 1778 Noble savages French philosopher Children are naturally endowed with a sense of right & wrong & an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth. ~Nurture? Nature?

24 Rousseau, etc. NATURE His philosophy asserts that adults should be receptive to a child’s needs. STAGE theorist MATURATION theorist – he believed that there is a genetically determined, unfolding course of growth.

25 “Somewhere on this globe, every ten seconds, there is a woman giving birth to a child. She must be found & stopped.” ~Sam Levenson Mary Cassatt

26 Charles Darwin, 1809 -- 1882 When 22 years old, he went to South America aboard the HMS Beagle & worked in the Galapagos Islands: NATURAL SELECTION (or) SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST All living creatures must compete with each other in their natural habitats, & it is the “natural order” of things that those who cannot compete will eventually die. Likewise those who survive will adapt to changes around them & eventually pass these adaptive characteristics & behaviors on to their descendents.

27 Charles Darwin EVOLUTION: the complex process through which organisms change in response to the pressures placed on them by a changing environment. Those that cannot change & adapt eventually die & they become increasingly ill-equipped to handle the new challenges in their environment. Those that change become stronger & more adaptable.

28 Charles Darwin, continued TWO essential factors: FIRST, the genes of parents combine at RANDOM to produce offspring. This variation is an absolute necessity for evolution to take place. The SECOND factor is that without change, survival is impossible.

29 Explanations …… Through SEXUAL REPRODUCTION there is VARIATION. Offspring vary in ways that allow them to meet the demands of the environment in which they, in turn, will live to REPRODUCE SEXUALLY, providing NEW VARIATION... DARWIN: NURTURE

30 “Man with all his noble qualities … with his godlike intellect which has penetrated into the movements & constitution of the solar system … still bears in his bodily frame the inedible stamp of his lowly origin.” -- Charles Darwin, British naturalist Leonardo da Vinci

31 BABY BIOGRAPHIES!!!! 20 th Century Darwin, Piaget, other famous names Kept a day to day description of how their own children developed.

32 Baby biographies... Can you think of any reason this might not be a great way to study child development?

33 “Alice came to a fork in the road. 'Which road do I take?' said Alice. 'Where do you want to go?' said the Cheshire cat. 'I don't know.' answered Alice 'Then' said the cat 'it doesn't matter.‘” ~Lewis Carroll Mary Cassatt

34 G. Stanley Hall 1846 -- 1924 NORMATIVE APPROACH – “norms” for development American psychologist Development genetically determined process that unfolds like a flower … (nature) Considered the “founder” of the child-study movement.

35 Arnold Gesell, 1880 -- 1961 Student of G. Stanley Hall; worked on normative approach American psychologist; educator; physician, writer, Eugenics proponent * Inspired by Darwin ONTOGENY RECAPITULATES PHYLOGENY ONTOGENY: the development of the individual RECAPITULATES: to repeat, outline, summarize PHYLOGENY: the development of the species NATURE!!!!! * concerning adoption of babies

36 Gesell … Human development progresses through an orderly sequence & this sequence is determined by the biological & evolutionary history of the species. The rate at which any given child progresses through the sequence, however, is individually determined by the child’s own genotype. Although the rate of development can be artificially altered, it cannot be fundamentally changed.

37 Gesell, continued: “A favorable environment (home or otherwise) can, it appears, permit each individual to develop his most positive assets for living. An unfavorable environment may inhibit & depress his natural potentials. But NO ENVIRONMENT, good or bad, can so far as we know change him from one kind of individual to another.” -- Frances Ilg, Louise Bates Ames, colleagues of Gesell

38 If a man speaks in the woods & there is no woman there to hear him, is he still wrong? Claude Monet by Auguste Renoir

39 Eugenics Movement First 6 decades of the 20 th century Taken to an extreme level by Hitler – Holocaust Professors, medical doctors, esteemed people, great minds were eugenics proponents Ultimately, 60,000 Americans were coercively sterilized

40 Eugenics Movement The term “eugenics” was coined by Francis Galton in 1883. He was a cousin of Darwin. (Darwin was staunchly against Eugenics.) “eugenics” (from the Greek eugenes) "...good in stock, hereditarily endowed with noble qualities“ "Eugenics is a word with nasty connotations but an indeterminate meaning." Kelves says that by 1935 "...eugenics had become `hopelessly perverted' into a pseudoscientific facade for `advocates of race & class prejudice, defenders of vested interests of church & state, Fascists, Hitlerites, & reactionaries generally”

41 Eugenics terminology … "Negative eugenics" initiatives included marriage restriction, sterilization, or custodial commitment of those thought to have unwanted characteristics. "Positive eugenics" programs tried to encourage the population perceived as the "best & brightest" to have more offspring. "Positive macro eugenics occurs when whole cultural or ethnic groups with 'desirable' genes are given incentives to adopt procreative methods that give them a selective advantage over other groups...[while]...a program with a micro eugenic impact is one in which an individual couple & their extended family are afforded access to greater genetic choice than is the norm."

42 Aye. There’s the rub … Gesell favored late adoption of orphaned infants. He advised that children should grow to at least age 2 before being adopted. Then their physical characteristics could be matched with adoptive parents. Children with defects of any kind were unadoptable. Until they were adopted, the babies changed caregivers every 6 months, so as not to become attached.

43 “Every generation rediscovers & re-evaluates the meaning of infancy & childhood.” -- Arnold Gesell Leonardo da Vinci

44 Alfred Binet, 1857 -- 1911 French psychologist. Asked by the schools in Paris to develop a test to determine which children needed special education services. So, he & his colleague, Theodore Simon wrote the FIRST IQ TEST!!!

45 IQ testing in America The French test was translated, &, in 1916, first administered in the United States at Stanford University – THUS, the Stanford Binet IQ test.

46 “A guy goes to a psychiatrist and says, ‘My brother needs some help, doc. You see, he thinks he's a chicken.’ The doctor says, ‘Well, bring him in to see me.’ The guy says, ‘I'd do that, but the problem is, frankly, we need the eggs.’” ~ Woody Allen

47 Sigmund Freud, 1856—1939 Viennese physician PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT What Mendel is to the study of genetics & what Einstein is to physics, Sigmund Freud is to the study of the underlying forces that influence human development. Would likely be considered NURTURE; stage theorist

48 Why we love Freud: Used cocaine to treat anxiety & depression. Further used it as an eye anesthetic. Preferred “free association” to hypnotism. Trained Carl Jung & Wilhelm Reich. Disrespected by peers most of his life. Had heart disease & cancer. Fled to London in 1938 from Austria, after the Nazi invasion there. Psychoanalysis still widely popular. Saw the human brain as DYNAMIC, a fluid, energized system. Three psychological structures make up the mind: ID, EGO, SUPEREGO.

49 Common Freudian terminology you may have used recently … Psychic energy Freudian slips Transference Preconscious Psychoanalysis Psychosexual Genital stage Dream work Displacement Condensation Cathexis Free association Narcissistic Anti-cathexis Repression Drives Resistance Cathartic method Death drive Imago Erotogenicity Melancholia Libido Organ pleasure Erogenous zones Oral stage Superego Unconscious Pleasure principle Id Defense mechanisms Ego Phallic stage Anal stage Fixations Oedipus complex Electra complex Penis envy Castration complex Eros Castration anxiety Thanatos Latency stage Instincts

50 Freud’s psychosexual stages: ORAL (birth to 1 year) – sucking, etc. ANAL (1 to 4 years) – toilet training PHALLIC (4 to 6 years) – Oedipus and Electra complexes; penis envy, etc. LATENCY (starts age 7) – inhibiting erogenous zones GENITAL (starts age 12) – adolescence; sexuality

51 Maybe in order to understand mankind, we have to look at the word itself, “MANKIND.” Basically it's made up of two separate words – “mank” and “ind.” What do these words mean? It's a mystery, & that's why so is mankind. Pierre Auguste Renoir

52 Erik Erikson, 1902 -- 1994 PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY Inspired by Freud Epigenesis (nature) Maturational principle STAGE theorist

53 Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages TRUST vs MISTRUST (0 to 1) AUTONOMY vs DOUBT (1 to 3) INITIATIVE vs SHAME & GUILT (3 to 6) INDUSTRY vs INFERIORITY (6 to 11) IDENTITY vs ROLE CONFUSION (or Identity Diffusion) (adolescence) INTIMACY vs ISOLATION (young adulthood) GENERATIVITY vs STAGNATION (middle age) EGO IDENTITY vs DESPAIR (old age)

54 “ The four stages of man are infancy, childhood, adolescence, & obsolescence.” -- Art Linkletter Leonardo da Vinci

55 Ivan Pavlov, 1849--1936 Russian physiologist Nobel Prize in medicine in 1904 Most behaviorism theorists would be NURTURE. Classical conditioning: –Dogs; bells, food, salivation

56 Doggie conditioning Conditioned reflexes (1927): FOOD – unconditioned stimulus (UC) BELL –conditioned stimulus (CS) SALIVATION – unconditioned response (UR)

57 Dad always thought laughter was the best medicine, which I guess is why several of us died of tuberculosis. Michelangelo

58 John Watson, 1878–1958 American psychologist Founder of Behaviorism in United States Tested baby Albert with a soft white rat Classical conditioning Got in loads of trouble for this, by the way. Stimulus - response

59 Watson and baby Albert Watson showed baby Albert, 11 months old, a soft white rat (live). At the same time, there was a loud bang. The rat was never showed to the infant without the bang. The baby became extremely fearful of the soft rat that had, at first, caught his curiosity.

60 Famous quote by Watson “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, & my own specified world to bring them up in & I’ll guarantee to take any one at random & train him to be any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant chief &, yes, even beggarman & thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, & race of his ancestors.” (1925) (Does this sound NURTURE-Y?)

61 A good way to threaten somebody is to light a stick of dynamite. Then you call the guy && hold the burning fuse up to the phone. “Hear that?” you'd say. “That's dynamite, baby.” Michelangelo

62 B.F. Skinner, 1904--1990 Operant Conditioning Behaviorism PLUS REINFORCERS (which increase behavior – rewards) & PUNISHERS (which decrease behavior)

63 Skinner’s terminology Also add NEGATIVE REINFORCERS (unpleasant or aversive stimulus removed) & EXTINCTION (decrease in undesired behavior until it was gone)

64 If you saw two guys named Hambone & Flippy, which one do you think liked dolphins the most? I'd say Flippy, wouldn't you? You'd be wrong, though. It's Hambone. Norman Rockwell & Anton Losenko

65 Albert Bandura, 1925-- Social Learning Theory IMITATION Explains how children can learn to speak seemingly without effort MODELING OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING

66 Bandura’s social learning theory Four processes necessary for observational learning: 1.Child must be capable of attending to the behavior being modeled. 2. Child must be able to retain in memory what was observed 3. Child must have the capacity to physically perform the behavior that was modeled. 4. Finally, the child must have some sort of motivation to imitate the behavior – a reinforcement or a vicarious reinforcement (observed in another)

67 “I am plus my circumstances.” -- Jose Ortega y Gasset Leonardo da Vinci

68 Jean Piaget, 1896--1980 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT THEORY Swiss cognitive theorist Stage theorist Children construct knowledge as they interact with the environment – adaptation Genetic epistemology (epistemology is the study of knowledge & justified belief)

69 Piagetian terminology Adaptation Schema Assimilation Accommodation Equilibration Organization Egocentrism Sensorimotor stage Reflexive Primary circular reactions Secondary circular reactions Tertiary circular reactions Symbolic representation Preoperational stage Concrete operational stage Formal operational stage Operation Conservation Object permanence Egocentric speech Classification Seriation Mental representation

70 Piaget’s Cognitive Development Stages SENSORIMOTOR STAGE -- birth to ~ 2 years PREOPERATIONAL STAGE -- 2 years to ~ 7 years CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE -- 7 years to ~ 11 years FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE -- age 11 until life ends

71 I believe in making the world safe for our children, but not our children's children, because I don't think children should be having sex. Raphael/Rembrandt

72 Lev Vygotsky, 1896--1934 Russian psychologist Sociocultural theory Children construct their own knowledge Development cannot be separated from its social context. Learning can lead development. Language plays a central role in mental development. Zone of Proximal Development

73 Vygotsky, continued … Stage theorist Nurture theorist Scaffolding technique grew out of Vygotsky’s work As did peer collaboration. Called egocentric speech “private speech” Believed that make-believe play is of great importance in development. Vygotsky died of tuberculosis at age 38.

74 Vygotsky’s stages … Natural or Primitive Stage -- age birth to 2 Naïve Psychology Stage -- age 2 to 7 External Signs or Egocentric Speech -- ages 7 to 12. Ingrowth -- 12 & beyond ALL STAGES based on how language develops.

75 Quote from Vygotsky: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, & later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) & then inside the child (intrapsychological).” (Marxist social theory is apparent in his theory: emphasis first on culture, & then the individual.)

76 “ Thought is not merely expressed in words; it comes into existence through them.” -- Lev Vygotsky Leonardo da Vinci

77 Konrad Lorenz, 1903--1989 Austrian ornithologist & zoologist “founder” of ethology Winner of 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Niko Tinbergen & Karl von Frisch Member of Nazi party for a time When he accepted the Nobel Prize, he apologized for a 1940 publication judged to reflect Nazi views of science, saying that “many highly decent scientists hoped, like I did, for a short time for good from National Socialism, & many turned away from it with the same horror as I.”

78 Konrad Lorenz & greylag goslings Lorenz observed the following pattern that hatchlings showed for the mother goose upon birth. He called this “imprinting.” He separated the eggs from the mother, & hatched them himself. The goslings all imprinted on Lorenz, & showed the following behavior for him. The critical timing of imprinting is called a “sensitive period.”

79 If you ever catch on fire, try to avoid looking in the mirror, because I bet that will really throw you into a panic. Botticelli with Napoleon Bonaparte

80 Harry Harlow, 1905—1981 American psychologist Intrigued by love Worked with young rhesus monkeys Considered an ethologist also Inspired Bowlby & attachment theory

81 Monkeys and surrogate mommies ONE surrogate wire mesh, warm face; ONE surrogate soft terry cloth, warm face; Bottle randomly placed


83 Probably the saddest thing you'll ever see is a mosquito sucking on a mummy. Forget it, little friend. Raphael and Renoir

84 John Bowlby, 1907--1990 British psychoanalyst ATTACHMENT THEORY Published “The Nature of the Child’s Tie to His Mother” in 1958. NOT well received at British Psychoanalytic Society

85 Attachment – so much to say Infant’s attachment to mother primarily; father, siblings, etc. Internal working models Attachment categories Lack of conscience for those unattached. More more more ….

86 “ The best ideas are common property.” -- Seneca “We are prisoners of ideas.” -- Ralph Waldo Emerson Leonardo da Vinci

87 Urie Bronfenbrenner, 1917--2005 American psychologist ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS THEORY Importance of the environment in the development of the child Illustrated with concentric circles – child in the center

88 Concentric model Each wider circle still contains those elements in smaller circles. All effect the individual child.


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