We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byUlises Baron
Modified about 1 year ago
Section 3: Sensation and Perception Psychology in Modules by Saul Kassin
©2006 Prentice Hall Sensation and Perception Measuring the Sensory Experience Sensation Perception Extrasensory Perception
©2006 Prentice Hall §Sensation l The processes by which our sense organs receive information from the environment. §Transduction l The process by which physical energy is converted into sensory neural impulses. §Perception l The processes by which people select, organize, and interpret sensations. Sensation and Perception
©2006 Prentice Hall Sensation & Perception Processes
©2006 Prentice Hall §Psychophysics l The study of the relationship between physical stimulation and subjective sensations. §Signal-Detection Theory l The theory that detecting a stimulus is jointly determined by the signal and the subject’s response criterion. Measuring Sensory Experience Research and Theory
©2006 Prentice Hall §Absolute Threshold l The smallest amount of stimulation that can be detected. §Just Noticeable Difference (JND) l The smallest amount of change in a stimulus that can be detected. Measuring Sensory Experience Thresholds
©2006 Prentice Hall §Vision: A single candle flame from 30 miles on a dark, clear night §Hearing: The tick of a watch from 20 feet in total quiet §Smell: 1 drop of perfume in a 6-room apartment §Taste: 1 teaspoon sugar in 2 gallons of water §Touch: The wing of a bee on your cheek, dropped from 1 cm Measuring Sensory Experience Absolute Sensory Thresholds
©2006 Prentice Hall §Vision §Hearing §Other Senses §Keeping the Signals Straight Sensation
©2006 Prentice Hall Vision The Electromagnetic Spectrum
©2006 Prentice Hall Vision Structures of the Human Eye
©2006 Prentice Hall §Cornea l Clear outer membrane that bends light to focus it in the eye. §Pupil l The hole in the iris through which light passes. §Lens l The structure that focuses light on the retina. Vision Structures of the Human Eye
©2006 Prentice Hall The rear of the eye where rods and cones convert light into neural impulses. Vision The Retina
©2006 Prentice Hall §Optic Nerve Pathway that carries visual information from the eyeball to the brain. Vision Visual Pathways
©2006 Prentice Hall §Some cells in the visual cortex respond only to certain types of visual information, for example, a diagonal line moving up and down. §These cells are called feature detectors. Vision Hubel & Wiesel’s Experiment
©2006 Prentice Hall §T. Young (1802) & H. von Helmholtz (1852) both proposed that the eye detects 3 primary colors: red, blue, & green. §All other colors can be derived by combining these three. Vision Trichromatic Theory
©2006 Prentice Hall Vision Afterimage
©2006 Prentice Hall
§Spectral colors vary from violet-blue to red l 470 to 700 nanometer wavelength §Opponent colors are directly across from each other on the wheel. Vision The Color Wheel
©2006 Prentice Hall Vision Test of Color Deficiency
©2006 Prentice Hall l Color vision is derived from three pairs of opposing receptors. The opponent colors are blue and yellow, red and green, and black and white. §Theory explains afterimages and color deficiency. Vision Opponent-Process Theory
©2006 Prentice Hall Audition The sense of hearing Hearing The Human Ear
©2006 Prentice Hall l The ability to judge from which direction a sound is coming §Sounds from different directions are not identical as they arrive at left and right ears. §The brain calculates a sound’s location by using differences in timing and intensity. Hearing Auditory Localization
©2006 Prentice Hall §Conduction Hearing Loss l Caused by damage to the eardrum or bones in the middle ear. §Sensorineural Hearing Loss l Caused by damage to the structures of the inner ear. Hearing Hearing Disabilities
©2006 Prentice Hall Hearing Common Sounds and the Noise They Produce
©2006 Prentice Hall Structures responsible for the sense of smell Other Senses Olfactory System
©2006 Prentice Hall l Nets of taste-receptor cells §This is a photograph of tongue surface (top), magnified 75 times. §10,000 taste buds line the tongue and mouth. §Children have more taste buds than adults do. §There are four primary tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Other Senses Taste Buds
©2006 Prentice Hall Other Senses Sensitivity to Touch
©2006 Prentice Hall Temperature §When a person grasps two braided water pipes – one with cold water running through it and one with warm water – the sensation is “burning hot” and painful. §There are two separate pathways for warmth and cold. Other Senses The Thermal Grill
©2006 Prentice Hall Pain §Gate-control Theory l Theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate”that blocks pain signals for the brain when flooded by competing signals. §Psychological control l Mind over sensation, distraction Other Senses
©2006 Prentice Hall Coordination §Kinesthetic System l Structures distributed throughout body that sense position and movement of body parts. §Vestibular System l The inner ear and brain structures that afford a sense of equilibrium. Other Senses
©2006 Prentice Hall §Synesthesia l Rare condition in which stimulation in one sensory modality triggers sensations in another sensory modality. §Each sensory system designed to operate separately from the others. §Sensory Adaptation l A decline in sensitivity to a stimulus as a result of constant exposure. Keeping the Signals Straight
§Perceptual Organization §Perceptual Constancies §Depth and Dimension §Perceptual Set §The World of Illusions Perception
©2006 Prentice Hall l Drawings that one can perceive in different ways by reversing figure and ground. §Gestalt Psychology l School of thought rooted in the idea that the whole is different from the sum of its parts. Perceptual Organization Reversible Figures
©2006 Prentice Hall §Proximity l Seeing 3 pair of lines in A §Similarity l Seeing columns of orange and red dots in B §Continuity l Seeing lines that connect 1 to 2 and 3 to 4 in C §Closure l Seeing a horse in D Perceptual Organization Gestalt Laws of Grouping
©2006 Prentice Hall §Geons (geometric icons) are simple 3D component shapes. §A limited number are stored in memory. §Geons are combined to identify essential contours of objects. Perceptual Organization Identifying Objects
©2006 Prentice Hall §Size Constancy l The tendency to view an object as constant in size despite changes in the size of the retinal image. §Shape Constancy l The tendency to see an object as keeping its form despite changes in orientation. Perceptual Constancies
©2006 Prentice Hall Perceptual Constancies The Ames Room §A specially-built room that makes people seem to change size as they move around in it §The room is not a rectangle, as viewers assume it is. §A single peephole prevents using binocular depth cues.
©2006 Prentice Hall §Even though these images cast shadows of different shapes, they still are seen as round. Perceptual Constancies Shape Constancy
©2006 Prentice Hall §Depth Perception l The use of visual cues to estimate depth and distance. §Convergence l A binocular cue involving the turning inward of the eyes as an object gets closer. §Binocular Disparity l A binocular cue whereby the closer an object is, the more different the image is in each retina. Depth and Dimension
©2006 Prentice Hall l Distance cues that enable the perception of depth with one eye. Relative Image Size Texture Gradient Linear Perspective Interposition Atmospheric Perspective Relative Elevation Familiarity Depth and Dimension Monocular Depth Cues
©2006 Prentice Hall §Devised by Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk to test depth perception in infants and animals. §Provides visual illusion of a cliff. §Caregiver stands across the gap. §Babies are not afraid until about the age they can crawl. Depth and Dimension The Visual Cliff
©2006 Prentice Hall §What is seen in the center figures depends on the order in which one looks at the figures: l If scanned from the left, a man’s face is seen. l If scanned from the right, a woman’s figure is seen. Perceptual Set
©2006 Prentice Hall §The same physical stimulus can be interpreted differently depending on perceptual set, e.g., context effects. §When is the middle character the letter B and when is it the number 13? Perceptual Set Context Effects
©2006 Prentice Hall l Illusion in which the perceived length of a line is altered by the position of other lines that enclose it The World of Illusions The Müller-Lyer Illusion
©2006 Prentice Hall l Illusion in which the perceived line length is affected by linear perspective cues. §Side lines seem to converge §Top line seems farther away l But the retinal images of the red lines are equal. The World of Illusions The Ponzo Illusion
§The Case for ESP §The Case against ESP §The Continuing Controversy Extrasensory Perception
©2006 Prentice Hall §Extrasensory Perception (ESP) l The ability to perceive something without ordinary sensory information. l This has not been scientifically demonstrated. §Parapsychologists distinguish between three types of ESP: l Telepathy – Mind-to-mind communication l Clairvoyance – Perception of remote events l Precognition – Ability to see future events The Case for ESP
©2006 Prentice Hall §J. B. Rhine conducted many experiments on ESP using stimuli such as these. §Rhine believed that his evidence supported the existence of ESP, but his findings were flawed.. The Case against ESP ESP Cards
©2006 Prentice Hall §The ganzfield procedure §Researchers disagree about the reliability of studies done to replicate the ganzfield test. §Visit www.randi.org/ for information about the James Randi Educational Foundation’s million-dollar paranormal challenge. The Continuing Controversy
CHAPTER 3: Sensation and Perception Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin.
CHAPTER 3: Sensation and Perception Essentials of Psychology, by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Publishing.
Sensation and Perception Introduction to Psychology Spring 2011 J. Hawkins, Ed.D., MSW Larkin High School.
Sensation & Perception Chapter 5 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public.
Wade/Tavris, (c) 2006, Prentice Hall Sensation & Perception Processes.
I. Sensation and perception chapter 6. Sensation [p186] The detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects Occurs when energy.
Chapter 8 Sensation and Perception. Section 1: Sensation Sensation and perception are needed to gather and interpret information in our surroundings.
Vision Hearing Other Senses Perception 1 Perception 2.
Unit 4: Sensation & Perception Definitions Sensory Systems Vision Hearing The Other Senses Perception.
Sensation & Perception Chapter 5. Sensation & Perception The “five” senses: – sight, hearing taste, smell, touch, vestibular & kinesthetic Sensory organs.
Sensation & Perception Unit 3 Chapter 4. Sensation Stimulation of sensory receptors and transmission of sensory info to the central nervous system (spinal.
©2002 Prentice Hall Sensation and Perception. ©2002 Prentice Hall Sensation and Perception Our Sensational Senses Vision Hearing Other Senses Perceptual.
Sensation and perception. Definitions Sensation The detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects. Occurs when energy in the external.
To represent the world, we must detect physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment and convert it into neural signals. This is a process called__________________.
©1999 Prentice Hall Sensation and Perception Chapter 6.
Sensation and Perception. Sensation: What is it? The process by which a stimulus in the environment produces a neural impulse that the brain interprets.
Sensation and Perception Sensation: your window to the world Perception: interpreting what comes in your window.
Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception. Copyright © 1999 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2 Detecting and Perceiving the World Sensation –the process of.
© 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sensation and Perception Chapter 3.
Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception McGraw-Hill ©2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Psychophysics Sensations and Perceptions. Psychophysics –Study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experiences Sensation –Raw.
Sensation and Perception chapter 6. Overview Our sensational senses Vision Hearing Other senses Perceptual powers Puzzles of perception chapter 6.
Vocab Theories & Laws Anatomical Structures Other Senses Perceptual Organization $100 $500 $400 $300 $200.
Unit 5: Sensation & Perception Vision and Hearing.
©1999 Prentice Hall Gate-Control Theory of Pain Experience of pain depends (in part) on whether the pain impulse gets past neurological “gate” in the spinal.
Sensation and Perception Part 1: Intro and Vision.
Sensation and Perception Chapter 4 page 78. The 5 senses ( sensory organs) Sight (eyes) Hearing (ears) Smell (nose) Touch (skin) Taste (tongue)
Factors that Influence Perception The Object of Perception: some things in our environment tend to attract attention Backgrounds and Surroundings our.
Unit 4 Vocabulary Sensation and Perception. the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus.
The process by which our sensory systems receive stimuli from our environment.
Process of taking in stimuli from the environment.
Sensation and Perception. Sensation: The detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects; it occurs when energy in the external.
Phase Four: In the Brain Goes to the Visual Cortex located in the Occipital Lobe of the Cerebral Cortex. Feature Detectors. Parallel Processing We.
4 th Edition Copyright 2004 Prentice Hall3-1 Psychology Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana PowerPoint.
Sensation and Perception Chapter 3. Sensation Sensation - the activation of receptors in the various sense organs. Sensory receptors - specialized forms.
Wade and Tavris © 2005 Prentice Hall 6-1 Invitation To Psychology Carol Wade and Carol Tavris PowerPoint Presentation by H. Lynn Bradman Metropolitan Community.
Our sense organs are packed with specialized cells called _________ that convert environmental energies into signals for the nervous system. A. stimuli.
Perceptual organization How do we form meaningful perceptions from sensory information?
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION KEY POINTS Distinguish between sensation and perception Psychophysics: absolute threshold and difference threshold Identify.
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 6: Perception Module 6 Perception.
AP Psych Agenda. Quiz… 1. What Gestalt principle is illus- trated to the right? 2. What are David Hubel and Ernst Weber known for? 3. List all.
Vision Use the following ppt. to take notes on the structure of the eye. Before you tape the eye diagram into notes – take notes on wavelengths (Obj.7)
S ENSATION & PERCEPTION Chapter 4. V ISION Wavelength (rue) Amplitude Purity Cornea Lens Iris Pupil Retina -transduction Optic disk Optic nerve Rods Cones.
Sensation –Thresholds –Vision –Hearing –Other senses Perception –Selective attention –Illusions –Organization –Interpretation –ESP.
Sensation – stimulation of sense organs ◦ Absorption of energy by sensory organs Perception – The selection, organization and interpretation of sensory.
CHAPTER 4 – SENSATION AND PERCEPTION SECTION 1 – SENSATION AND PERCEPTION: THE BASICS Objective: DISTINGUISH BETWEEN SENSATION AND PERCEPTION, AND EXPLAIN.
Sensation and Perception. Our Sensational Senses Defining sensation and perception The riddle of separate senses Measuring the senses Sensory adaptation.
Myers EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY Module 14 Introduction to Sensation and Perception: Vision James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.
Sensation and Perception. True or False? Advertisers are able to shape our buying habits through subliminal messages. If we stare at a green square for.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.