# Chapter 6: Perception It’s a mirage! Rules of Organization Deprivation & Adaptation I was expecting something else! Imagine that! 100.

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Chapter 6: Perception It’s a mirage! Rules of Organization Deprivation & Adaptation I was expecting something else! Imagine that! 100

1. When two or more lights blink on and off in quick succession, it gives the appearance of movement. This is called the: A) movement illusion. B) phi phenomenon. C) visual capture. D) optical tracking illusion.

2. Even though these two figures are identical in size, one looks larger due to the ___ illusion. A) visual capture B) Müller-Lyer C) Ponzo D) parallax

3. The Müller-Lyer illusion is caused by: A) cultural experience. B) light and shadow. C) shape constancy. D) size constancy.

4. The St. Louis arch appears taller than it is wide. This is due to: A) relative height. B) size constancy. C) shape constancy. D) nothing, it really is taller.

5.Because of motion parallax, when you are moving and fixate on something in the distance: A) more distant objects appear to be standing still. B) the fixation point starts to move faster. C) it becomes more difficult to stay awake. D) closer objects appear to be moving in the opposite direction.

6. We sometimes reverse images because of changes in the relationship of: A) light and shadow. B) figure-ground. C) size and dimension. D) connectedness.

7. We see this as two figures together rather than as many curved and straight lines because of the rule of: A) connectedness. B) proximity. C) continuity. D) similarity.

8. Relative Clarity helps us to determine ___ because: A) size; clear objects appear larger. B) depth; clear objects appear farther. C) luminescence; nearer objects are brighter. D) depth; distant objects appear hazy.

9. If we assume that two objects are similar in size, the one that casts the smaller retinal image is assumed to be: A) closer. B) smaller. C) farther away. D) larger.

10. Pablo is a landscape artist who was known for the depth of his paintings. After an accident, he had vision only from one eye. Since then, his paintings: A) will have less depth. B) will have just as much depth. C) will have no depth. D) may have depth but will lack in accuracy.

11. If a person were to wear glasses that distorted vision upside down, that person: A) would eventually adapt. B) would never adapt. C) would have his vision permanently distorted. D) would adapt but now must always wear the glasses to see.

12. Psychics who claim to be clairvoyant are able to: A) aid police departments in catching criminals. B) locate missing persons. C) sense when something bad will happen. D) make many guesses, some of which may be true.

13. Dave was listening to sad music when he heard the word, “morning,” which he mistook for, “mourning.” He was influenced by: A) clinical depression. B) context effect. C) depressogenic schemas. D) a low level of serotonin.

14. Children who are visually impaired at birth, but are allowed to see clearly years later have difficulty perceiving because: A) their brains were irreparably damaged. B) they missed a critical period in visual development. C) their eyes have to fully mend. D) none of the above.

15. When watching a movie, we see the actors as moving because: A) the film is moving. B) the pictures move in front of us. C) motion is constructed in our heads. D) of strobe lights.

16. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts,” has been most associated with a: A) Clinical psychologist. B) Gestalt psychologist. C) Cognitive-Behavioral psychologist. D) Perceptual psychologist.

17.Retinal disparity refers to the: A) tendency to see parallel lines as coming together in the distance. B) tendency to see stimuli that are near each other as parts of a unified object. C) somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object. D) extent to which our eyes turn toward each other when looking at an object.

18. The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called: A) closure. B) constancy. C) interposition. D) convergence.

19. All of the following are monocular cues of depth perception except: A) motion parallax. B) linear perspective. C) convergence. D) relative height. E) texture gradient.

20. We perceive the moon on the horizon as being larger than when it is overhead because: A) it seems farther away on the horizon. B) it seems closer on the horizon. C) it seems brighter high in the sky. D) it seems brighter on the horizon.

21. When we expect to see something because of prior learning experiences, such as seeing clouds as UFO’s, it is because of: A) bottom-up processing. B) previous abductions. C) hypnotic suggestion. D) perceptual set.

22. Human factors psychologists may use a technique called, “natural mapping,” which is: A) drawing a plan of attacking a problem. B) moving your eyes in a repeated pattern. C) arranging controls to make them easier to understand. D) moving in precise directions.

23. Even though a door may reflect quite a different retinal image when it is open than when it is closed, we still see it as the same, rectangular door because of: A) illusory contours. B) shape constancy. C) retinal disparity. D) perceptual closure.

24: The fact that the Amazing Randi has never paid off on his claim illustrates that: A) while ESP phenomena exist, replicating them in a laboratory is not possible. B) he fails to be convinced even though the evidence is obvious. C) he is a non-believer and a cheapskate. D) ESP phenomena have never been proven to be anything more than chance events or fakery.

25. As she gazed down from a bridge at the rapidly flowing river, Nancy felt as thought she were moving. Her experience best illustrates the phenomenon of: A) retinal disparity. B) perceptual adaptation. C) location constancy. D) visual capture.

Stop here, or continue as a review

1. When two or more lights blink on and off in quick succession, it gives the appearance of movement. This is called the: A) movement illusion. B) phi phenomenon. C) visual capture. D) optical tracking illusion. 250

2. Even though these two figures are identical in size, one looks larger due to the ___ illusion. A) visual capture B) Müller-Lyer C) Ponzo D) parallax 251

3. The Müller-Lyer illusion is caused by: A) cultural experience. B) light and shadow. C) shape constancy. D) size constancy. 252

4. The St. Louis arch appears taller than it is wide. This is due to: A) relative height. B) size constancy. C) shape constancy. D) nothing, it really is taller. 247

5.Because of motion parallax, when you are moving and fixate on something in the distance: A) more distant objects appear to be standing still. B) the fixation point starts to move faster. C) it becomes more difficult to stay awake. D) closer objects appear to be moving in the opposite direction. 248

6. We sometimes reverse images because of changes in the relationship of: A) light and shadow. B) figure-ground. C) size and dimension. D) connectedness. 243

7. We see this as two figures together rather than as many curved and straight lines because of the rule of: A) connectedness. B) proximity. C) continuity. D) similarity. 244

8. Relative Clarity helps us to determine ___ because: A) size; clear objects appear larger. B) depth; clear objects appear farther. C) luminescence; nearer objects are brighter. D) depth; distant objects appear hazy. 247

9. If we assume that two objects are similar in size, the one that casts the smaller retinal image is assumed to be: A) closer. B) smaller. C) farther away. D) larger. 246

10. Pablo is a landscape artist who was known for the depth of his paintings. After an accident, he had vision only from one eye. Since then, his paintings: A) will have less depth. B) will have just as much depth. C) will have no depth. D) may have depth but will lack in accuracy. 249

11. If a person were to wear glasses that distorted vision upside down, that person: A) would eventually adapt. B) would never adapt. C) would have his vision permanently distorted. D) would adapt but now must always wear the glasses to see. 256

12. Psychics who claim to be clairvoyant are able to: A) aid police departments in catching criminals. B) locate missing persons. C) sense when something bad will happen. D) make many guesses, some of which may be true. 265

13. Dave was listening to sad music when he heard the word, “morning,” which he mistook for, “mourning.” He was influenced by: A) clinical depression. B) context effect. C) depressogenic schemas. D) a low level of serotonin. 260

14. Children who are visually impaired at birth, but are allowed to see clearly years later have difficulty perceiving because: A) their brains were irreparably damaged. B) they missed a critical period in visual development. C) their eyes have to fully mend. D) none of the above. 255

15. When watching a movie, we see the actors as moving because: A) the film is moving. B) the pictures move in front of us. C) motion is constructed in our heads. D) of strobe lights. 250

16. “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts,” has been most associated with a: A) Clinical psychologist. B) Gestalt psychologist. C) Cognitive-Behavioral psychologist. D) Perceptual psychologist. 243

17.Retinal disparity refers to the: A) tendency to see parallel lines as coming together in the distance. B) tendency to see stimuli that are near each other as parts of a unified object. C) somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object. D) extent to which our eyes turn toward each other when looking at an object. 246

18. The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called: A) closure. B) constancy. C) interposition. D) convergence. 238

19. All of the following are monocular cues of depth perception except: A) motion parallax. B) linear perspective. C) convergence. D) relative height. E) texture gradient. 246

20. We perceive the moon on the horizon as being larger than when it is overhead because: A) it seems farther away on the horizon. B) it seems closer on the horizon. C) it seems brighter high in the sky. D) it seems brighter on the horizon. 251

21. When we expect to see something because of prior learning experiences, such as seeing clouds as UFO’s, it is because of: A) bottom-up processing. B) previous abductions. C) hypnotic suggestion. D) perceptual set. 257

22. Human factors psychologists may use a technique called, “natural mapping,” which is: A) drawing a plan of attacking a problem. B) moving your eyes in a repeated pattern. C) arranging controls to make them easier to understand. D) moving in precise directions. 262

23. Even though a door may reflect quite a different retinal image when it is open than when it is closed, we still see it as the same, rectangular door because of: A) illusory contours. B) shape constancy. C) retinal disparity. D) perceptual closure. 250

24: The fact that the Amazing Randi has never paid off on his claim illustrates that: A) while ESP phenomena exist, replicating them in a laboratory is not possible. B) he fails to be convinced even though the evidence is obvious. C) he is a non-believer and a cheapskate. D) ESP phenomena have never been proven to be anything more than chance events or fakery. 267

25. As she gazed down from a bridge at the rapidly flowing river, Nancy felt as thought she were moving. Her experience best illustrates the phenomenon of: A) retinal disparity. B) perceptual adaptation. C) location constancy. D) visual capture. 242

Answers 1.B 2.C 3.A 4.A 5.D 6.B 7.C 8.D 9.C 10.B 11.A 12.D 13.B 14.B 15.C 16.B 17.C 18.A 19.C 20.A 21.D 22.C 23.B 24.D 25.D

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