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1 Revisiting the evidence as the rules change Lori Montgomery, MD CCFP Prepared with Joyce Côté, BSc Pharm ACPR.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Revisiting the evidence as the rules change Lori Montgomery, MD CCFP Prepared with Joyce Côté, BSc Pharm ACPR."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Revisiting the evidence as the rules change Lori Montgomery, MD CCFP Prepared with Joyce Côté, BSc Pharm ACPR

2 2 Disclosures Faculty: Lori Montgomery and Joyce Cote Relationships with commercial interests: Grants/Research Support: none Speakers Bureau/Honoraria: none Consulting Fees: none

3 3 Lynch M. Pain Management & Research, Volume 10 Suppl A, Autumn 2005 brain brainstem spinal cord primary afferent receptor dorsal root ganglion PAG RVM Location of CB receptors 1 Cannabinoids

4 http://www.cbc.ca/news2/interactives/marijuana/

5

6 6 New Regulations Eliminate Health Canada authorization process Eliminate personal production by individuals (now pending court case) Regulate commercial Licensed Producers who will be able to produce a variety of strains Licensed Producers must demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements such as quality control standards, record-keeping, inventory, and physical security measures

7 7 New Regulations Licensed Producers will distribute marijuana to the registered client via secure courier Storefronts or retail outlets will not be permitted Nurse practitioners may support access, if permitted within their respective province or territory

8 8 New Regulations “aim to treat marijuana as much as possible like any other narcotic used for medical purposes” “access to quality-controlled marijuana for medical purposes, produced under secure and sanitary conditions... while strengthening the safety of Canadian communities” “more choices of marijuana strains and commercial suppliers”

9 9 New Regulations No specialist opinion required to initiate authorization process No Health Canada documentation of license to possess No central monitoring (federally) of patient access

10 The Medical Document Patient’s name, DOB Daily quantity of marijuana Period of use Health care practitioner’s name, profession, business address (and specifically where the consultation occurred), phone number, province, license number Signature, date http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/marihuana/info/med-eng.php

11 http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/marihuana/info/list-eng.php

12 12

13 13 The “bottom line” Physicians are expected to know and comply with the regulations and policies of their College. Physicians are not obliged to complete a medical document for medical marijuana if they are unfamiliar with its treatment use or feel it is medically inappropriate. http://www.cmpa-acpm.ca/cmpapd04/docs/resource_files/web_sheets/2013/com_w13_005-e.cfm

14 14 The “bottom line” If a physician chooses to complete a medical document, it is important that a meaningful consent discussion be held, and that the consent discussion be captured in the medical record. Members should not hesitate to contact the CMPA for advice on this issue. http://www.cmpa-acpm.ca/cmpapd04/docs/resource_files/web_sheets/2013/com_w13_005-e.cfm

15 15 http://www.cpsa.ab.ca/Resources/StandardsPractice/DeliveryofM edicalServices/marihuana-for-medical-purposes

16 16 Clearly proven risks and benefits for pain patients Bostwick JM, Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana, Mayo Clinic Proceedings 87.2 (Feb. 2012): p172.

17 17 Neuropathic pain Fibromyalgia Back pain HIV neuropathy MS pain Muscle spasm Myofascial pain Pelvic pain Migraine Tension headache

18 18 “In its April 2003 issue, the British medical journal The Lancet reported that marijuana relieves pain in virtually every test that scientists use to measure pain relief.”(2) Baker D, Pryce G, Giovannoni G, and Thompson AJ, The therapeutic potential of cannabis, Lancet Neurology 2003; 2: 291–98

19 19 “In its April 2003 issue, the British medical journal The Lancet reported that marijuana relieves pain in virtually every test that scientists use to measure pain relief.”(2) “Cannabinoids inhibit pain in virtually every experimental pain paradigm either via CB1 or by a CB2-like activity in supra- spinal, spinal, or peripheral regions, dependent on the type of nociceptive pathway being studied. 32,33 ” (references are basic science pharmacology papers speculating about the mechanism of analgesia) Baker D, Pryce G, Giovannoni G, and Thompson AJ, The therapeutic potential of cannabis, Lancet Neurology 2003; 2: 291–98

20 20 Conclusion “As we learn more about the pharmacological activities of compounds in cannabis and their biological targets outside the cannabinoid system, varieties of cannabis might be tailored to different diseases or used in combination with known drugs. Whatever the future holds, there are many challenges to be overcome before we view cannabinoids as routine medicine in neurological disorders.” Baker D, Pryce G, Giovannoni G, and Thompson AJ, The therapeutic potential of cannabis, Lancet Neurology 2003; 2: 291–98

21 21 Smoking (Tashkin 1988 vs 2006)

22 22

23 23 Neurocognitive effects Kids Psychotic disorders Memory impairment www.scienceblog.cognifit.com Natania A. Crane & Randi Melissa Schuster & Paolo Fusar-Poli & Raul Gonzalez, Effects of Cannabis on Neuroacognitive Functioning: Recent Advances, Neurodevelopmental Influences, and Sex Differences, Neuropsychol Rev (2013) 23:117–137

24 24 Cardiac effects Raises heart rate Decreases HR variability Inconsistent effects on BP m.medindia.net Natania A. Crane & Randi Melissa Schuster & Paolo Fusar-Poli & Raul Gonzalez, Effects of Cannabis on Neuroacognitive Functioning: Recent Advances, Neurodevelopmental Influences, and Sex Differences, Neuropsychol Rev (2013) 23:117–137

25 25 Mood Happy, relaxed, sleepy Anxious, agitated, depressed, hallucinations www.blackcat060.blogspot.com Ste-Marie PA, Fitzcharles MA, Gamsa A, Ware MA, Shir Y, Association of Herbal Cannabis Use With Negative Psychosocial Parameters in Patients With Fibromyalgia, Arthritis Care & Research, Vol. 64, No. 8, August 2012, pp 1202–1208

26 26 Takes time and frequent use 9-12% prevalence Unclear with medical use Tongtong Wang MSc, Jean-Paul Collet PhD MD, Stan Shapiro PhD, Mark A. Ware MBBS MSc, Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids: a systematic review, CMAJ June 17, 2008 178(13)

27 27 Diversion - 2011 study: most users in a US rehab program accessed MJ from a medical user - Need similar controls to opioids - Difficult with current regulations deathandtaxes.mag.com Thurstone C, Lieberman SA, Schmiege SJ, Medical marijuana diversion and associated problems in adolescent substance treatment, Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 November 1; 118(2-3): 489–492.

28 28 What we don’t know: Better sleep (possibly for some) Improved Pain (maybe) Quality of life (not at all clear)

29 29 HIV neuropathy: Abrams et al Abrams, D. I., Jay, C. A., Shade, S. B., Vizoso, H. and others. (2007). Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 68: 515-521. 2007 RCT HIV medication-related neuropathy N=50 Smoking 0.9g cigarettes, 3.56% THC or placebo 5-day inpatient intervention phase Previous cannabis use required (“so that they would know how to inhale and what neuropsychologic effects to expect”)

30 30 HIV neuropathy: Abrams et al Abrams, D. I., Jay, C. A., Shade, S. B., Vizoso, H. and others. (2007). Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 68: 515-521. 52% of cannabis patients had >30% reduction in VAS, compared to 24% of placebo group Median reduction in pain levels was 34% No discontinuations due to side effects No changes in mood reported

31 31 Mixed neuropathic pain: Wilsey et al Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T., Tsodikov, A., Millman, J. and others. (2008). A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. J.Pain. 9: 506-521. 2008 crossover RCT mixed neuropathic pain conditions N=38 Smoking high dose (7%), low dose (3.5%) or placebo, total 9 puffs per session Previous cannabis use required (“to minimize psychoactive adverse effects”) Tested VAS and experimental pain

32 32 Mixed neuropathic pain: Wilsey et al Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T., Tsodikov, A., Millman, J. and others. (2008). A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. J.Pain. 9: 506-521. 0.0035 points per minute decrease in VAS VAS ~5.5 -> 3 vs 5.5 -> 4 No difference in experimental pain No difference in analgesia between low and high dose, described as a “ceiling effect” Impairments greater with high dose Analgesia began to diminish within 1-2 hours after dose

33 33 Neuropathic pain: Ware et al Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ, Collet JP, Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial, CMAJ October 5, 2010, 182(14): E694-701 2010, Crossover design, unblinded by the end N= 21, former marijuana smokers THC Concentrations of 0%, 2.5%, 6%, 9.4% 25mg tid for five days each dose Reduction in pain of 0.7 points on 10 point scale Statistically significant improvement in sleep No difference in mood or QOL

34 34 Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ, Collet JP, Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial, CMAJ October 5, 2010, 182(14): E694-701 Well-designed study; rigorous methods Outcomes carefully considered Abuse monitored All previous MJ smokers low dose (25mg tid) concentration THC 9.4% Very small magnitude of effect Effectively a five-day trial Neuropathic pain: Ware et al

35 35 Wilsey: mixed neuropathic pain Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T., Deutsch, R., Gouaux, B. et al. (2012). Low-Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain. J.Pain. 14: 136-148. 2013 double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study N=39 (13 central, 26 peripheral NeP) Previous cannabis use required “to reduce the risk of adverse psychoactive effects in naıve individuals” Vapourized medium-dose (3.53%), low-dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis Flexible dose – 4 puffs, then 4-8 puffs 2h later, to overcome “robust placebo response”

36 36 Wilsey: mixed neuropathic pain Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T., Deutsch, R., Gouaux, B. et al. (2012). Low-Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain. J.Pain. 14: 136-148. Significant difference from placebo not evident until 120 minutes after initial dose, drops off 1-2 hours later 57% of cannabis patients saw >30% reduction in VAS, compared to 26% of placebo No difference in analgesia between low and medium doses Unblinded for 63% placebo, 61% low dose, 89% medium dose Analgesia not associated with feeling “high”; “high” and “stoned” more likely with medium dose

37 37 Experimental pain: Wallace et al Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I, Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers, Anesthesiology 2007; 107:785–96 Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial N=15 Must have used cannabis within the prior 6 months Concentration/response effects of smoked 0%, 2%, 4% and 8% THC Pain and cutaneous hyperalgesia from intradermal capsaicin

38 38 Experimental pain: Wallace et al Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I, Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers, Anesthesiology 2007; 107:785–96 Given a “high dose trial” before the study period to make sure that they could tolerate it 4 dose-randomized testing sessions one week apart Blood samples to quantify exposure Measures of neurocognition, sensory function, and “highness.”

39 39 Experimental pain: Wallace et al Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I, Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers, Anesthesiology 2007; 107:785–96 No effect 5 minutes after exposure 45 minutes later, significant decrease in pain at 4%, significant increase in pain at 8% No effect on hyperalgesia at any dose No effect on neurocognitive testing

40 40 Experimental pain: Wallace et al Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I, Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers, Anesthesiology 2007; 107:785–96 No assessment of blinding – but this should prejudice in favour of effect Acute pain studies do tend to show either lack of effect or increased pain Clearly state that the pain relief was modest and delayed, and that conclusions can’t be drawn about clinical pain states

41 41 Benefit assessment MS or HIV neuropathy: more likely Palliative care: probably less risk Severe, disabling neuropathic pain, unresponsive to standard therapy: perhaps

42 42 What do we know about dose? Hazekamp, A., and E.R. Heerdink (2013). The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Published online April 16, 2013. (average dose [various potencies] 0.68g/d) Israel's medical marihuana program suggests that the average daily amount used by patients was approximately 1.5 grams of dried cannabis per day in 2011-2012 (Health Canada personal communication) website accessed March 27 2014. Trials range from 0.5% THC to ~10%

43 43 Max 150 grams or 30 times daily “rx” at a time, whichever is less.

44 44 Is 3g the upper end of the dose range?

45 45 Mark Ware, 2014 – used with permission

46 46 - Prices ranging $5 – $12 / g - THC ranging 1 – 24 % - CBD often not stated - sativa; indica; often not stated - some websites offer tasting notes

47 47 Meaningful consent Including the lack of evidence for safety or efficacy Risk of addiction/dependence unclear Consider at this point unsafe to drive or combine with ETOH Mu-Chen Li, Joanne E. Brady, Charles J. DiMaggio, Arielle R. Lusardi, Keane Y. Tzong, and Guohua Li, Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes, Epidemiologic Reviews Vol. 34, 2012

48 48 Risk assessment Children/adolescents and significant mental health issues: NO Cardiac, hepatic disease or risk of stroke: NO Active substance abuse concerns: NO

49 49 Risk assessment Significant anxiety or depression: CAUTION Current unauthorized use: CAUTION Concerns regarding cognition or memory: CAUTION

50 50 A logical approach Ensure that evidence-based approaches have been tried – including non- pharmacologic approaches Screen for history of substance abuse Screen for contraindications: heart and liver disease, pregnancy, psychotic disorders, age <21

51 51 A logical approach Total dose less than 3g/d No way to Rx concentration of THC, but < 9.4% seems logical to suggest Likely better to vaporize than smoke or consume orally Consider at this point unsafe to drive or combine with ETOH Mu-Chen Li, Joanne E. Brady, Charles J. DiMaggio, Arielle R. Lusardi, Keane Y. Tzong, and Guohua Li, Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes, Epidemiologic Reviews Vol. 34, 2012

52 52 www.lifeinnorway.net

53 53 References Abrams DI, Vizoso HP, Shade SB, Jay C, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL. Vaporization as a Smokeless Cannabis Delivery System: A Pilot Study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2007. Abrams, D. I., Jay, C. A., Shade, S. B., Vizoso, H. and others. (2007). Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Neurology. 68: 515-521. Baker D, Pryce G, Giovannoni G, and Thompson AJ, The therapeutic potential of cannabis, Lancet Neurology 2003; 2: 291–98 Bostwick JM, Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana, Mayo Clinic Proceedings 87.2 (Feb. 2012): p172. Crane NA, Schuster RM, Fusar-Poli P, Gonzalez R, Effects of Cannabis on Neurocognitive Functioning: Recent Advances, Neurodevelopmental Influences, and Sex Differences, Neuropsychol Rev (2013) 23:117–137 Ishida JH, Peters MG, Jin C, Louie K, Tan V, Bacchetti P, Terrault NA, Influence of Cannabis Use on Severity of Hepatitis C Disease, CLINICAL GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY 2008;6:69–75 Lee MHS, Hancox RJ, Effects of smoking cannabis on lung function Expert Rev. Respir. Med. 5(4): 2011, 537–547

54 54 References Li MC, Brady JE, DiMaggio CJ, Lusardi AR, Tzong KY, Li G, Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes, Epidemiologic Reviews, Vol. 34, 2012 Singh NN, Pan Y, Muengtaweeponsa S, Geller TJ, Cruz-Flores S, Cannabis-Related Stroke: Case Series and Review of Literature, Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Vol. 21, No. 7 (October), 2012: pp 555-560 Ste-Marie PA, Fitzcharles MA, Gamsa A, Ware MA, Shir Y, Association of Herbal Cannabis Use With Negative Psychosocial Parameters in Patients With Fibromyalgia, Arthritis Care & Research, Vol. 64, No. 8, August 2012, pp 1202–1208 Thurstone C, Lieberman SA, Schmiege SJ, Medical marijuana diversion and associated problems in adolescent substance treatment, Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 November 1; 118(2-3): 489–492. Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I, Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers, Anesthesiology 2007; 107:785–96 Wang T, Collet JP, Shapiro S, Ware MA, Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids: a systematic review, CMAJ June 17, 2008, 178(13):1669-78

55 55 References Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ, Collet JP, Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial, CMAJ October 5, 2010, 182(14): E694-701 Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T., Tsodikov, A., Millman, J. and others. (2008). A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of cannabis cigarettes in neuropathic pain. J.Pain. 9: 506-521. Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T., Deutsch, R., Gouaux, B. et al. (2012). Low-Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain. J.Pain. 14: 136-148.


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