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Masculine societies tend to see men as assertive and women as nurturing. Men tend to be competitive, visible, stress success… Feminine societies tend to.

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Presentation on theme: "Masculine societies tend to see men as assertive and women as nurturing. Men tend to be competitive, visible, stress success… Feminine societies tend to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Masculine societies tend to see men as assertive and women as nurturing. Men tend to be competitive, visible, stress success… Feminine societies tend to have both men and women in nurturing roles and much less emphasis on assertiveness for either. Both men and women focus on cooperation, awareness of those who are in need, social accommodation is important. E.g. karoshi ( Karōshi ( 過労死 karōshi ? ) (pronounced /karo: ʃ i/), which can be translated quite literally from Japanese as "death from overwork", is occupational sudden death. The major medical causes of karōshi deaths are heart attack and stroke due to stress ) vs home at 5 ? Japanesedeathheart attackstroke

2 Climate appears to be the best predictor –Warm climates´cultures tend to be masculine; cooler climates tend to be feminine EDUCATION AND EQUALITY: COLDER CLIMATE---> EVERYONE SHOULD BE ABLE TO SURVIVE!!! Predictiors of MAS

3 Hofstede' new dimension based on the study of Michael Bond in Hong Kong (100 students: 50 m and 50 f per 22 countries) Hofstede’s previous four cultural dimensions did not adequately reflect Asian perspectives on culture to what extent virtuous living is a goal "Long Term Orientation stands for the fostering of virtues oriented towards future rewards, in particular perseverance and thrift. It’s opposite pole, Short Term Orientation, stands for the fostering of virtues related to the past and present, in particular, respect for tradition, preservation of ‘face’ and fulfilling social obligations.”  5. Long - versus short-term orientation

4 Long-Term Orientation (LTO) focuses on the degree the society embraces, or does not embrace, long-term devotion to traditional, forward thinking values. High Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. This is thought to support a strong work ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today's hard work. However, business may take longer to develop in this society, particularly for an "outsider". A Low Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country does not reinforce the concept of long-term, traditional orientation. In this culture, change can occur more rapidly as long-term traditions and commitments do not become impediments to change. Long-Term Orientation (LTO)

5 LTO: related to persistence and perseverance, status and order in positions, thrift, sense of shame. The top 10 countries: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, Brazil, India, Thailand, Singapore, and Netherlands. Adaptation of traditions to modern context, respect for tradition and obligation within limits, thrift (sparing resources), large savings, investments, perseverance toward slow results, willing to subordinate oneself for a purpose, and concern with virtue. STO: was characterized by personal steadiness and stability, protecting "face", respect for tradition, and reciprocity of greetings, favors and gifts; respect for traditions, social and status obligations regardless of cost, social pressure to keep up with Joneses' (even if overspending), small savings, little investment, quick results expected, concern with face, and concern with possessing truth

6 STO: do not tend to adapt tradition to the current environment LTO: “ I dare not walk in the shadow of my teacher” (no limits for social and status obligations) LTO: thrift, sparing, large savings STO: expect quick results

7 –Integration= ind-collectivism –Human heartedness =masculinity- femininity –Moral discipline= power distance –Confucian work dynamism: orientation to life and work Taxonomy #3. Bond

8 linear-actives, multi-actives and reactives Linear-active cultures plan, schedule, organize and implement their actions according to their time schedule in a subsequent order. Do one thing at a time! plan their activities according to the time available and are less flexible compared to multi-actives e.g. Germans and Swiss Taxonomy # 4. Lewis

9 Multi-active these lively, talkative people do several activities at a time do not plan their activities according to a time schedule. Rather, they do whatever seems most urgent. They are generally characterized as being more tolerant towards interruptions and changes in their plans. e.g. Italians, Latin-Americans and Arabs

10 Reactive cultures stress politeness and respect listen carefully to the diverse opinions, and then enter into details e.g. Chinese, Japanese, and Finns

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12 Literature Lustig & Koester culture/culture_03.htm

13 Hofstede, Geert (1980): Culture’s Consequences Hofstede, Geert (1991): Cultures and Organizations Hofstede, Geert (1984): Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values Hofstede, Geert and Michael Harris Bond (1984): The Confucius Connection: from cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics, 16, 4, 4-21

14 Hofstede, Geert (2001): Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Hofstede, Geert (1994): VSM94: Values Survey Module 1994 Manual. Tilberg, Netherlands: IRIC. Hofstede, Geert and Bond, M.H. (1984): “Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions: An Independent Validation Using Rokeach’s Value Survey.” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 15(4): ___


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