Presentation on theme: "CRITICAL THINKING “Learning without thought is a labor lost.” -Confucius."— Presentation transcript:
CRITICAL THINKING “Learning without thought is a labor lost.” -Confucius
Suggested supplemental material: Youtube Viewing: n “Skepticism & the Media (Penn & Teller) n James Randi [all videos] (“The Amazing Randi”) n “Jonathan Edwards” (Michael Shermer) Reading Skeptic magazine (www.skeptic.com) Anything by Michael Shermerwww.skeptic.com Skeptical Inquirer magazine (www.csicop.org) Learning Objectives: u Critically evaluating information u Confirmation Bias u Hindsight Bias u 5 Critical Questions
CRITICAL THINKING “ The Disillusioning Lecture” “Don’t Believe Everything You Think” n How we “think” to see the world, n How we “want” to see the world. n The Importance of gaining a different view n The willingness to change.
n Science (defined) - “to know.” n Natural explanations for natural behavior n The state motto of Missouri n Changing HOW you think, not what you think n The whole science-religion debate n Magic, Psychics, Mediums etc. u Debunking 101 (ex. Randi’s “Aura Test”) n Looking beyond the surface (5 issues) u (“American Idol® syndrome”) u Urban legends/Opinions are not facts/Prejudicial Thinking/ Confirmation Bias/Hindsight Bias
CRITICAL THINKING n Defined: u An approach to thinking characterized by skepticism and thoughtful analysis of statements and arguments.
Evaluating Information n Focus on observable data n Focus on meaning u Where do we obtain our information? u Correlation does not imply causation u Prejudicial Thinking “ A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices.” -William James
Principles of Critical Thinking Be skeptical Do not oversimplify or overgeneralize Examine definitions of terms, assumptions Be cautious drawing conclusions Consider alternative interpretations
Recognizing Fallacies Arguments directed to the person Appeals to authority Appeals to force Appeals to popularity
Characteristics of critical thinkers Ability and willingness to evaluate evidence Recognize and evaluate arguments Appreciate the value of critical thinking Impose criteria upon thinking “I have no particular talent. I am merely extremely inquisitive.” - Albert Einstein
FIVE CRITICAL QUESTIONS n What am I being asked to accept / believe? n Is there evidence available to support the claim? n Can the evidence be interpreted in another way? n What evidence would help evaluate the alternatives? n What conclusions are most reasonable?
SUMMARY n EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCH n REPLICATED RESEARCH n QUALITY OF THE EVIDENCE n 5 CRITICAL QUESTIONS