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CRITICAL THINKING “Learning without thought is a labor lost.” -Confucius.

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Presentation on theme: "CRITICAL THINKING “Learning without thought is a labor lost.” -Confucius."— Presentation transcript:

1 CRITICAL THINKING “Learning without thought is a labor lost.” -Confucius

2 Suggested supplemental material: Youtube Viewing: n “Skepticism & the Media (Penn & Teller) n James Randi [all videos] (“The Amazing Randi”) n “Jonathan Edwards” (Michael Shermer) Reading Skeptic magazine ( Anything by Michael Skeptical Inquirer magazine ( Learning Objectives: u Critically evaluating information u Confirmation Bias u Hindsight Bias u 5 Critical Questions

3 CRITICAL THINKING “ The Disillusioning Lecture” “Don’t Believe Everything You Think” n How we “think” to see the world, n How we “want” to see the world. n The Importance of gaining a different view n The willingness to change.

4 n Science (defined) - “to know.” n Natural explanations for natural behavior n The state motto of Missouri n Changing HOW you think, not what you think n The whole science-religion debate n Magic, Psychics, Mediums etc. u Debunking 101 (ex. Randi’s “Aura Test”) n Looking beyond the surface (5 issues) u (“American Idol® syndrome”) u Urban legends/Opinions are not facts/Prejudicial Thinking/ Confirmation Bias/Hindsight Bias

5 CRITICAL THINKING n Defined: u An approach to thinking characterized by skepticism and thoughtful analysis of statements and arguments.

6 Evaluating Information n Focus on observable data n Focus on meaning u Where do we obtain our information? u Correlation does not imply causation u Prejudicial Thinking “ A great many people think they are thinking when they are merely rearranging their prejudices.” -William James

7 Principles of Critical Thinking  Be skeptical  Do not oversimplify or overgeneralize  Examine definitions of terms, assumptions  Be cautious drawing conclusions  Consider alternative interpretations

8 Recognizing Fallacies  Arguments directed to the person  Appeals to authority  Appeals to force  Appeals to popularity

9 Characteristics of critical thinkers  Ability and willingness to evaluate evidence  Recognize and evaluate arguments  Appreciate the value of critical thinking  Impose criteria upon thinking “I have no particular talent. I am merely extremely inquisitive.” - Albert Einstein

10 FIVE CRITICAL QUESTIONS n What am I being asked to accept / believe? n Is there evidence available to support the claim? n Can the evidence be interpreted in another way? n What evidence would help evaluate the alternatives? n What conclusions are most reasonable?


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