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Energy By Akhilesh Murthy Grade 8.

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1 Energy By Akhilesh Murthy Grade 8

2 Non Renewable Energy COAL Energy Sources

3 COAL Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
Combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. The most abundant fossil fuel produced in the United States. For millions of years, layers of dead plants at the bottom of the swamps was covered by layers of water and dirt, trapping the energy of the dead plants. The heat and pressure from the top layers helped the plant remains turn into coal. Source & Process For Electricity: Coal is used to create almost half of all electricity generated in the United States.  Power plants burn coal to make steam. The steam turns turbines (machines for generating rotary mechanical power) that generate electricity. For Industry: Separated ingredients of coal (such as methanol and ethylene) are used in making plastics, tar, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, and medicines. Used to make steel. It is baked in hot furnaces to make coke, which is used to smelt iron ore into iron needed for making steel. It is the very high temperatures created from the use of coke that gives steel the strength and flexibility for things like bridges, buildings, and automobiles. The concrete and paper industries also use large amounts of coal. COAL Usage Classified into four main types or ranks depending on the amounts and types of carbon it contains and on the amount of heat energy it can produce- Anthracite Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Forms & Other Info Energy Sources

4 COAL Energy Sources Advantages
One of the most abundant sources of energy, more than oil and natural gas. It is inexpensive when compared to other fossil fuels (or alternative energy sources). It is versatile enough to be used for recreational activities such as BBQ’s or simply for home fires. Burning coal can produce useful by-products that can be used for other industries or products. Electricity produced from coal is reliable. Coal can be safely stored and can be drawn upon to create energy in time of emergency. Coal based power is not dependent on weather which cannot be said for alternative forms of renewable energy such as wind or solar power. Transporting coal does not require the upkeep of high-pressure pipelines and there is no requirement for extra security when transporting coal. Using coal reduces the dependence on using oil. Advantages COAL Energy Sources

5 COAL Energy Sources Disadvantages
Coal is a nonrenewable energy source because it takes millions of years to create. It is fast depleting. The energy in coal comes from the energy stored by plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. Coal storage cost is high especially if required to have enough stock for few years to assure power production availability. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide, a powerful greenhouse gas, that had been stored in the earth for millions of years, contributing to global warming. A coal plant generates about 3,700,000 tons of carbon dioxide every year. It leaves behind harmful by products upon combustion, thereby causing a lot of pollution. Mining of coal leads to irreversible damage to the adjoining environment. Mining and burning of coal pollutes the environment, causes acid rain and ruins all living creature's lungs. It cannot be recycled. An average of 170 pounds of mercury is made by one coal plant every year. Coal power puts the lives of the people who dig the coal in danger, most recently the Chilean coal mining disaster. It ruins the natural habitats of animals. Disadvantages COAL Energy Sources

6 Coal fired units produce electricity by burning coal to heat water to produce steam. The steam at tremendous pressure flows into a turbine, which spins a generator to produce electricity. The steam is cooled, condensed back into water and returned to the boiler to start the process over. COAL More than half of the electricity in the world is by using coal as the primary fuel. Coal power plants work by using several steps to convert stored energy in coal to usable electricity. Worldwide possible coal production. Energy Sources

7 Electricity produced by Coal.
The methods of retrieving coal using Underground Mining Methods & Surface Mining Methods. COAL This diagram shows how coal is turned into energy. First the coal is burnt to boil water and then the vapor is used to turn a turbine which then creates electricity. Electricity produced by Coal. Energy Sources

8 Non Renewable Energy PETROLEUM Energy Sources

9 PETROLEUM Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
Petroleum is a smelly, yellow-to-black liquid. It is usually found in underground areas called reservoirs. Oil was formed from the remains of animals and plants that lived millions of years ago in a marine environment before the dinosaurs. Over millions of years, the remains of these animals and plants were covered by layers of sand and silt. Heat and pressure from these layers helped the remains turn into what we today call crude oil or petroleum. Source & Process Petroleum is used for jet fuel, diesel and most importantly gasoline. Petroleum consumption is slowly increasing. In 2008, the US used 19,497 barrels of petroleum every day. Now in 2010, in the US 21,000 barrels of oil per day is consumed. Usage PETROLEUM Petroleum products give off the following emissions when they are burned as fuel: Carbon dioxide (CO2) ,Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen oxides (NOX) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), Particulate matter (PM). Lead and various air toxics such as benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 1,3-butadiene may be emitted when some types of petroleum are burned. These can be fatal to children. Nearly all of these byproducts have negative impacts on the environment and human health. SO2 causes acid rain, which is harmful to plants and to animals, and it can cause respiratory illnesses and heart diseases. NOX and VOC contribute to ground-level ozone, which irritates and damages the lungs. PM can cause asthma and lung cancer Forms & Other Info Energy Sources

10 PETROLEUM Energy Sources Advantages
Highly compact portable source of energy used for most forms of mechanical transportation. Can withstand high heats without breakdown making it useful as lubricants like motor oil and grease. Residuals make excellent surface for asphalt roads and waterproof roofing materials. Certain components make excellent solvents for paint. Other components (propane, butane) make excellent compact source of portable cooking fuel. Compared to most other fuel sources it is still one of the most economical -in other words the costs to produce it are relatively cheap compared to other energy sources. Production of oil has much less impact and a smaller footprint on the earth surface than production of coal from strip mining. Natural gas wells are the world's supply of helium gas. Oil refining produces the world's supply of elemental sulphur as a byproduct, used for many industrial applications. Advantages PETROLEUM Energy Sources

11 PETROLEUM Energy Sources Disadvantages
Oil is a carbon based fuel and the primary way it is used is to burn it, releasing carbon dioxide. Carbon Dioxide is a greenhouse gas and is said to be a cause of global warming. Quantities are limited. Most major oil companies have been failing to discover new reserves. Much of the remaining oil in the world is in politically unstable areas including Africa, Middle East, Russia, and parts of Southeast Asia. Wars get fought over oil, so it can be a very negative influence on relations between nations. Oil must be transported, pipelines are one common method but where no pipeline exists oil can become 'stranded’. The natural gas in northern Alaska is a good example of this since there is no gas pipeline the oil companies must pump natural gas back into the wells. Oil spills do serious environmental damage that takes decades to recover from. While oil spills do occur naturally, and have over time, the effects are often catastrophic for the area affected. Oil does break down naturally from biological and chemical decay, but it takes time. A most recent example being here in the US along the gulf coastline. Our consumption of oil is increasing at the same time our production is falling. Many oil producing areas are subject to severe weather and this can interrupt production. Last year's hurricanes are an example. Oil does contain some cancer causing compounds, benzene is one. Volatile components of oil and natural gas can contribute to smog. Drilling for oil is getting more difficult and expensive. Sulphur in oil ends up in refined fuels and contributes to air pollution. PETROLEUM Disadvantages Energy Sources

12 PETROLEUM Energy Sources Click to play video.
The problem with crude oil is that it contains hundreds of different types of hydrocarbons all mixed together. You have to separate the different types of hydrocarbons to have anything useful. This separation is called refining. Different hydrocarbon chain lengths all have progressively higher boiling points, so they can all be separated by distillation. This is what happens in an oil refinery - in one part of the process, crude oil is heated and the different chains are pulled out by their vaporization temperatures. Each different chain length has a different property that makes it useful in a different way. Energy Sources

13 PETROLEUM Energy Sources

14 Petroleum products by type
Energy Sources

15 NATURAL GAS Non Renewable Energy Energy Sources

16 NATURAL GAS Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
Natural Gas is a fossil fuel but in it’s in gaseous state and is composed mainly of methane (CH4). Millions of years ago, the remains of plants and animals decayed and built up in thick layers.  This decayed matter from plants and animals is called organic material.  Over time, the sand and silt changed to rock, covered the organic material, and trapped it beneath the rock.  Pressure and heat changed some of this organic material into coal, some into oil (petroleum), and some into natural gas — tiny bubbles of odorless gas. It’s found deep inside the Earth and is drilled the same way like oil. Source & Process Natural gas is used to manufacture steel, glass, paper, clothing, brick, electricity and as an essential raw material for many common products. Some products that use natural gas as a raw material are: paints, fertilizer, plastics, antifreeze, dyes, photographic film, medicines, and even explosives. NATURAL GAS Usage Forms & Other Info Natural gas is often referred to as the cleanest alternative burning fossil fuel. It can be used in the form of compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Natural gas can be stored and transported in both its liquid and gas forms. Energy Sources

17 NATURAL GAS Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages
Is more environment friendly than oil or coal. Produces less emissions as it has only a single molecule of carbon. For the same amount of heat, natural gas emits 30% less carbon dioxide than burning oil and 45% less carbon dioxide than burning coal hence improving the quality of air. Is cheap (less expensive than gasoline) and very cost effective. Can be safely stored and burned. Most of the natural reserves of natural gas fields are still under utilized. Emits 60 to 90% less smog-producing pollutants. Due to clean burning process, doesn’t produce ashes after energy release. Natural gas is used to make fertilizers used in agriculture and household detergents. Advantages NATURAL GAS It is a nonrenewable energy resource. It’s availability is finite. The extraction leaves out large craters within the earth. Is highly flammable and can be dangerous. Is colorless, odorless and tasteless that makes detection of its leak very difficult. In gas pipelines, a substance that contains carbon monoxide and has a strong odor is added to help detect a leak. These substances may be harmful and cause deaths. Natural gas use is the most common cause of carbon monoxide deaths. Constructing and managing such pipelines cost a lot. Disadvantages Energy Sources

18 Natural Gas production of the world.
Schematic flow diagram of the separation of condensate from natural gas. Energy Sources

19 World Natural Gas Reserves by Country.
US Natural Gas Consumption by Sector Energy Sources

20 PROPANE Non Renewable Energy Energy Sources

21 PROPANE Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
Propane is an energy-rich gas. It is one of the liquefied petroleum gases (LP-gases or LPGs) that are found mixed with natural gas and oil. Propane and other liquefied gases, including ethane and butane, are separated from natural gas at natural gas processing plants, or from crude oil at refineries. The amount of propane produced from natural gas and from oil is roughly equal. Source & Process Propane accounts for less than 2% of all energy used in the United States. Propane is the most common source of energy in rural areas that do not have natural gas service. In homes, propane is used for: Heating homes, fueling gas fireplaces and barbecue grills. On farms, propane is used to dry corn and power farm equipment and irrigation pumps. Businesses and industry use propane to run their fork lifts and other equipment. A small fraction of propane is used for transportation, it is the second largest alternative transportation fuel in use today. Instead of gasoline, propane often fuels fleets of vehicles used by school districts, government agencies, and taxicab companies. PROPANE Usage Propane naturally occurs as a gas. At higher pressure or lower temperatures, it becomes a liquid. Propane is 270 times more compact as a liquid than as a gas, it is transported and stored in its liquid state. Propane becomes a gas again when a valve is opened to release it from its pressurized container. When returned to normal pressure, propane becomes a gas so that we can use it. Forms & Other Info Energy Sources

22 PROPANE Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages
Propane gas is less expensive and it’s also clean. Propane is an American-made fuel and one of the most environmentally friendly energy sources. Easily transportable - The portability of propane makes it possible to enjoy the efficiency and economy of gas service virtually anywhere. Can be safely be used indoors. Usable under a wide range of pressures and temperatures. Can be obtained from natural deposits or manufactured from organic materials. Part of an existing transportation and handling system. Available for many applications including furnaces, air conditioners, generators, pool heaters, outdoor grilles etc. Few noxious fumes. Advantages PROPANE Propane can blow up if improperly used. It is more expensive than most other natural resources. More frequent maintenance intervals. Operating costs of the vehicles are less, but the vehicles themselves are more expensive. Propane tanks are heavy and consume a lot of space. Disadvantages Energy Sources

23 PROPANE Energy Sources Propane explosions are very hazardous.
Simple drawing of a Propane molecule. PROPANE Propane Production and Distribution System. Consumers of Propane. Energy Sources

24 NUCLEAR Non Renewable Energy Energy Sources

25 NUCLEAR Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
Nuclear energy is energy in the nucleus of an atom. Atoms are tiny particles that make up every object in the universe. There is enormous energy in the bonds that hold atoms together. The fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission is uranium. Uranium is nonrenewable, though it is a common metal found in rocks all over the world. Nuclear plants use a certain kind of uranium, referred to as U-235. This kind of uranium is used as fuel because its atoms are easily split apart. Though uranium is quite common, about 100 times more common than silver, U-235 is relatively rare. Source & Process Most power plants, including nuclear plants, use heat to produce electricity. They rely on steam from heated water to spin large turbines, which generate electricity. Instead of burning fossil fuels to produce the steam, nuclear plants use heat given off during fission. Nuclear power accounted for about 20% of the total net electricity generated in the United States. NUCLEAR Usage The energy of the atoms can be released from atoms in two ways: nuclear fusion and nuclear fission. In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing energy. In nuclear fusion, energy is released when atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom. This is how the sun produces energy. It is not clear whether we are going to be able to use fusion as a source for creating electricity. Forms & Other Info Energy Sources

26 NUCLEAR Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages
Nuclear power plants don't require a lot of space. It doesn't pollute (not including nuclear radiation). Nuclear energy is by far the most concentrated form of energy. Nuclear reactions release a million times more energy, compared to hydro or wind energy. Hence, a large amount of electricity can be generated. Presently, 12-18% of the world's electricity is generated through nuclear energy. No release of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, chlorofluorocarbon) during nuclear reaction. The greenhouse gases are a major threat in the current scenario, as they cause global warming and climate change. As there is no emission of these gases during nuclear reaction, there is very little effect on the environment. High amount of energy can be generated from a single nuclear power plant. Nuclear fuel is inexpensive and easier to transport. Advantages NUCLEAR Nuclear explosions produce radiation, this radiation harms the cells of the body which can make humans sick or even cause them death. Illness can appear or strike people years after they were exposed to nuclear radiation. • A possible type of reactor disaster is known as a meltdown. In a meltdown, the fission reaction of an atom goes out of control, which leads to a nuclear explosion releasing great amounts of radiation Disadvantages Energy Sources

27 NUCLEAR Energy Sources A video on Nuclear Energy Click to play video.
The containment structures are made of reinforced concrete 4 feet thick. Inside the structure is an 8-inch thick steel reactor vessel which houses the reactor. Inside the reactor, fuel rods and control rods are surrounded by pressurized water. Control rods are moved out from between the fuel rods starting the nuclear fission process to heat up the pressurized water flowing within the reactor. This pressurized water is pumped from the reactor into the steam generator where the heat from the pressurized water transfers to a second source of water which then boils into steam. The pressurized water now returns back to the reactor to heat up once again. Traveling through the steam line, the high-pressure steam enters the turbine where the propeller-like blades inside spin to generate electricity. Simultaneously, a loop of ocean water is used as a coolant to condense the steam back into water for recycling to the steam generator. The electricity travels from the turbine generator to the electrical switchyard, across a series of transmission lines and substation transformers until it is delivered into consumers' homes and businesses. Energy Sources

28 NUCLEAR Energy Sources

29 NUCLEAR Energy Sources Nuclear Energy Generation %
Advanced Nuclear Energy System. NUCLEAR Nuclear Energy Consumption per person. Energy Sources

30 NUCLEAR Energy Sources
Why use Nuclear Energy in Space? 1 Kg. of Nuclear fuel contains 10,000,000 times the energy of 1kg. of chemicals The operation of a nuclear power plant is in many respects similar to that of a coal, natural gas or oil fired plant. All have a heat source that boils water. The primary difference between these plants is the fuel used. At a nuclear plant the fuel is uranium. NUCLEAR The Nuclear fuel cycle. The Nuclear power plant. Energy Sources

31 A demonstration of the 5 main sources of renewable energy.
Click to play video. Energy Sources

32 A demonstration of the 5 main sources of renewable energy.
Energy Sources

33 Renewable Energy WIND Energy Sources

34 WIND Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
Wind is simply air in motion. It is caused by the uneven heating of the Earth's surface by the sun. The Earth's surface is made of very different types of land and water, it absorbs the sun's heat at different rates. One example of this uneven heating can be found in the daily wind cycle. Source & Process Windmills are used to create electricity Wind power plants, or wind farms are clusters of wind machines used to produce electricity. A wind farm usually has dozens of wind machines scattered over a large area. The world's largest wind farm, the Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center in Texas, has 421 wind turbines that generate enough electricity to power 220,000 homes per year. Many wind plants are not owned by public utility companies. Instead, they are owned and operated by business people who sell the electricity produced on the wind farm to electric utilities. These private companies are known as Independent Power Producers. Usage WIND There are two types of wind machines (turbines) used today, based on the direction of the rotating shaft (axis): horizontal-axis wind machines and vertical-axis wind machines. Horizontal-axis Turbines Most Modern Windmills have Horizontal-Axis turbines. Typically, horizontal wind machine stands as tall as a 20-story building and have three blades that span 200 feet across. Vertical-axis Turbines Vertical-axis wind machines have blades that go from top to bottom. Vertical-Axis windmills make up a small share of windmills today. Forms & Other Info Energy Sources

35 WIND Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages
Wind energy is friendly to the surrounding environment Wind turbines take up less space than the average power station. Newer technologies are making the extraction of wind energy much more efficient. The wind is free, and we are able to use it as a free source of energy. Wind turbines are a great resource to generate energy in remote locations, such as mountain communities and remote countryside. When combined with solar electricity, this energy source is great for developed and developing countries to provide a steady, reliable supply of electricity. Advantages WIND Unreliable/Unpredictable. We cannot control the amount of wind. Wind turbines produce a lot less electricity than the average fossil fuelled power plants . Wind turbine construction can be very expensive and disturbs surrounding wildlife during the build process. Wind Turbines create noise pollution. People feel the countryside should be left intact for everyone to enjoy it's beauty and do not allow them to be built. This decreases the amount of electricity that the windmills could make. Disadvantages Energy Sources

36 Wind turbines capture the kinetic energy in the wind, converting it into electrical energy. Turbines are mounted on tall towers, above the earth's surface where the wind is faster and less turbulent. Wind speed is a critical feature of wind resources, because the energy in wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. In other words, a stronger wind means a lot more power. WIND Basic parts of a small wind electric system. Rotor and blades of a wind turbine. Energy Sources

37 The worlds fastest growing Energy Source
Wind power is produced in large wind farms efficiently connected to electrical grids and in turbines to facilitate providence of electricity to isolated locations. Wind energy is found in abundance. It is a renewable type of energy distributed widely and works towards minimizing the effects of green house gas emissions during its’ displacing of fossil-fuel-derived electricity. There is absolutely no problem that arises due to intermittency of wind while using wind power to supply a low amount of total demand. Wind The worlds fastest growing Energy Source WIND Click to play video. Energy Sources

38 WIND Energy Sources

39 Renewable Energy SOLAR Energy Sources

40 SOLAR Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
The sun has produced energy for billions of years.  Solar energy is the sun’s rays (solar radiation) that reach the Earth. This energy can be converted into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. Solar Power Plants converts to thermal energy. Source & Process Heat spaces inside homes, greenhouses, and other buildings. Solar energy can be converted to electricity through Photovoltaic (PV devices) or “solar cells” change sunlight directly into electricity. Individual PV cells are grouped into panels and arrays of panels that can be used in a wide range of applications ranging from single small cells that charge calculator and watch batteries, to systems that power single homes, to large power plants. Solar energy can be used to generate electricity by using the heat from solar thermal collectors to heat a fluid which produces steam that is used to power the generator. SOLAR Usage Solar energy can be converted to electricity in two ways: Photovoltaic (PV devices) or “solar cells” change sunlight directly into electricity. Individual PV cells are grouped into panels and arrays of panels that can be used in a wide range of applications ranging from single small cells that charge calculator and watch batteries, to systems that power single homes, to large power plants covering many acres. Concentrating Solar Power Plants generate electricity by using the heat from solar thermal collectors to heat a fluid which produces steam that is used to power the generator which in turn creates electricity. Forms & Other Info Energy Sources

41 SOLAR Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages
Fuel source without limit Free main source is the sun Environment friendly, clean, do not contribute to global warming, acid rains or smog, helps the decrease of harmful green houses gas emissions Usable for different purposes: vehicles running on solar power Renewable Give us a way to harness power in remote locations The development of new technologies allows us to store the collected solar power through solar power battery chargers. Cheaper than electricity heating Does not use fuel therefore does not contribute to the cost of the recovery and transportation of fuel or radioactive waste Become an official green business through Green Business Programs Solar power production is a silent process The equipment needs little maintenance Saving money on long term basis The equipment is easy to install Advantages SOLAR Diffuse source – you need large number of solar panels to produce the needed electricity, from there you need a large land spot for this purpose There are locations in the world where this energy is collected efficiently.  But some of the locations are not with the appropriate sunlight. The initial cost of the solar panels are expensive investment You can collect it only during the day Depends on the climate conditions Disadvantages Energy Sources

42 Solar Energy A Video SOLAR Click to play video. Energy Sources

43 SOLAR Energy Sources

44 The steady rise of manufacture of Photo Voltaic cells in the world.
SOLAR This shows that the total amount of solar energy reflected is vast. With a proper use of photo-voltaic technology, we can harvest this untapped energy supply to fulfill the world energy demand. Projected share by source of annual global energy production in exajoules Energy Sources

45 Renewable Energy HYDRO Energy Sources

46 HYDRO Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
Hydropower is the renewable energy source that produces the most electricity in the United States. Hydropower harnesses the mechanical energy of the flow of water. The amount of energy harnessed is determined by the flow or fall of the water. Hydropower is created in Hydropower plants and is created when water moves through a turbine and rotates its blade. This rotation creates energy which can be tuned into electricity. Source & Process Most of Hydroelectric energy is used to create electricity. Hydroelectric energy accounts for 7% of total U.S. electricity generation and it accounts for 35% of renewable energy. Most Hydroelectric Energy is created in the west; Washington, Oregon and California make over 31% of Hydroelectric Energy. Some hydropower plants are found in New York and Alabama (not in the west). HYDRO Usage Most dams in the United States were built mainly for flood control and supply of water for cities and irrigation but now a small number of dams are being built specifically for hydropower generation. While hydropower generators do not directly produce emissions of air pollutants, hydropower dams, reservoirs, and the operation of generators can have environmental impacts. Forms & Other Info Energy Sources

47 HYDRO Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages
Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate. If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high. Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years. The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes. The build up of water in the lake means that energy can be stored until needed, when the water is released to produce electricity. When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases. They do not pollute the atmosphere. Advantages HYDRO Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard. Natural environment is destroyed. Possibilities of flooding and can be a danger to human beings. The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage. For example, the building of the Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of earth quakes and has depressed the earth’s surface at its location. Disadvantages Energy Sources

48 HYDRO Energy Sources A video on Hydro Electric power: How it works?
Click to play video. Understanding the water cycle is important to understanding hydropower. In the water cycle: Solar energy heats water on the surface, causing it to evaporate. This water vapor condenses into clouds and falls back onto the surface as precipitation (rain, snow, etc.). The water flows through rivers back into the oceans, where it can evaporate and begin the cycle over again. Energy Sources

49 HYDRO Energy Sources

50 HYDRO Energy Sources World production of hydroelectricity.
Inside a Hydropower plant HYDRO Hydroelectric and Coal-fired power plants produce electricity in a similar way. In both cases a power source is used to turn a propeller-like piece called a turbine, which then turns a metal shaft called an electric generator, which is the motor that produces electricity. A coal-fired power plant uses steam to turn the turbine blades; whereas a hydroelectric plant uses falling water to turn the turbine. The results are the same. Energy Sources

51 GEOTHERMAL Renewable Energy Energy Sources

52 GEOTHERMAL Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
Geothermal energy is heat from within the Earth. We can recover this heat as steam or hot water and use it to heat buildings or generate electricity. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source because the heat is continuously produced inside the Earth. Source & Process Geothermal is used for heating up homes, making electricity, and control the heat in buildings above the Earths crust. 3 uses of geothermal energy are: Direct use and district heating systems use hot water from springs or reservoirs near the surface. Electricity generation power plants require water or steam at very high temperature (300° to 700°F). Geothermal power plants are generally built where geothermal reservoirs are located within a mile or two of the surface. Geothermal heat pumps use stable ground or water temperatures near the Earth's surface to control building temperatures above ground. Usage GEOTHERMAL There are three basic types of geothermal power plants: Dry steam plants use steam piped directly from a geothermal reservoir to turn the generator turbines. Flash steam plants take high-pressure hot water from deep inside the Earth and convert it to steam to drive the generator turbines. When the steam cools, it condenses to water and is injected back into the ground to be used over and over again. Most geothermal power plants are flash steam plants. Binary cycle power plants transfer the heat from geothermal hot water to another liquid. The second luquid turns to steam and is put through a turbine Forms & Other Info Energy Sources

53 GEOTHERMAL Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages
Geothermal energy is globally sustainable and can be found in many locations throughout the earth (mostly in the ring of fire.) Geothermal energy produce less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil fuels. It is renewable and it uses less fuel than fossil fuels like coal and petroleum. Geothermal power plants are smaller and more compact than most other power plants. Geothermal plants help avoid importing and it benefits local economies. Geothermal plants generates continuous, reliable power. Advantages GEOTHERMAL Geothermal electric plants emit an average of 122 kg of CO² per hour. Hot water from geothermal sources will contain trace amounts of dangerous elements such as mercury, boron, arsenic, antimony and can be dangerous to animals in the surrounding habitats. Geothermal plants can cause geologic instability. The cost of creating and maintaining Geothermal plants are high Exploration of deep resources entails significant risks. Geothermal Plants experience a 20% failure rate (approximately). Disadvantages Energy Sources

54 GEOTHERMAL Energy Sources
Heat is a form of energy and geothermal energy is the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. 'Geothermal energy’ generally indicates that part of the Earth's heat that can be recovered and exploited by man. GEOTHERMAL Energy Sources

55 GEOTHERMAL Energy Sources
Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly GEOTHERMAL Heating Cycle Cooling Cycle Energy Sources

56 BIOMASS Renewable Energy Energy Sources

57 BIOMASS Energy Sources Source Process Usage Forms Other Info
It is biological matter that is derived from plants and animals and is a renewable source of energy that is primarily made up of carbon. Other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, alkali, heavy metals and alkaline earth are also integrated with carbon. Both biomass and fossil fuels are made up of biological matter, but they are different in many ways. For instance, fossil fuels are not a renewable source of energy. Moreover, the biological matter undergoes several geological processes to form coal and petroleum. Biomass is derived from living organisms, which are easily replaceable. Source & Process About 80% of the wood and wood waste fuel used in the United States is consumed by industry, electric power producers, and commercial businesses.  The rest, mainly wood, is used in homes for heating and cooking. Biomass fuels provide about 4% of the energy used in the United States. Researchers are trying to develop ways to burn more biomass and less fossil fuels. Using biomass for energy may cut back on waste and greenhouse gas emissions. BIOMASS Usage 4 types of Biomass are landfill gases, crops garbage wood alcohol fuels. All of these can be burned to create energy or they can be converted into other fuels. For example: Crops like corn and sugar cane can be fermented to produce ethanol Forms & Other Info Energy Sources

58 BIOMASS Energy Sources Advantages Disadvantages
Biomass energy is a inexhaustible fuel source because it is a renewable resource and we will never run out of biomass. There is minimal environmental impact. It produces less pollution-causing gases than many other nonrenewable resources such as coal and petroleum. The alcohols and other fuels produced by biomass are efficient, viable, and relatively clean-burning. Biomass energy is available throughout the world. Advantages BIOMASS Although it is a renewable source, it still creates carbon dioxide when burned. Being a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide created from biomass burning could still contribute a great deal to global warming and pollution when it is directly burned. Biomass is still an expensive source. Producing the biomass and converting it into alcohol so it can be burned can be very expensive On a small scale there is most likely a net loss of energy because the energy that we make from biomass is less than the that must be used to grow the plant mass. Disadvantages Energy Sources

59 BIOMASS Energy Sources
New ways of using biomass are still being discovered. One way is to produce ethanol, a liquid alcohol fuel. Ethanol can be used in special types of cars that are made for using alcohol fuel instead of gasoline. BIOMASS Energy Sources

60 BIOMASS Energy Sources
This stuff nobody seems to want can be used to produce electricity, heat, compost material or fuels. Composting material is decayed plant or food products mixed together in a compost pile and spread to help plants grow. BIOMASS Energy Sources

61 BIOMASS Energy Sources
Biomass energy production begins with the use of photosynthesis to capture solar energy. The energy is harnessed in solar photons which is photosynthesis. The captured energy is initially stored as carbohydrates through photosynthesis. While carbohydrates are useful biological energy storage mediums, they usually have to be extracted from the plant biomass. This is because most plant biomass has large quantities of water, and the carbohydrates are either stored in aqueous internal solutions in the plant. The energy stored in the biofuels must be extracted. Extraction of energy from the biofuels typically is done via combustion. In the transition state the atoms recombine to form the product molecules, this releases energy because bonded atoms are more stable than free atoms. As long as the formation of the product releases more energy than the input energy to break the reactant, the reaction will propagate and there will be energy release in the form of heat. BIOMASS Energy Sources

62 Energy Sources Books Internet Resources. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Energy Future. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001. Internet Resources. Different kinds of Energy Sources, December 4th 2010. Energy in our world, Nov. 24th 2010. Energy Kids, November 10th 2010. Energy Matters, December 2nd 2010. Energy Resources, December 1st 2010. Energy Story, November 26th 2010.l Energy Sources, November 30th 2010. Power of the sun, November 6th 2010. BIBLIOGRAPHY Energy Sources

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