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Marco Project: Summary of student works within the project Master Theses 2010-2012 Daria Kovalevskaya Handelshøyskolen BI Tel.

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Presentation on theme: "Marco Project: Summary of student works within the project Master Theses 2010-2012 Daria Kovalevskaya Handelshøyskolen BI Tel."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marco Project: Summary of student works within the project Master Theses Daria Kovalevskaya Handelshøyskolen BI Tel Marco workshop, 27 August 2012

2 List of Master Theses Stability in the process of alliance evolution. Iselin Solbakken, Karoline Ask, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan 2.Inter-organizational relationships: The move from being a Supplier into Pursuing a Partnership strategy. Mari Ziesler Andenæs, Johanna Westberg O:dlund, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan 3.Political center and location choice: Norwegian FDI in Beijing. Christie Torkildsen, Supervisor: Rolv Petter Amdam 4.Partner selection in a new business model of the maritime industry. The case of Ulstein Group ASA. Lena Arens, Stine Alvestad, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan 5.Reducing information stickiness within the Ulstein Group. A case study on the relation between Ulstein Sea of Solutions and Headquarters. Reinder Woudstra, Supervisor: J. E. Lervik 6.Global organization design of the after sales service within the maritime industry. Elena Gjetanger, Supervisor: J. E. Lervik 7.New modes of collaboration in the maritime industry: Embeddedness of Norwegian subsidiaries in the Yangtze River Delta economic zone. Bjørn Annaniassen, Frode Andre Isene, Supervisor: Rolv Petter Amdam 8.Subsidiary knowledge as contributor to cluster competitiveness. A multiple case study. Mai Tiril Thomassen, Christian Krogtoft, Supervisor: Rolv Petter Amdam 9.The effect of quanxi on Norwegian companies in China. Leong Man Teng, Fu Lusha, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan 10.Control Mechanisms in GPNs: the Case of Ulstein Group. Susanne Seel Bahr, Christiane Foss, Supervisor: J. E. Lervik 11.Cross-border knowledge transfer. The challenge of cultural, linguistic and geographical distance. Jens Petter Skaug, Supervisor: J. E. Lervik 12.Alliance performance: factors influencing performance in buyer-supplier alliance. Hanna Sand, Magnus Flateland, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan 13.Opportunism in strategic alliances: a case study of Jets ASA. Check the author, Mihaela Miron, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan 14.Knowledge Transfer and Performance in Strategic Alliances under the framework of Agency Theory. Case Study of Jets AS. Bogdan Cretu, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan + 10 more (5 Rolv Petter, 5 from Molde)

3 1. Stability in the process of alliance evolution Iselin Solbakken, Karoline Ask, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2010 Research question: Which factors influence alliance stability and how do the factors affect stability in general and during the dynamic development of strategic alliances? Factors influencing stability: -Resource complementarity -Interdependency -Trust -Legitimacy Factors influencing stability: -Resource complementarity -Interdependency -Trust -Legitimacy Stability Outcome Operation Formation Dynamic processes Alliance stability Alliance evolution

4 2. Inter-organizational relationships: The move from being a Supplier into Pursuing a Partnership strategy Mari Ziesler Andenæs, Johanna Westberg O:dlund, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2011 Research question: Why should a supplier seek a partnership strategy and what is required when pursuing a sustainable partnership strategy? Supplier Tingstad Supplier Tingstad Tingstad's main customer X (agricultural industry) Factors Partnership strategy

5 2. Inter-organizational relationships: The move from being a Supplier into Pursuing a Partnership strategy Mari Ziesler Andenæs, Johanna Westberg O:dlund, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2011 Supplier Tingstad Supplier Tingstad Tingstad's main customer X (agricultural industry) Findings: Value-added services RBV not relevant theory Expensive to switch supplier, better build with them partnership Firm-specific competitive advantages Trust - reduction of uncertainty, increase of flexibility Lack of trust – negative effect on long-term stability Risk: lock-in-effect, high level of individual trust Findings: Value-added services RBV not relevant theory Expensive to switch supplier, better build with them partnership Firm-specific competitive advantages Trust - reduction of uncertainty, increase of flexibility Lack of trust – negative effect on long-term stability Risk: lock-in-effect, high level of individual trust Partnership strategy “It wasn’t the product itself but what surrounded it, the process of how the supplier’s business was exceeded was important.”

6 3. Political center and location choice: Norwegian FDI in Beijing Christie Torkildsen, Supervisor: Rolv Petter Amdam, 2011 Research question: What impact did the political center in Beijing have on the location choice decision of Norwegian companies that chose to locate there?” Beijing Statoil DNV Aker Solutions Fearntank Beijing Central authorities Local authorities State Owned Enterprises (SOE) Other government instances and commissions Institutional factors: Government intervention in economic activities Property rights protection Government corruption

7 3. Political center and location choice: Norwegian FDI in Beijing Christie Torkildsen, Supervisor: Rolv Petter Amdam, 2011 Research question: What impact did the political center in Beijing have on the location choice decision of Norwegian companies that chose to locate there?” Reasons for location choice in Beijing: Statoil – proximity to authorities, de facto, industrial sector DNV – proximity to political decision-makers Aker Solutions – proximity to oil majors Fearntank Beijing - proximity to the clients No universal answer on how crucial is political center or proximity to authorities in the location choice decision “ Actually, deals, because shipping is a very interesting market that you need to follow every day, every minute… In just one hour everything might change, so we need to talk to clients every minute” Jack Qiu, Fearntank Beijing

8 4. Partner selection in a new business model of the maritime industry The case of Ulstein Group ASA Lena Arens, Stine Alvestad, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2011 Research question: How to select the right partner yard to reach the goals of the new business model? High-cost country: - focus on sophisticated upstream activities High-cost country: - focus on sophisticated upstream activities Low-cost country: - focus on labor intensive activities (vessel construction ) Low-cost country: - focus on labor intensive activities (vessel construction ) Traditional business model: New business model: -customized products - costly relations - limited volume -standardized products - build in series in the same yards (higher volumes) - cost-efficient relations changing conditions of maritime industry Realization of the project lies in the yard, therefore it is important to choose carefully! “Based on experience, we think that potential partner yards should display five characteristics in order to fit the requirements of the business model best” (Deputy Managing Director 2011).

9 4. Partner selection in a new business model of the maritime industry The case of Ulstein Group ASA Lena Arens, Stine Alvestad, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2011 Research question: How to select the right partner yard to reach the goals of the new business model? Systematic approach to partner selection 5 desired characteristics of yards: 1.yards whose facilities and competencies match the complexity of the vessel type 2.yards of medium size 3.less developed yards due to lower overhead costs 4.yards with a certain degree of intellectual capability 5.yards with management and workers that are willing to accept and implement Ulstein’s advices Systematic approach to partner selection 5 desired characteristics of yards: 1.yards whose facilities and competencies match the complexity of the vessel type 2.yards of medium size 3.less developed yards due to lower overhead costs 4.yards with a certain degree of intellectual capability 5.yards with management and workers that are willing to accept and implement Ulstein’s advices

10 5. Reducing information stickiness within the Ulstein Group. A case study on the relation between Ulstein Sea of Solutions and Headquarters. Reinder Woudstra, Supervisor: J. E. Lervik, 2011 Research question: How does the Ulstein Group attempt to reduce stickiness of information? Ulstein Sea of Solutions Ulstein Group Four stages: 1.Initiation 2.Implement. 3.Ramp-up 4.Integration Four stages: 1.Initiation 2.Implement. 3.Ramp-up 4.Integration Successful integration What they do to reduce stickiness of information? Findings: Knowledge-friendly culture – more effective knowledge sharing Strategy and purpose Knowledge structure Information and communication infrastructure Communication, coordination and training of empoloyees Benchmarking (looking for the best practices within and outside the firm, industry and sector)

11 6. Global organization design of the after sales service within the maritime industry Elena Gjetanger, Supervisor: J. E. Lervik, 2011 Research Question: How does the organizational design of firms within the maritime industry reflect the importance of creating after sales service organization globally? Jets Ulstein - Global organization -Simple procedure for installation -Customers don’t require special service Solution: -Online ordering, shared warehouse - Global organization -Simple procedure for installation -Customers don’t require special service Solution: -Online ordering, shared warehouse - Transnational firm -More complex products (ex. IAS system) Solution: -After-sales service strategy, extended warranty, more focus on upgrades/retrofits - Transnational firm -More complex products (ex. IAS system) Solution: -After-sales service strategy, extended warranty, more focus on upgrades/retrofits “Think globally and locally, act appropriately” Robert T. Moran and John R. Riesenberger (1994) global level

12 7. New modes of collaboration in the maritime industry: Embeddedness of Norwegian subsidiaries in the Yangtze River Delta economic zone Bjørn Annaniassen, Frode Andre Isene, Supervisor: Rolv Petter Amdam, 2011 Research question: What is the impact of varying degrees of embeddedness on perception of the YRD area maritime cluster’s strength and Importance, competence development and subsidiary evolution? Degrees of Embeddedness Clusters Competence/knowledge Development Competence/knowledge Development Subsidiary Evolution Subsidiary Evolution

13 Embeddedness Dacin, Ventresca and Beal (1999) state that "the embedded nature of a single linkage may be multidimensional and embody many forms of embeddedness, such as economic transaction, information exchange, and social relationships".

14 7. New modes of collaboration in the maritime industry: Embeddedness of Norwegian subsidiaries in the Yangtze River Delta economic zone Bjørn Annaniassen, Frode Andre Isene, Supervisor: Rolv Petter Amdam, 2011 Degrees of Embeddedness Cluster Competence/knowledge development Subsidiary evolution 1.Firms with high degree of embeddedness tend to perceive the maritime cluster in the YRD area as stronger than those with a low degree of embeddedness. NO 2.Firms with high degree of embeddedness are more likely to perceive the maritime sector in the YRD area as a cluster. NO 1.Firms with high degree of embeddedness tend to perceive the maritime cluster in the YRD area as stronger than those with a low degree of embeddedness. NO 2.Firms with high degree of embeddedness are more likely to perceive the maritime sector in the YRD area as a cluster. NO 1.Firms with high degree of embeddedness tend to make more adaptations in terms of business conduct YES 2.Firms with a high degree of embeddedness tend to make more adaptations in terms of product and production development NO 1.Firms with high degree of embeddedness tend to make more adaptations in terms of business conduct YES 2.Firms with a high degree of embeddedness tend to make more adaptations in terms of product and production development NO 1.Degree of embeddedness tents to increase over time. YES 2.Degree of embeddedness achieved is linked to the subsidiaries freedom in making long term/short-term decisions without approval from HQ. NO 1.Degree of embeddedness tents to increase over time. YES 2.Degree of embeddedness achieved is linked to the subsidiaries freedom in making long term/short-term decisions without approval from HQ. NO

15 8. Subsidiary knowledge as contributor to cluster competitiveness A multiple case study Mai Tiril Thomassen, Christian Krogtoft, Supervisor: Rolv Petter Amdam, 2011 Research question: How do companies represented in the Norwegian Maritime Cluster retrieve knowledge from foreign clusters, reversely transfer this knowledge between the subsidiary and head office and share this knowledge between members of the Norwegian Maritime Cluster? Foreign Cluster Foreign Cluster Home Cluster Home Cluster HQ Subsidiaries: 1.Ulstein 2.Rolls-Royce 3.DNV Subsidiaries: 1.Ulstein 2.Rolls-Royce 3.DNV “Knowledge is an intangible asset vital to most firms, and consequently vital to the cluster in which the firm possibly is located.”

16 8. Subsidiary knowledge as contributor to cluster competitiveness A multiple case study Mai Tiril Thomassen, Christian Krogtoft, Supervisor: Rolv Petter Amdam, 2011 Findings: Foreign Cluster Foreign Cluster Home Cluster Home Cluster HQ Subsidiaries: 1.Ulstein 2.Rolls-Royce 3.DNV Subsidiaries: 1.Ulstein 2.Rolls-Royce 3.DNV - enhanced strategic role of the subsidiary - local embeddedness - increased subsidiary autonomy - enhanced strategic role of the subsidiary - local embeddedness - increased subsidiary autonomy - higher degree of interaction -low cultural distance - use of expatriates - higher degree of interaction -low cultural distance - use of expatriates -higher degree of interaction - higher degree of embeddedness in the home cluster -higher degree of interaction - higher degree of embeddedness in the home cluster

17 Summarized findings on knowledge

18 Research question: What is the effect of quanxi on Norwegian companies in China? Guanxi Ethical dilemma Norwegian companies in China 9. The effect of quanxi on Norwegian companies in China Leong Man Teng, Fu Lusha, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2012 “Guanxi is the unique cultural phenomenon and business culture in China”

19 Research question: How Ulstein Design and Solutions (UDS) as an actor in global production networks (GPNs) can control network partners in order to secure their interests in the GNPs? 10. Control Mechanisms in GPNs: the Case of Ulstein Group Susanne Seel Bahr, Christiane Foss, Supervisor: J. E. Lervik, 2012 UDN’s site support teams role (as a control tool) Ship building projects produced by 3 rd party yards in foreign locations UDS Limited ability and willingness to have formal authorities at the foreign yards Purpose of UDN: to facilitate the successful production process Findings: -UDS needs to move towards a modular chain (codify, standart. designs) - UDS needs to establish clearer interfaces between network actors and network actions Findings: -UDS needs to move towards a modular chain (codify, standart. designs) - UDS needs to establish clearer interfaces between network actors and network actions

20 11. Cross-border knowledge transfer. The challenge of cultural, linguistic and geographical distance. Jens Petter Skaug, Supervisor: J. E. Lervik, 2012 Sub HQ Research questions: What type of knowledge and how is it transferred between Jets headquarters and their subsidiary in China and how does distance influence the knowledge transfer process? How can Jets increase their knowledge transfer between headquarters and subsidiary? 1. Organizational structure 2. Distance: -cultural, -linguistics, -geographical 1. Organizational structure 2. Distance: -cultural, -linguistics, -geographical Knowledge transfer

21 12. Alliance performance: factors influencing performance in buyer- supplier alliance. Hanna Sand, Magnus Flateland, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2012 Research question: What factors impact buyer performance in buyer-supplier alliances? Buyer Supplier Factors Findings (-): 1.Restricted access to production source 2.Asymmetric incentives 3.Asymmetric information Findings (-): 1.Restricted access to production source 2.Asymmetric incentives 3.Asymmetric information Findings (+): 1.Knowledge about suppliers 2.Product classification 3.Product control agreement 4.General notification process 5.Strong interpartner relationships 6.System integration with relationship partners 7.Supplier amount of contractual obligations Findings (+): 1.Knowledge about suppliers 2.Product classification 3.Product control agreement 4.General notification process 5.Strong interpartner relationships 6.System integration with relationship partners 7.Supplier amount of contractual obligations

22 13. Opportunism in strategic alliances: a case study of Jets ASA Mihaela Miron, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2012 Research questions: 1.Which are the factors that determine partner opportunism in strategic alliances? 2.Which tools (control mechanisms and other managerial practices) might be used to curb opportunism? 3.What are the different forms of opportunism? Agents Representatives Agents Representatives Opportunistic behavior Forms of opportunism? Deterrence mechanisms Factors

23 14. Knowledge Transfer and Performance in Strategic Alliances under the framework of Agency Theory. Case Study of Jets AS. Bogdan Cretu, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2012 Research question: How do knowledge transfer and reverse knowledge transfer affect firm performance within strategic alliances? Jets AS Agent Increasing performance of strategic alliance Knowledge core competence competitive advantage

24 14. Knowledge Transfer and Performance in Strategic Alliances under the framework of Agency Theory. Case Study of Jets AS. Bogdan Cretu, Supervisor: Randi Lunnan, 2012 Research question: How do knowledge transfer and reverse knowledge transfer affect firm performance within strategic alliances? Jets AS Agent Culture Market environment Knowledge core competence competitive advantage contractual relationship agent’s opportunism Legitimacy Recognition from the Gov. Regulatory support

25 Summary of all master theses CompanyTopics 1TingstadSupplier partnership strategy, standardized products 2 Statoil, DNV, Aker Solutions, Fearntank BeijingLocation choice in China, political center in China 3Ulstein Partner yard selection, new business model, standardized products 4UlsteinInformation stickiness 5Jets, UlsteinOrganizational design of firms, after sales service 6 Marine Aluminium, Whilhemsen Ships Service, DnB NOR, Det Norske VeritasEmbeddedness, cluster theory, competence/knowledge 7Ulstein, Rolls-Royce, DNV, JetsCluster theory, reverse knowledge transfer (RKT) 8Jets, Mjør Metallvare-fabrikkAlliance stability, dynamic evolution 9Guanxi 10UlsteinControl mechanisms 11JetsCross-border knowledge transfer 12TingstadBuyer-supplier alliance performance 13JetsOpportunistic behavior 14JetsKnowledge transfer, agents opportunism

26 Jets - organizational design of firms - after sales service - cluster theory - opportunistic behavior - knowledge transfer - cross-border knowledge transfer - reverse knowledge transfer (RKT) - alliance stability - dynamic evolution - agents opportunism Tingstad - supplier partnership strategy - standardized products - buyer-supplier alliance performance Ulstein - partner yard selection - new business model - standardized products - information stickiness - organizational design of firms - after sales service - cluster theory - reverse knowledge transfer (RKT) - control mechanisms Marco Project research objectives: subsidiary roles: development of knowledge base and mandate to foreign subsidiaries the interaction between multinationals and local suppliers - threat or opportunity from regional to global knowledge network - how to achieve effective learning and development in collaboration with international customers and suppliers? challenges to ensure coordination and integration between offices in different countries international expansion - the balance between investment and ownership control, risk, and learning through international presence challenges and benefits of cooperation between large multinationals and local suppliers Marco Project research objectives: subsidiary roles: development of knowledge base and mandate to foreign subsidiaries the interaction between multinationals and local suppliers - threat or opportunity from regional to global knowledge network - how to achieve effective learning and development in collaboration with international customers and suppliers? challenges to ensure coordination and integration between offices in different countries international expansion - the balance between investment and ownership control, risk, and learning through international presence challenges and benefits of cooperation between large multinationals and local suppliers Tingstad 2 Ulstein 5 Jets 6

27 My PhD research focus How the companies manage their external relationship? How the companies manage their customer-buyer-supplier relationship? The next step is to build on Ove Wahl’s research (“Tingstad – Strategisk Allianse Portefølje Perspektiv”)

28 My PhD research focus Buyer Supplier Factors Control/ governance mechanisms Control/ governance mechanisms Customer Factors Buyer Supplier Factors Customer Factors Buyer Supplier Factors Customer Factors What are the governance mechanisms in customer- buyer-supplier relationships?

29 Thank you for your attention!


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