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Technology Tools and Assessment Practices for the 21 st Century Classroom.

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1 Technology Tools and Assessment Practices for the 21 st Century Classroom

2 Technology does not necessarily improve education. Take a simple innovation like the pencil: One can use it to write a superlative essay, to drum away the time, or to poke out someone’s eye. Shirley Veenema & Howard Garner

3 Increase Technology Innovation SkillsDevelop Understanding of Assessment for LearningUtilize Professional Learning Cohort for Curricular Collaboration

4 Foundation Assessment Foundation LoTI and Innovation Technology Integration and Innovation Technology Facilities in our Classrooms Tools for Technology Innovation


6  When students are involved in their own assessment, they are required to think about their learning and articulate their understanding- which helps then learn. Schon 1983, 1990; Walters, Seidel & Gardner 1994; Wolf 1987, 1989; Young 2000; Zessoules and Gardner 1991

7  Students and teachers can be engaged in assessment for learning when everyone knows:  That mistakes are essential for learning  The difference between descriptive and evaluative feedback  That they will have the time to try out their ideas  That success has many different looks

8  Dewey (1933) referred to learning and reflecting on the learning (self-assessment) as a continuous cycle – a learning loop: we learn, we assess, we learn some more

9  Descriptive Feedback  Gives the learner information about their learning that helps them self-reference and plan their next steps  Comes during, as well as after, the learning  Evaluative Feedback  Tells the learner how he or she has performed as compared to others or as compared to what was to be learned.  Letters, numbers, checks, symbols

10  Current feedback research is finding that the feedback that best supports student learning is specific and descriptive. It tells students what to do more of and what to do less of. Evaluative feedback, such as letter grades, marks, or other encoded information can interfere with student learning. Black and William 1998; Butler 1987, 1988

11  Students need time to:  Set and use criteria  Self-assess  Receive and give descriptive feedback  Collect proof or evidence of learning  Set and reset their goals  Seek specific support for their learning  Communicate their learning to others


13  Aligned to learning standards  Integral to the instructional process  Frequent enough to make an impact on learning  Embedded in instructional strategies matched to the desired learning goal  Appropriate for the types of cognitive skills that students are expected to acquire For Technology to Increase Student Achievement it must be:

14 Subject-Matter Curriculum Design: Learning activities are sequential. Student projects are uniform. Lectures are the predominate instructional strategy. Traditional evaluation strategies are the norm. VS. Learner-Based Curriculum Design: Learning activities are differentiated based on student readiness, interests, and learning styles. Student projects are student-directed. Alternative assessment strategies are the norm.

15 The purpose of Technology in Education is not just to Integrate (doing the same thing with new tools), it is to Innovate (find value where there was none before or to increase value above where it was) For student achievement

16 Technology should not be something extra Technology should be utilized for authentic, higher order thinking

17 ContentSkillContext

18  Conceptual Framework for Technology Implementation 1.Level Of Technology Implementation (LoTi) 2.Personal Computer Use (PCU) 3.Current Instructional Practice (CIP) Subject-Matter vs. Learner-Based (Didactic vs. Constructivist) (enGauge)

19  Exemplary technology implementation:  Supports purposeful, authentic problem-solving  Utilizes performance-based assessment practices  Promotes experiential learning  Requires higher levels of cognitive processing  In-depth examination of the content.  Not merely using technology to achieve isolated lower-cognitive tasks:  Creating an informational PowerPoint slide show…  Gathering facts on the Internet…  Creating a Web page with links… Research and Report OR Research and Regurgitate



22 8 LoTi Levels Level 0Non-Use Level 1Awareness Level 2Exploration Level 3Infusion Level 4a Integration (Mechanical) Level 4b Integration (Routine) Level 5Expansion Level 6Refinement

23 Are cobwebs forming around your classroom computer?

24 Technology tools are: Completely unavailable in the classroom. Not utilized for classroom instruction. There is a perceived “lack of time” to use technology.

25 “Using computers is the least of my problems. Have you seen my enrollment?” “Using computers gets in the way of what I’m supposed to be doing.” “I really don’t have time to integrate technology—I’m up to my eyeballs in testing!!!!” “My computer crashed and I’m still waiting on the county to fix it.” “I’m too old! I’ll retire soon!” Teacher Comments:

26 Who is using the computer? Circle one… 1.Teacher 2.Students 3.Both Teacher “does the doing.”

27 Technology tools:  Used almost exclusively for classroom management tasks: E-mail Word Processing Attendance Gradebook programs  Used to embellish teacher-directed lessons or lectures: PowerPoint presentations by the teacher  One step removed from the classroom teacher: Children are “dropped off” at the computer lab Integrated Learning System Labs Central Word Processing Labs Computer Literacy Classes

28 “This grading program is fabulous.” “My students go to the lab every Tuesday. This frees me up to catch up on my grades” “I designed my own web page so that students can view their weekly assignments from home.” “I put all my lectures on PowerPoint. I’m really integrating technology now!” Teacher Comments:

29 The focus tends to be more on the technology than the Curriculum?


31 Technology tools:  Supplement the existing instructional program: Educational Games Tutorials Drill & Kill  Student-Created: PowerPoint Presentations - informational Internet “Research & Report” – basic facts Web Pages - informational  Employed as one of the following: Extension Activities Enrichment Activities Reinforcement Activities

32 “My students have created some slick PowerPoints this year.” “My kids graphed some data from an AIMS activity last week. They love the way the graphs look on the screen.” “When students finish their work early, I let them use the computers to practice typing.” Teacher Comments:

33 Is the computer task an authentic, real-world problem?

34 Analyze Data Make Inferences Draw Conclusions Technology Tools: Spreadsheets - Excel Graphing Programs – Graph Club Concept Mapping - Inspiration Word Processing/Desktop Publishing - Word Presentations - PowerPoint Access – Databases WebQuests – Simulation Software – Tom Snyder Thinking Skills include: Problem-solving Decision-making Experimentation Scientific inquiry

35 “My students just completed a research project investigating why many students never use the school’s drinking fountains.” “My students created a multimedia presentation that analyzed the issue of poverty among 18-25 year old adults.” Teacher Comments:

36 We may have accepted the idea of an innovation, but still have difficulty with its implementation.

37 Technology tools:  Integrated in a Mechanical Manner: Heavy reliance on “pre-packaged” materials and outside resources to implement student-centered learning experiences. Classroom management concerns. Perceived infrastructure barriers still exist.  Emphasis is placed on: Solving Authentic Problems Higher levels of cognitive processing In-depth examination of the content Student Action Student Collaboration Issue Resolution

38 Example:  After researching the controversial flag of Georgia, students will work in teams to design a new state flag and write a persuasive paragraph(s) using Word or create a presentation using PowerPoint to convince the Honorable Governor of Georgia to pursue its adoption. Georgia has had three official state flags within the last 27 months. In the March 2004 statewide referendum, voters will help determine which flag will fly over Georgia. This project-based learning activity will allow students the opportunity to join the debate and help settle the controversy.  Solving Authentic Problems  Higher level of cognitive processing  In-depth examination of the content  Student Action  Student Collaboration  Issue Resolution

39  “The idea of the kiosk creation was based on an existing unit that I borrowed from one of the 5th grade teachers.”  “The travel brochure was part of the culminating performance task developed by a consultant with the assistance from the 4th grade teachers.” Teacher Comments:

40 As you can see, the use of the innovation has become routine.

41 Technology tools:  Integrated in a Routine Manner: Teachers readily design student-centered learning experiences: Identify and solve authentic problems Relate to an overall theme/concept Use school’s available technology Little or no outside assistance  Emphasis is placed on: Solving Authentic Problems Higher levels of cognitive processing In-depth examination of the content Student Action Student Collaboration Issue Resolution

42  Based on the rise in student violence on campus, students prepared a PowerPoint presentation highlighting their recommended mediation strategies using data synthesized from school-wide surveys and the Internet.  Students created a Web site devoted to exploring solutions to the steady increase in solid wastes entering the local landfill. Examples:

43  Students prepared a multimedia presentation highlighting the misconceptions and omissions in history textbooks concerning the contributions of their specific ethnic group. The presentation was later burned onto a CD for submission to the various textbook publishers for consideration.  Students investigated options for salvaging the local “fish ponds” as a way of preserving their native culture. Students prepared a community campaign to persuade the voters not to approve a local housing tract that might jeopardize the ponds. Examples:

44  “Our student mediation unit was prompted by the recent rise in fights on campus.”  “We took the students on a field trip to a local fish pond to investigate the potential impact of the proposed housing development on the preservation of this ancient site.” Teacher Comments:

45 The full use of the innovation is now approaching uncharted territories.

46 Technology access is extended beyond the classroom:  Collaborative learning experiences involve: Other schools, businesses, universities, research institutions, governmental agencies Ex: Contacting NASA to establish a link to an orbiting space shuttle via Internet  Expand student experiences directed at: Problem-solving Issue resolution Student activism

47  Students created an actual online business venture involving cosmetics and jewelry as a culminating performance task in their marketing class.  Using video cameras, NASA images, and related weather and mapping data, students assisted a hiker in his goal to conquer the Continental Divide Trail from Mexico to Canada. Communicating via e-mail, students were able to provide daily information on the best routes based on projected weather reports and various typographic information. Examples:

48  “Students got the idea for starting a business venture online after they read a series of articles discussing the pros and cons of online businesses.”  “Assisting their hiker friend was the highlight of the day. Since we were limited on time in class, students did the majority of their research online at home.” Teacher Comments:

49 Have your teachers reached the promised land involving the power and potential of instructional technology?

50 Technology:  Students and teachers have ready access to and a complete understanding of a vast array of technology-based tools to accomplish any task at school.  Instructional curriculum is entirely “learner-based.” Classroom content emerges based on the needs of the learner according to his/her interests and/or aspirations. Constructivist instruction…  Is used by students through their own initiative to find solutions related to an identified “real-world” problem or issue of significance to them.

51  Students designed an interactive Web site for bilingual children to expedite their English language proficiency. The site included options for real-time conversations, tutorial sessions, and bilingual online bulletin boards.  Students created a new type of housing design using some sophisticated CAD programs to improve the amount of heat transfer in future homes. Examples:

52  “Every student has access to computers, video cameras, scanners, Internet, and any other technology-based application at any time during the instructional day. Doesn’t everyone?”  “We have computers embedded in every desk and in every classroom on campus. Students can use them at any time—even outside with our wireless network.” Teacher Comments:

53  All levels are appropriate at different times depending upon the desired level of cognitive processing and student outcome.  Be prepared to move between levels on a regular basis LoTi Levels


55 ComputerScannerProjector VCR/DVDSMARTboardPhones

56 OfficeFrontpage GroupwiseIE

57 Unitedstreaming BrainpopAtomiclearning DeliciousMoodle



60 Form=Function

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