Presentation on theme: "Unit 6. Relative Pronoun as Subject I know the man. He is standing over there. I know the man who/that is standing over there. If the subject is a person,"— Presentation transcript:
Relative Pronoun as Subject I know the man. He is standing over there. I know the man who/that is standing over there. If the subject is a person, use “who” or “that.” I have a teacher. She gives lots of homework. I have a teacher who/that gives lots of homework. In these examples, the adjective clause explains which person you are talking about.
If the subject is a thing, use “which” or “that.” I saw the book. It was on the table. I saw the book which/that was on the table. He stole the car. It was parked outside the house. He stole the car which/that was parked outside the house. In these examples, the adjective clause explains which thing you are talking about.
The Relative Pronoun must be next to the noun it modifies. The book is mine. It is on the table. The book which/that is on the table is mine. The woman wants to speak to the manager. She is trying to get a refund. The woman who/that is trying to get a refund wants to speak to the manager.
P 232/233 Ex 1 1. Companieswhich/that sendyou spam want your money. 2. Peoplewho/that receivespam are often annoyed. 3. Peoplewho/that buyproducts and services online give out their e-mail addresses. 4. Sometimes you see a boxwhich/that hasa check in it already. 5. I know a studentwho/that buysall her books online. She never goes to the bookstore anymore. 6. A spammerwho/that livesin Florida became very rich and retired young. 7. You shouldn’t believe an offerwhich/that promisesthat you will lose 50 pounds in a week.
P 233 Ex 2 Using the adjective clause as subject or object of a sentence. 1. E-mail that comes from friends and relativesis usually safe. I always opene-mail that comes from friends and relatives. 2. Companies that send spamare very annoying. I don’t do business withcompanies that send spam. 3. Students who don’t have a computerwork in the computer lab. Studying is more difficult forstudents who don’t have a computer.
4. Children who spend all their time playing computer games don’t get enough exercise. Parents should worry aboutchildren who spend all their time playing computer games. 5. E-mail that comes from an unknown sendershould be deleted. I never opene-mail that comes from an unknown sender. 6. Web sites that offer music downloadsare very popular. I know severalweb sites that offer music downloads.
7. Web sites that offer a college diploma in six months are only after your money. You should never trustweb sites that offer a diploma in six months. 8. People who don’t know anything about computers are lost in today’s world. I feel sorry forpeople who don’t know anything about computers.
Relative Pronoun as Object The man was a tourist. I spoke to him. The man who I spoke to was a tourist. The man that I spoke to was a tourist. The man I spoke to was a tourist. Don’t repeat the object of the original sentence. You can leave out who/that when the adjective clause pronoun is the object of a verb.
The car was totaled in the accident. I hit it. The car which I hit was totaled in the accident. The car that I hit was totaled in the accident. The car I hit was totaled in the accident.
P 235/236 Ex 5 1. I have a hard teacher this semester. The teacher(whom/who/that) I hadlast semester was much easier. 2. I studied British English in my native country. The English(which/that) I am studyingnow is American English. 3. The teacher gave a test last week. Almost everyone failed the test(which/that) she gave.
4. When I read English, there are many new words for me. I use my dictionary to look up the words(which/that) I don’t know. 5. I had a big apartment last year. The apartment(which/that) I havenow is very small. 6. Did you contact the owner of the wallet(which/that) you found on the street?
7. I write poetry. One of the poems(which/that) I wrote won a prize. 8. The last book(which/that) I readwas very sad. It made me cry. 9. She has met a lot of people at school, but she hasn’t made any friends. The people(whom/who/that) she has met are all too busy to spend time with her.
P 236/237/238 Ex 6 A: I’m so tired of all the spam(that) I get. B: Do you get a lot? A: Of course, I do. Doesn’t everyone? B: I don’t. A: How is that possible?
B: I have an e-mail address(that) I usejust for shopping online. I don’t use it for anything else. The e-mail address(that) I giveto my friends is private. I don’t give it to anyone else. A: I never thought about having different e-mail addresses for different things. Don’t you have to pay for each e-mail account?
B: There are a lot of e-mail providers(that) you can use for free. For example, you can use Hotmail or Yahoo for free. But they have limited space and aren’t good for everything. I like to send a lot of photos. The photos(that) I want to sendare often too big for my free Hotmail account, but it’s perfect for the shopping(that) I doonline. A: Do you do a lot of shopping online? B: Yes. For example, I buy a lot of books online. The books (that) I buyonline can be sent directly to my house.
A: How can I get one of these accounts? B: You just go to their Web site and sign up. Choose a username and password. If the username(that) you choosehas already been chosen by someone else, you can choose another one or simply add some numbers to it. For example, I chose Sly Fox, but it was already taken, so I added the year of my birth, 1986. So I’m Sly Fox1986. A: Why did you choose that name?
B: That’s the name(that) I was calledwhen I was a child. My older brother was always giving people nicknames. After you choose a username, choose a password. Make sure it’s a number or word(that) you’ll remembereasily. If you forget your password, you won’t be able to use your account. The password(that) you chooseshould never be obvious. Never, for example, use your address, phone number, or social security number. A: What password did you choose? B: The password(that) I choseis a secret. I’ll never tell anyone.
Relative Pronouns Used as the Object of a Preposition In very formal English, the preposition comes at the beginning of the adjective clause. She is the woman about whom I told you. The music to which we listened last night was good. This is the truck for which I paid $5000. That is the person to whom I spoke.
In everyday use, the preposition comes at the end of the adjective clause. She is the woman who/that I told you about. The music which/that we listened to last night was good. This is the truck which/that I paid $5000 for. That is the person who/that I spoke to. “Whom” is also possible for sentences 1 & 4, but is not used very often. For all the above sentences, you can leave out “who” or “that.”
P 239 Ex 8 1. There is a new Web site everyone is talking about. 2. The link you click on will take you to that Web site. 3. The information you are looking for can be found on the Web. 4. There are several Web sites I depend on frequently. 5. The job I am responsible for is to maintain a company’s web site. 6. This as a job I am accustomed to.
P 240/241 Ex 9 A: How was your trip? B: Terrible. A: What happened? Didn’t your travel agent give you good advice? B: I didn’t use a travel agent. I asked some friends for cheap ways to take a vacation. One friend(who/that) I talked totold me to look for vacations online. So I did. There was a choice of hotels. The name of the hotel(which/that) I chosewas “Ocean View,” so I thought I would see the ocean from my window. The view (which/that) I hadfrom my window was of a brick wall. I didn’t see any water at all. The only water(which/that) I sawwas in the bathroom sink.
A: What kind of food did they serve? B: The food(which/that) they servedmade me sick. A: Did you meet any interesting travelers? B: I didn’t like the other travelers(who/that) I met. They were unfriendly. A: Did you travel with an interesting companion? B: The person(who/that) I traveled withwas boring. We weren’t interested in the same things. The things(which/that) I was interested inwere different from the things(which/that) he interested in.
A: Did you take pictures? B: The pictures(which/that)I tookdidn’t come out. A: Did you find any interesting souvenirs? B: The souvenirs(which/that) I foundwere cheaply made. I didn’t buy any. A: Could you communicate with the people on the island? B: No. I don’t understand the language(which/that) they speak.
A: Did you spend a lot of money? B: Yes, but the money(which/that) I spentwas wasted. A: Why didn’t you change your ticket and come home early? B: The ticket(which/that) I boughtcouldn’t be changed. A: Are you going to have another vacation soon? B: The next vacation(which/that) I havewill be in December. I think I’ll just stay home.
P 243 Ex 10 1. Weather.com is a Web sitewhere you can check the weather. 2. Mapquest.com is a Web sitewhere you can get directions. 3. CNN.com is a Web sitewhere you can read the news. 4. USPS.com is a Web sitewhere you can buy stamps. 5. Hotmail.com is a Web sitewhere you can get a free e-mail account. 6. Travelocity.com is a Web sitewhere you can make travel plans. 7. Newsweek.com is a Web sitewhere you can get the news. 8. IRS.gov is a Web sitewhere you can get information about taxes. 9. Redcross.org is a Web sitewhere you can donate money. 10. Harvard.edu is a Web sitewhere you can get information about the university.
6.7 Adjective Clauses Using WHERE It is used to modify a noun of place. The building is very old. He lives in that building. The building where he lives is very old. The city is beautiful. I was born in that city. The city where I was born is beautiful. Note: Do not repeat the preposition if you use WHERE.
You can also use WHICH to modify places. The building in which he lives is very old. The building which he lives in is very old. The city in which I was born is beautiful. The city which I was born in is beautiful. Note: If you use WHICH, the preposition can be at the beginning or the end of the adjective clause.
You can use THAT or NO PRONOUN The building that he lives in is very old. The building he lives in in very old. The city that I was born in is beautiful. The city I was born in is beautiful. Note: If you use THAT or NO PRONOUN, the preposition comes at the end of the adjective clause.
Adjective Clauses - WHEN It is used to modify a noun of time. I’ll never forget the day. I met you then.(on that day.) I’ll never forget the day when I met you. February is the month. I was born then.(in that month) February is the month when I was born.
You can also use WHICH to modify a time. I’ll never forget the day on which I met you. February is the month in which I was born. NOTE: If you use “that” or no pronoun, omit the preposition. I’ll never forget the day that I met you. February is the month that I was born. I’ll never forget the day I met you. February is the month I was born.
P 245 Ex 13 1. The storewhereI bought my computer is having a sale now. 2. Do you bookmark the Web sites(which/that)you visit often? 3. The box at the top of your browser is the place inwhich you type the Web address. 4. There are Web siteswhereyou can compare prices of electronics. 5. The citywhereI was born has a lot of parks. 6. I don’t like citieswhich/thathave a lot of factories. 7. I like to shop at storeswhich/thathave products from my country.
8. I like to shop at storeswhereI can find products from my country. 9. A department store is a store inwhichyou can find all kinds of goods-clothing, furniture, toys, etc. 10. I have a photograph of the homewhereI grew up. 11. The officewhereyou can get your transcripts is closed now. 12. She wants to rent an apartment(which/that)she saw last Sunday. 13. I would like to visit the citywhereI grew up. 14. The town inwhichshe grew up was destroyed by the war.
6.8 Adjective Clauses Using WHOSE Whose is used to show possession. It has the same meaning as – his her its their and is connected to a noun. his car/ whose car her book/whose book its food/whose food their house/whose house WHOSE is placed at the beginning of an adjective clause and cannot be omitted. It usually modifies people, but it can also modify things.
I know the man. His bicycle was stolen. I know the man whose bicycle was stolen. The student writes well. I read her composition. The student whose composition I read writes well. I worked at a company. Its employees wanted to form a union. I worked at a company whose employees wanted to form a union. That is the teacher. I am taking her course. That is the teacher whose course I am taking.
P 248 Ex 15 1. The person whose furniture I received is moving to another city. 2. I got a bike from a man whose son just got a bigger bike. 3. Spammers send e-mail to all the people whose names are on their list. 4. On eBay you can meet people whose interests you share. 5. I sent an e-mail to all the people whose e-mail addresses are in my address book.
6. I only open attachments from senders whose names I recognize. 7. A company whose Web site I visit often sends me coupons by e-mail. 8. Companies whose computers are infected with a virus can lose all their data. 9. I have to talk to the coworker whose laptop I borrowed. 10. Companies whose sites you visit may sell your e-mail address to spammers.
P 248/249 Ex 16 1.Pierre Omidyar is a creative personwhose idea for eBay made him a very wealthy man. 2. My friend has a sisterwhose daughter is studying to be a computer programmer. 3. The teacherwhose class I am takinguses a computer in the classroom. 4. Freecycle is an online communitywhose members help each other to get the things they need.
5. Freecycle is an organizationwhose goal is to protect the environment from unnecessary landfill. 6. The personwhose old TV I receivedjust bought a new flat-screen TV. 7. I give my son’s clothes to a womanwhose son is smaller than my son.
6.9 Using Adjective Clauses to Modify Indefinite Pronouns Someone Anyone No-one Nothing Something Anything Object pronouns [who/whom/which/that]are generally omitted. There is someone I want you to meet. Everything he said was pure nonsense.
Keep subject pronouns. Anyone who wants to come is welcome. There is no-one who can help me. Anything that was stolen from the office can be replaced.
P 249/250 Ex 17 M: I heard you want to talk to me. W: Yes. There’s something I want to tell you. M: What do you want to tell me? W: I want to break up. M: Are you angry at me? What did I say? W: Nothing (that) you said made me angry. M: Did I do something wrong? W: Nothing (that) you did made me mad. M: Then what’s the problem?
W: I just don’t love you anymore. M: But I can buy you anything (that) you want. W: I don’t want anything from you. In fact, I’m going to return everything (that) you gave me. M: But I can take you anywhere (that) you want to go. W: I don’t want to go anywhere with you. M: What about all the love letters I sent you by e-mail? W: I deleted everything (that) you sent me.
M: Didn’t you believe anything (that) I said to you? W: I found out that you wrote the same thing to three other women. M: That’s not true. Everything (that) I wrote was sincere. W: How can it be sincere? You wrote the same thing to my cousin’s best friend, my neighbor, and my classmate. The only thing you changed was the name after “Dear.” Everything (that) you wrote was the same. So good-bye!
P 251/252 Ex 20 1.Viruses are written by people who enjoy causing problems for the rest of us. 2. What is spam? Spam is commercial e-mail you haven’t asked for. 3. Who is Bill Gates? Bill Gates is the man who created Microsoft. 4. Bill Gates was born at a time when personal computers were not even in people’s imaginations. 5. Who is Meg Whitman? She is the woman to whom Pierre Omidyar turned over the operation of eBay in 1998. 6. Omidyar needed to bring in someone whose knowledge of business was greater than his own.
7. A computer is a tool most of us use today for fast access to information. 8. The Internet is a tool that has been around since the 1970’s. 9. What is eBay? eBay is a Web site where you can buy and sell items. 10. My parents were born at a time when the Internet didn’t exist. 11. The people you meet in chat rooms are sometimes very rude. 12. I have all the e-mails that my friends have sent to me. 13. The computer lab is never open at a time when I need it.
14. I always delete spam that I receive. 15. On eBay, you can meet people who have the same interests as you. 16. You can create an address book where you can keep all the e-mail addresses of all your friends. 17. You can create an address book in which you cab keep all the e-mail addresses of all your friends. 18. There are chat rooms where people with the same interests can meet each other.
19. A virus writer is a person whose enjoyment comes from creating problems for computer users. 20. Do you know anyone who doesn’t own a computer? 21. A man who’s in my math class doesn’t own a computer. 22. Don’t believe everything you read on the Internet.
P 252/253/254 Ex 21 A: How was your move last month? B: It was terrible. A: Didn’t you use the moving company(that) I recommended? B: The company(that) you recommendedwas not available on the day(that) I had to move.I used a company(that) I found on the internet. A: What happened? B: First of all, it was raining on the day(that) I moved.That made the move take longer, so it was more expensive than I thought it would be.
A: It’s not the company’s fault that it rained. B: I know. But there are many other thingsthat were their fault. The movers broke the mirror(that) I had just bought.And they left muddy footprints on the carpet(that) I had just cleaned. I thought I was getting professional movers. But the men(that) they sent to my homewere college students. They didn’t have much experience moving. Because the move took them so long, they charged me much more than I expected to pay. The information (that) they haveon their Web site says $100 an hour. But they charged me $800 for six hours of work.
A: You should talk to the owner of the company. B: I called the company several times. The woman(who/that) I talked tosaid that the owner would call me back, but he never has. A: You should keep trying. Make a list of everything(that) they broke or ruined.Their insurance will probably pay for these things. B: I don’t know if they have insurance. A: You should never use a companythat doesn’t have insurance. B: Everyone(who/that) I have talked totells me the same thing.
A: Don’t feel so bad. Everyone makes mistakes. We learn from the mistakes(that) we make.Why didn’t you ask your friends to help you move? B: Everyone(that) I knowis so busy. I didn’t want to bother anyone. A: By the way, why did you move? You had a lovely apartment. B: It wasn’t mine. The personwhose apartment I was renting spent a year in China, but when she came back last month, I had to leave.
A: How do you like your new place? B: It’s fine. It’s across the street from the buildingwhere my sister lives.So now we get to see each other more often. Why don’t you come over sometime and see my new place? A: I’d love to. How about Saturday after 4p.m.? That’s the only time(when) I don’t have too much to do. B: Saturday would be great.
P 256/257 Ex 22 1. The abacus, which was created about 2000 years ago, helped people solve arithmetic problems. 2. The first modern computer, which was called ENIAC, took up a lot of space. ( 1,800 square feet) 3. ENIAC was created in 1942, when the U.S. was involved in World War II. 4. ENIAC, which helped the government store important data, was built at the University of Pennsylvania.
5. Personal computers, which were introduced in the 1970’s, are much smaller and faster that previous computers. 6. The Internet, which has been around since the 1970’s, was not available to most people until the Web was created. 7. Berners-Lee, whose name is not widely recognized, made a great contribution to the world. 8. Bill gates went to Harvard University, where he developed the programming language BASIC.
9. Bill gates dropped out of Harvard to work with Paul Allen, who was his old high school friend. 10. Together Gates and Allen founded Microsoft, which has made both of them very rich. 11. In 1984, Apple produced the first Macintosh computer, which was easier to use than earlier computers. 12. In 1985, Bill gates introduced Windows, which was Microsoft’s version of the popular Macintosh operating system.
P 259/260 Ex 23 Non Essential Adjective Clauses 1.Kids who spend a lot of time on the computer don’t get much exercise. 2. My grammar teacher, who has been teaching here for 20 years, knows a lot about computers. 3. Freecycle, which was created in 2003, helps keep things out of landfills. 4. People who get spam every day can get very annoyed. 5. My best friend, who gets at least 30 pieces of spam a day, wrote a letter to his senator to complain.
7. Meg Whitman, who ran eBay for ten years, decided to run for governor of California. 8. Berners-Lee worked in Switzerland, where the CERN physics laboratory is located. 9. The Windows operating system, which was developed by Microsoft, came out in 1985. 10. Did you like the story that we read about Berners-Lee? 11. The computer you bought three years ago doesn’t have enough memory.
12. The computer, which is one of the most important inventions of the twentieth century, has changed the way people process information. 13. Bill gates, who created Microsoft with his friend, became a billionaire. 14. My best friend, whose name is on my buddy list, contacts me every day through an instant message.
P 260/261 Ex 24 1.Freecycle.org was created by Deron Beal, whose idea was to protect the environment. 2. The World Wide Web, which was created by Tim Berners-Lee, is used by billions of people around the world. 3. Tim Berners-Lee, whose picture we saw on page 255, was born in England. 4. The Book Weaving the Web, which was written by Berners-Lee in 1999, answers a lot of questions about the creation of the Web. 5. Berners-Lee, whose parents helped design one of the first computers, knew about computers from an early age. 6. Tim Berners-Lee works at MIT, where he does research on artificial intelligence.
7. Pierre Omidyar got his idea for eBay in 1995, when his wife couldn’t find one of her favorite collectibles. 8. eBay hired Meg Whitman in 1998, when more expert business knowledge was needed to run the company. 9. E-mail, which was first created in 1972, did not become popular until the 1990’s. 10. Bill Gates, who is the richest person in the U.S., often gets spam asking him if he wants to become rich. 11. Pierre Omidyar, whose father was a professor of medicine, came to the U.S. when he was a child. 12. Freecycle, whose members live in the same community, helps people get things for free.
P 264 Ex 26 1. Google, a popular search engine, is very easy to use. 2. Have you ever heard of Mapquest, a Web site that gives maps and driving directions? 3. Tim Berners-Lee works at MIT, a university in Massachusetts. 4. Time Berners-Lee was born in 1955, the same year Bill Gates was born. 5. Freecycle.org, created in 2003, helps the environment.
P 265/266 Ex 27 1.Pierre Omidyar, who wrote his first computer program at age 14, was born in France. 2. Business Week, a popular business magazine, named Meg Whitman among the 25 most powerful business managers. 3. Bill Gates, whose father was a lawyer, was born in 1955. 4. Bill Gates wrote his first computer program in 1967, when he was only 12 years old. 5. Bill Gates, whose wife was a marketing executive at Microsoft, has three children.
6. Paul Allen, who Bill gates met in high school, helped create Microsoft. 7. Bill Gates, who dropped out of Harvard during his second year, started Microsoft at the age of 19. 8. Freecycle.org is an online network whose members can receive goods for free. 9. Michael Dell, who dropped out of college after his first year, created Dell computers. 10. Dell’s parents were worried about Michael, whose grades were dropping.
11. Dell’s business started to perform well at the end of his first year of college, when his business was making $50,000 a month. 12. Dell Computers, which was selling about $18 million of computers a day by the late 1990’s, was one of the first companies to sell computers online. 13. In 2000, Forbes, a business magazine, named Dell Computers the third most admired company in the U.S. 14. In 2008, Meg Whitman resigned from eBay, where she worked for ten years.