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POLYMERS A guide for GCSE students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING 2010 SPECIFICATIONS.

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Presentation on theme: "POLYMERS A guide for GCSE students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING 2010 SPECIFICATIONS."— Presentation transcript:

1 POLYMERS A guide for GCSE students KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING 2010 SPECIFICATIONS

2 POLYMERS INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white board. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY WEBSITE at... All diagrams, photographs and any animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any work that is distributed for financial gain.

3 CONTENTS CONTENTS What is polymerisation? Types of polymerisation Addition polymerisation of ethene Other polymerisation examples Sources of monomers Disposal of polymers Questions POLYMERS For more detailed information on fractional distillation, cracking and the properties of hydrocarbons such as alkanes and alkenes, see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site. For more detailed information on fractional distillation, cracking and the properties of hydrocarbons such as alkanes and alkenes, see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site.

4 WHAT IS POLYMERISATION?

5 A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. POLYMERISATION

6 A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types POLYMERISATION

7 A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer examplespoly(ethene), polystyrene, pvc, ptfe POLYMERISATION

8 A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer examplespoly(ethene), polystyrene, pvc, ptfe CONDENSATION monomers join up the with expulsion of small molecules not all the original atoms are present in the polymer examplesnylon, polyesters, pva POLYMERISATION

9 A process in which small molecules called monomers join together into large molecules consisting of repeating units. There are two basic types ADDITION all the atoms in the monomer are used to form the polymer examplespoly(ethene), polystyrene, pvc, ptfe CONDENSATION monomers join up the with expulsion of small molecules not all the original atoms are present in the polymer examplesnylon, polyesters, pva ALKENES UNDERGO ADDITION POLYMERISATION POLYMERISATION

10 during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer long hydrocarbon chains are formed POLYMERISATION

11 during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer long hydrocarbon chains are formed POLYMERISATION

12 during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer long hydrocarbon chains are formed the diagram shows… the original monomer and the repeating unit in the polymer POLYMERISATION ethene poly(ethene) MONOMER POLYMER

13 during polymerisation, alkenes undergo an addition reaction all the atoms in the original alkenes are used to form the polymer long hydrocarbon chains are formed the diagram shows… the original monomer and the repeating unit in the polymer POLYMERISATION ethene poly(ethene) MONOMER POLYMER n represents a large number the number of repeating units is the same as the number of original molecules

14 The animation shows the monomers turning into the polymer POLYMERISATION

15 ETHENE PROPENE TETRAFLUOROETHENE CHLOROETHENE POLY(ETHENE) POLY(PROPENE) POLY(CHLOROETHENE) POLYVINYLCHLORIDE PVC POLY(TETRAFLUOROETHENE) PTFE “Teflon” OTHER POLYMERISATION REACTIONS

16 SOURCES OF MONOMERS

17 FROM CRUDE OIL

18 SOURCES OF MONOMERS FROM CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL

19 SOURCES OF MONOMERS FROM CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL THEIR MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES CRACKING THIS PROCESS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING

20 SOURCES OF MONOMERS FROM CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL THEIR MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES CRACKING THIS PROCESS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING ETHENE (an alkene)

21 SOURCES OF MONOMERS FROM CRUDE OIL CRUDE OIL IS FRACTIONALLY DISTILLED HEAVIER HYDROCARBON FRACTIONS ARE LESS USEFUL THEIR MOLECULES ARE BROKEN DOWN INTO SMALLER ONES CRACKING THIS PROCESS IS KNOWN AS CRACKING ALKENES ARE AN IMPORTANT PRODUCT OF CRACKING ETHENE (C 2 H 4 ) IS THE MOST IMPORTANT ALKENE ETHENE (an alkene)

22 PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS

23 Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems. PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS

24 Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems. they are unreactive to most chemicals they are unreactive to bacteria (non-biodegradable) if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS

25 Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems. they are unreactive to most chemicals they are unreactive to bacteria (non-biodegradable) if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem OPTIONS PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS

26 Although polymers derived from alkenes are invaluable to modern society, their disposal creates widespread problems. they are unreactive to most chemicals they are unreactive to bacteria (non-biodegradable) if they are just discarded they add to the landfill problem OPTIONS recyclinghigh cost of collection and re-processing incineratesaves on landfill sites and produces energy but… produces toxic fumes PROBLEMS WITH POLYMERS Plastic bags are being made from polymers and cornstarch so that they break down more easily Plastic bags are being made from polymers and cornstarch so that they break down more easily

27 POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES QUESTIONS

28 CAN YOU SPOT THE ORIGINAL ALKENE MONOMER?

29 POLYMERISATION OF ALKENES CAN YOU SPOT THE ORIGINAL ALKENE MONOMER?

30 For more detailed information on FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION AND CRACKING, please see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site. For more detailed information on FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION AND CRACKING, please see the appropriate Powerpoint on the Knockhardy GCSE site.

31 POLYMERS THE END ©2011 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING


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