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© Cengage Learning 2015 LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT, 18e G. TYLER MILLER SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN © Cengage Learning 2015 21 Solid and Hazardous Waste.

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Presentation on theme: "© Cengage Learning 2015 LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT, 18e G. TYLER MILLER SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN © Cengage Learning 2015 21 Solid and Hazardous Waste."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Cengage Learning 2015 LIVING IN THE ENVIRONMENT, 18e G. TYLER MILLER SCOTT E. SPOOLMAN © Cengage Learning Solid and Hazardous Waste

2 © Cengage Learning 2015 Electronic waste (e-waste) is the fastest growing solid waste problem Most ends up in landfills and incinerators Composition includes: –High-quality plastics –Valuable metals –Toxic and hazardous pollutants Core Case Study: E-Waste – An Exploding Problem

3 © Cengage Learning 2015 Shipped to other countries International Basel Convention –Bans transferring hazardous wastes from developed countries to developing countries European Union –Cradle-to-grave approach Core Case Study: E-Waste – An Exploding Problem (cont’d.)

4 Fig. 21-1, p. 576

5 © Cengage Learning 2015 Solid waste contributes to pollution and includes valuable resources that could be reused or recycled Hazardous waste contributes to pollution, as well as to natural capital degradation, health problems, and premature deaths 21-1 What Are Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste, and Why Are They Problems?

6 © Cengage Learning 2015 In the natural world, there is essential no waste because the waste of one organism become nutrients or raw materials for others. Because of humans we have…

7 © Cengage Learning 2015 Solid waste –Any unwanted or discarded material we produce that is not liquid or gas –1. Industrial solid waste Produced by mines, farms, industries –2. Municipal solid waste (MSW) Garbage or trash produced by homes and workplaces We Throw Away Huge Amounts of Useful Things

8 © Cengage Learning 2015 Most waste ends up in: –Rivers, lakes, the ocean, and natural landscapes In more developed countries: –MSW is buried in landfills or burned in incinerators In less developed countries: -open dumps, people use or sell

9 © Cengage Learning 2015 Hazardous waste (toxic waste) –Any discarded material or substance that threatens human health of the environment –Examples: industrial solvents, hospital medical waste, car batteries, dry-cell batteries, and household pesticide products Hazardous Waste Is a Serious and Growing Problem

10 © Cengage Learning 2015 Classes of hazardous waste –Organic compounds Various solvents, pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins –Toxic heavy metals Lead, mercury, arsenic –Radioactive waste Waste produced by nuclear power plants and nuclear weapon facilities Must be stored for 10,000 to 240,000 years; have not found safe way to isolate

11 © Cengage Learning 2015 Leader in solid waste problem –In trash production, by weight, per person 98.5% of all solid waste is industrial waste 1.5% is MSW (Each American throws away 7 pounds of trash every day or 2,750 pounds a year) Most wastes break down very slowly –If at all Case Study: Solid Waste in the United States

12 Fig. 21-5, p. 579

13 © Cengage Learning 2015 A sustainable approach to solid waste is: –First to reduce it –Then to reuse or recycle it –Finally, to safely dispose of what is left 21-2 How Should We Deal with Solid Waste?

14 © Cengage Learning Waste management –Reduce harm, but not amounts –Typically involves mixing wastes together and then transferring them from one part of the environment to another, usually by burying them, burning them, or shipping them to another location We Can Burn, Bury, or Recycle Solid Waste or Produce Less of It

15 © Cengage Learning Waste reduction –Use less and focus on reuse, recycle, compost 3.Integrated waste management –Uses a variety of strategies

16 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 21-6, p. 581 Raw materials Processing and manufacturing Products Solid and hazardous wastes generated during the manufacturing process Waste generated by households and businesses Food/yard waste Hazardous waste Remaining mixed waste PlasticGlassMetalPaper To manufacturers for reuse or for recycling Compost Hazardous waste management LandfillIncinerator Fertilizer

17 © Cengage Learning 2015 Waste reduction is based on: –Refuse – don’t use it –Reduce – use less –Reuse – use it over and over –Recycle- convert it to useful items and buy products made from recycled materials. We Can Cut Solid Wastes by Refusing, Reducing, Reusing, and Recycling

18 © Cengage Learning 2015 Composting –Form of recycling that uses bacteria to decompose yard trimmings, vegetable food scraps, & biodegradable waste into materials that can increase soil fertility.

19 © Cengage Learning 2015 Six strategies to reduce resource us, waste, and pollution: –1. Change industrial processes to eliminate harmful chemicals –2. Redesign manufacturing process to use less material and energy –3. Develop products that are easy to recycle –4. Eliminate unnecessary packaging –5. Use fee-per-bag waste collection systems –6. Establish cradle-to grave responsibility Refusing, Reducing, Reusing, and Recycling (cont’d.)

20 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig. 21-7, p. 581 What We Should DoWhat We Do Reduce Reuse Recycle/Compost Incinerate Bury Reduce (<0.1%) Reuse (0.2%) Incinerate (9%) Recycle/Compost (23.7%) Bury (67%)

21 © Cengage Learning 2015 By refusing and reducing resource use and by reusing and recycling what we use, we: –Decrease our consumption of matter and energy resources –Reduce pollution and natural capital degradation –Save money 21-3 Why Are Refusing, Reducing, Reusing, and Recycling So Important?

22 © Cengage Learning 2015 We increasingly substitute throwaway items for reusable ones In general, reuse is on the rise One solution: taxing plastic shopping bags –Ireland, Taiwan, the Netherlands There Are Alternatives to the Throwaway Economy

23 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig , p. 583

24 © Cengage Learning 2015 Primary, closed-loop recycling –Materials recycled into new products of the same type Secondary recycling –Materials converted to other products: tires Types of wastes that can be recycled –Preconsumer, internal waste generated in manufacturing process –Postconsumer, external waste generated by product use There Is Great Potential for Recycling

25 © Cengage Learning 2015 Steps to recycling: –1. collecting materials –2. converting materials to new products –3. selling and buying of products

26 © Cengage Learning 2015 With incentives, the U.S. could recycle and compost 80% of its municipal solid waste Composting –Mimics nature’s recycling of nutrients –Resulting organic matter can be used to: Supply plant nutrients Slow soil erosion Retain water Improve crop yield There Is Great Potential for Recycling (cont’d.)

27 © Cengage Learning 2015 Materials-recovery facilities (MRFs) –Machines or workers separate mixed waste to recover valuable materials for sale to manufacturers as raw materials. Source separation –Pay-as-you-throw –Fee-per-bag We Can Mix or Separate Household Solid Wastes for Recycling

28 © Cengage Learning 2015 Production of paper versus recycled paper –Energy use – world’s fifth largest consumer –Water use –Pollution Easy to recycle –Uses 64% less energy –Produces 35% less water pollution –Produces 74% less air pollution Recycling Paper

29 © Cengage Learning 2015 Plastics –Composed of resins created from oil and natural gas Currently only 7% is recycled in the U.S. –Many types of plastic resins making it difficult to separate from products that contain them Recycling Plastics

30 © Cengage Learning 2015 Advantages –Net economic health –Environmental benefits Disadvantages –Costly Single-pickup system –No separation needed Recycling Has Advantages and Disadvantages

31 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig , p. 585 Trade-Offs Disadvantages Recycling Reduces energy and mineral use and air and water pollution Can cost more than burying in areas with ample landfill space Reduces greenhouse gas emissions Reduces profits for landfill and incinerator owners Reduces solid waste Inconvenient for some Advantages

32 © Cengage Learning 2015 Technologies for burning and burying solid wastes are well developed –However, burning contributes to air and water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and buried wastes eventually contribute to the pollution and degradation of land and water resources 21-4 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Burning or Burying Solid Waste

33 © Cengage Learning 2015 Waste-to-energy incinerators –Use the heat they generate to boil water and make steam for heating water or for producing electricity –US incinerates about 9% of MSW Burning Solid Waste Has Advantages and Disadvantages

34 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig , p. 588 Electricity Crane Steam Turbine Smokestack Generator Furnace Wet scrubber Boiler Electrostatic precipitator Waste pit Water added Conveyor Bottom ash Dirty water Fly ash To waste treatment plant Ash for treatment, disposal in landfill, or use as landfill cover

35 Fig , p. 588 Waste-to-Energy Incineration AdvantagesDisadvantages Produces energy Produces a hazardous waste Concentrates hazardous substances into ash for burial Emits some CO 2 and other air pollutants Sale of energy reduces cost Encourages waste production Reduces trash volume Trade-Offs Expensive to build

36 © Cengage Learning Sanitary landfills –About 67% of MSW in US; Consist of compacted layers of waste between clay or foam –Have strong bottom liners and containment systems to prevent leakage Burying Solid Waste Has Advantages and Disadvantages

37 © Cengage Learning Open dumps –Widely used in less-developed countries Rare in developed countries –Large pit Sometimes garbage is burned

38 Fig , p. 589 When landfill is full, layers of soil and clay seal in trash Topsoil Sand Electricity generator building Clay Garbage Methane storage and compressor building Leachate treatment system Probes to detect methane leaks Pipes collect explosive methane for use as fuel to generate electricity Methane gas recovery well Leachate storage tank Compacted solid waste Garbage Leachate pipes Leachate pumped up to storage tank for safe disposal Groundwater monitoring well Synthetic liner Leachate monitoring well Sand Groundwater Clay Clay and plastic lining to prevent leaks; pipes collect leachate from bottom of landfill Subsoil Sand

39 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig , p. 589 Trade-Offs Sanitary Landfills AdvantagesDisadvantages Releases greenhouse gases (methane and CO 2 ) unless they are collected Can handle large amounts of waste Filled land can be used for other purposes Output approach that encourages waste production No shortage of landfill space in many areas Eventually leaks and can contaminate groundwater Low operating costs Noise, traffic, and dust

40 © Cengage Learning 2015 A more sustainable approach to hazardous waste: –First, produce less of it –Then, reuse or recycle it –Then, convert it to less-hazardous materials –Finally, safely store what is left 21-5 How Should We Deal with Hazardous Waste?

41 © Cengage Learning 2015 Integrated management of hazardous wastes: –1.Produce less –2.Convert to less hazardous substances –3.Rest in long-term safe storage Increased use for postconsumer hazardous waste We Can Use Integrated Management of Hazardous Waste

42 Put in Perpetual Storage  Landfill  Underground injection wells  Surface impoundments  Underground salt formations Stepped Art Convert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous Substances  Natural decomposition  Incineration  Thermal treatment  Chemical, physical, and biological treatment  Dilution in air or water Produce Less Hazardous Waste  Change industrial processes to reduce or eliminate hazardous waste production  Recycle and reuse hazardous waste Fig , p. 591

43 © Cengage Learning % goes to China –Hazardous working conditions –Includes child workers U.S. produces roughly 50% of the world’s e-waste –Recycles only 14% Case Study: Recycling E-Waste

44 © Cengage Learning 2015 Collect and then detoxify –1.Physical methods –2.Chemical methods –3.Use nanomagnets –4.Bioremediation –5.Phytoremediation Incineration Using a plasma arc torch We Can Detoxify Hazardous Wastes

45 Fig , p. 593 Radioactive contaminants Organic contaminants Inorganic metal contaminants Poplar tree Brake fern Sunflower Willow tree Indian mustard Landfill Oil spill Polluted groundwater in Decontaminated water out Soil Polluted leachate Soil Groundwater Rhizofiltration Roots of plants such as sunflowers with dangling roots on ponds or in greenhouses can absorb pollutants such as radioactive strontium-90 and cesium-137 and various organic chemicals. Phytostabilization Plants such as willow trees and poplars can absorb chemicals and keep them from reaching groundwater or nearby surface water. Phytodegredation Plants such as poplars can absorb toxic organic chemicals and break them down into less harmful compounds which they store or release slowly into the air. Phytoextraction Roots of plants such as Indian mustard and brake ferns can absorb toxic metals such as lead, arsenic, and others and store them in their leaves. Plants can then be recycled or harvested and incinerated.

46 © Cengage Learning 2015 Burial on land or long-term storage –Last resort only; “out of site, out of mind” –Deep-well disposal Liquid hazardous wastes are pumped under pressure through a pipe into dry, porous rock formations 64% of hazardous liquid wastes in the U.S. –Surface impoundments Lined ponds, pits, or lagoons in which liquid hazardous wastes are stored We Can Store Some Forms of Hazardous Waste

47 © Cengage Learning 2015 Secure hazardous waste landfills –Expensive; both liquid and solid hazardous wastes are put into drums or other containers and buried

48 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig , p. 594 Deep-Well Disposal Advantages Disadvantages Safe if sites are chosen carefully Leaks from corrosion of well casing Emits CO 2 and other air pollutants Wastes can often be retrieved Output approach that encourages waste production Low cost Trade-Offs

49 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig , p. 594 Surface Impoundments Advantages Water pollution from leaking liners and overflows Wastes can often be retrieved Air pollution from volatile organic compounds Can store wastes indefinitely with secure double liners Output approach that encourages waste production Trade-Offs Disadvantages Low cost

50 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig , p. 595

51 © Cengage Learning – Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) –EPA sets standards and gives permits –Cradle to grave –Covers only 5% of hazardous wastes Case Study: Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States

52 © Cengage Learning – Comprehensive Environmental, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) –National Priorities List 2013 – 1320 Superfund sites; 365 cleaned –Pace of cleanup has slowed –Superfund is broke Laws encouraging the cleanup of brownfields –Abandoned industrial sites Case Study: Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States (cont’d.)

53 © Cengage Learning 2015 Fig , p. 596

54 © Cengage Learning 2015 Shifting to a low-waste society requires individuals and businesses to: –Reduce resource use –Reuse and recycle wastes at local, national, and global levels 21-6 How Can We Make the Transition to a More Sustainable Low-Waste Society?

55 © Cengage Learning 2015 Prevent construction of: –Incinerators, landfills, treatment plants, polluting chemical plants Something must be done with hazardous wastes Apply precautionary principle Grassroots Action Has Led to Better Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

56 © Cengage Learning 2015 Environmental justice –Everyone is entitled to protection from environmental hazards Communities in the U.S. have the largest share of hazardous waste dumps: –African American, Asian American, Latinos, and Native American –Environmental discrimination has led to environmental justice movement Providing Environmental Justice for Everyone Is an Important Goal

57 © Cengage Learning 2015 Factors that hinder reuse and recycling: –1.Market prices do not include harmful costs –2.Economic playing field is uneven –3.Demand for recycled products fluctuates Governments can pass laws requiring companies to reuse and recycle We Can Encourage Reuse and Recycling

58 © Cengage Learning Freecycle network 2. Upcycling –Recycling materials into products of higher value 3. Dual-use packaging Reuse, Recycling, and Composting Present Economic Opportunities

59 © Cengage Learning 2015 Basel Convention –1992 – in effect –1995 amendment – bans all transfers of hazardous wastes from industrialized countries to less-developed countries –2012 – ratified by 179 countries, but not the United States International Treaties Have Reduced Hazardous Waste

60 © Cengage Learning – delegates from 122 countries completed a global treaty –Control 12 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) –Include DDT, PCBs, dioxins –Discovered that everyone on earth has POPs in blood 2000 – Swedish Parliament law –By 2020 ban all chemicals that are persistent and can accumulate in living tissue International Treaties Have Reduced Hazardous Waste (cont’d.)

61 © Cengage Learning 2015 Norway, Austria, and the Netherlands –Committed to reduce resource waste by 75% Key principles –1.Everything is connected –2.There is no away –3. Producers and polluters should pay for their wastes –4. We can mimic nature by reusing, recycling, composting, or exchanging MSW we produce We Can Make the Transition to Low-Waste Societies

62 © Cengage Learning 2015 Resource exchange webs –Waste as raw material –Ecoindustrial parks Two major steps of biomimicry –Observe how natural systems respond –Apply to human industrial systems Case Study: Industrial Ecosystems: Copying Nature

63 © Cengage Learning 2015 The order of priorities for dealing with solid waste should be to: –Produce less of it –Reuse and recycle as much of it as possible –Safely burn or bury what is left Three Big Ideas

64 © Cengage Learning 2015 The order of priorities for dealing with hazardous waste should be to: –Produce less of it –Reuse or recycle it –Convert it to less hazardous material –Safely store what is left Three Big Ideas (cont’d.)

65 © Cengage Learning 2015 View solid wastes as wasted resources, and hazardous wastes as materials that we should not be producing in the first place Three Big Ideas (cont’d.)

66 © Cengage Learning 2015 Reduce outputs of solid hazardous waste Mimic nature’s chemical cycling process –Reuse and recycle Integrated waste management Include harmful environmental and health costs in market prices Tying It All Together: E-Waste and Sustainability


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