2 Did you know?? One ton of recycled paper uses 64% less energy 50% less waterCauses 74% less air pollution
3 Saves 17 treesCreates 5 times more jobs than one ton of paper product made from virgin wood pulp.
4 Did you know??New York City alone throw out enough garbage each DAY to fill the Empire State Building.In one day, Americans get rid of 20,000 cars and 4,000 trucks.
5 In the U.S.Industry, people and institutions produced 230 million pounds of waste in 1999.
6 This amount of trash equals almost 4 This amount of trash equals almost 4.5 pounds of waste per person per day.
7 Four Main Categories of Waste Municipal solid wasteIndustrial wasteHazardous wasteWastewater
8 Municipal solid waste is waste that consists of paper, yard waste, food and plastic. Solid waste management can be handled in several ways.
9 Industrial waste comes from the production of consumer goods, mining, agriculture & petroleum extraction & refining.
10 Hazardous waste is solid or liquid waste that is toxic, chemically reactive, flammable or corrosive. This includes paint, batteries, household cleaners to medical waste.
11 Wastewater is another type of waste that includes the water that is used in our households, business, industries, or public facilitates. All the water that goes down the DRAINS!!
12 Waste ManagementHow we deal w/any unwanted material or substance
13 Sanitary landfills - A landfill is a regulated area where wastes are placed in the land.
14 Landfills are constructed in several layers to prevent contamination of the soil and water around them and to handle odor, gases and waste volume.
15 Examples:Municipal Waste Landfill,Construction and Demolition WasteResource Recovery (Waste-to-energy facilities)
16 Steps in creating a sanitary landfill 1. Landfill is lined with a plastic liner and several feet of clay on the bottom and sides of the hole.
17 This lining prevents most substances from leaking out of the landfill into the ground and water.
18 2. Wastes are compacted and covered with several inches of soil on a daily basis to help reduce odor, and to control litter, insects and rodents.
19 3. Landfills must be monitored in order to prevent the contamination of groundwater and other areas around the landfill.
20 4. Newer landfills have leachate collection systems 4. Newer landfills have leachate collection systems. Collects water that has percolated through the landfill and contains contaminate substances (leachates/leeching).
21 5. Methane collection system 5. Methane collection system. Landfill gas (LFG) forms when trash begins to decompose in an anaerobic environment. Landfill gas consists of 50 % methane and 50% carbon dioxide. Some landfills collect the gases and convert them to electricity.
22 6. The primary decomposers of garbage are bacteria and fungi. Decomposers – organisms that break down dead organic wastes.
23 7. The amount of moisture and air, temperature, light and the decomposing material all affect the rate at which microbes can digest the garbage.
24 8. According to the EPA, 25% of all monitored landfills in the US are leaking their contents into the groundwater.
25 Capturing Energy from Landfills Deep inside the landfills, bacteria decompose waste in an oxygen-deficient (anaerobic) environment.
26 This decomposition produces landfill gas called methane This decomposition produces landfill gas called methane. We collect this methane thru a network of pipes by vacuum pressure.
27 The collected gas can provide energy for 25,000 homes.
30 Largest landfill in US – Fresh Kills, Staten Island, NY
31 IncinerationOne way in which we try and reduce the amount of waste is by combustion. Combustion is disposing of trash by controlled burning.
32 These stations are sometimes called WTE facilities because as the wastes burn energy is produced.
33 1. Combustion of trash reduces the volume of the wastes by 90% and the mass by 75%.
34 2. Burning at such high temperatures destroys harmful compounds and kills disease-causing bacteria.
35 3. Burning trash also creates energy and it can convert water into steam to generate electricity.
36 4. Combustion also pollutes the air 4.Combustion also pollutes the air. A scrubber uses a liquid spray to neutralize acidic gases in combustion smoke. Filters are also used to remove ash particles from the smoke.
37 5. Facilities are called Waste to Energy Facilities b/c we capture energy from the burning of trash to help create electricity.
39 SOLID WASTE BREAKDOWN Paper: 2-4 weeks Cotton rags: 1-5 months Orange peel: 6 monthsWool sock: 12 monthsPlastic bags: yrs.Leather shoes: yrs.Aluminum cans: yrs.Glass bottle: undeterminedCardboard box: 2 monthsDiapers – years!!Kleenex – almost as soon as it gets wetJeans – 7 yearsRubber (sole of boot): years….tire: years
40 Paper vs. PlasticPlastics buried in a landfill can take an estimated time of up to 500 years to break down..
41 Plastic is made from long complicated chains of atoms called polymers Plastic is made from long complicated chains of atoms called polymers. Bacterial and other decomposers do not find these polymers very appetizing.
42 Some plastics are photodegradable, which means they break down in the presences of light.
43 Other plastics are biodegradable, which means that they degrade by the action of microbes(bacteria/fungi)
44 Biodegradable plastic bags have been developed Biodegradable plastic bags have been developed. They are made of plastic webbing and cornstarch.
45 Paper presents a space problem Paper presents a space problem. There is more paper used than plastics but it does not compact. Paper will not rot when sealed air tight.
46 WASTE REDUCTION & RECOVERY There are three goals of waste reduction & recovery.
47 Reduce the amount of waste Reuse as much as possibleRecycle materials
48 REDUCEWe have many disposable materials in our society. We have been referred to as the “throw away society.”
49 Source Reduction is preventing waste generation.
50 Less consumption - only purchase what you need Less packaging
51 Reducing using non-biodegradable plastics Design goods that last!Financial incentives – “Bottle Bills”
52 Zero Waste – the design & management of products & processes to decrease the amount of waste and the toxicity of materials are not burned or buried.
53 Composting Biological way to rid of wastes. Worm, bacteria, fungi decompose fruit and other organisms decompose piles of fruit & veggies, food scraps, wood and lawn clippings
54 Composting begins by microorganisms digesting and excreting the organic matter into the pile. As the temperature rises more organisms are attracted to the pile.
55 The product of composting is a dark brown substance called humus The product of composting is a dark brown substance called humus. Humus is very rich in nutrients and an important part of good soil
56 REUSEReusing items rather than throwing them in the trash is another way in which we can reduce the amount of waste.Give items away for redistribution.
57 RECYCLERecycling is a series of activities that reuse a product’s raw materials to manufacture new products.
58 1. Collect the materials: glass, plastic, steel, paper, plastic and aluminum
60 2. Manufacturing:Each recyclable has its own process where it is broken down and then made into something new.
61 3. Recycling loop is completed when recycled products are bought 3. Recycling loop is completed when recycled products are bought. Buying recycled products also saves resources for future generations.
62 Amount of items being recycled: 42% of all paper40% of plastic soft drink bottles55% of aluminum cans56% of all steel packaging
63 Paper, especially newsprint, is recycled and used on farms to enrich soil and livestock bedding. Not all glass can be recycled.
64 Plastics are recycled based on their SPI code numbers 1-7. Metals that are commonly recycled are steel and aluminum.
65 Recycling aluminum cans have diverted more than two billion pounds of aluminum from the landfills.
84 Hazardous Wastemetals,paints,e-waste,medical waste, etc.
85 1. Landfills that have been especially designed 1. Landfills that have been especially designed...water tight liners away from aquifers.
86 2. Surface Impoundment: liquid hazards waste mixed w/water 2. Surface Impoundment: liquid hazards waste mixed w/water. When the water evaporates it just leaves the solid wastes residue. Process is repeated many times. Then the solid residue is gathered & buried.
87 3. Deep well injection: A well is drilled deep beneath the water table 3. Deep well injection: A well is drilled deep beneath the water table. Wastes are injected into it & its kept deep underground.
88 4. Radioactive wastes (radon): It is also buried deep underground in containers that will not corrode. Tanks near nuclear power plants can also store it.
89 RCRA Resource conservation and Recovery Act (1976) This is a federal law which helps to govern our waste management system.
90 *To protect public from harm caused by waste disposal. *To encourage reuse, reduction and recycling*To clean-up spilled or improperly stored wastes
91 CERLCLAThis law established a federal program to clean up U.S. sites polluted w/hazardous waste from past activities. The EPA administers this cleanup program that is called the Superfund.