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World Geography East Asia Notes. Physical Mainland China occupies 81% of East Asia Also has the world’s largest population Mongolia – size of Texas,

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Presentation on theme: "World Geography East Asia Notes. Physical Mainland China occupies 81% of East Asia Also has the world’s largest population Mongolia – size of Texas,"— Presentation transcript:

1 World Geography East Asia Notes

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3 Physical

4 Mainland China occupies 81% of East Asia Also has the world’s largest population Mongolia – size of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Colorado combined  Population of only 2,400,000

5 Peninsulas and Islands Korean Peninsula - North Korea – Communist Government - South Korea – Democratic Government Taiwan – Island that once belonged to mainland China, which still claims it today Japan- small island nation with large economic power Hong Kong – Chinese Territory - Hong Kong was Britain’s, but was returned to China’s control in 1997

6 Mountains Himalayas – Located along the western border of East Asia - World’s highest mountains Kunlun Mountains - located in west China - source of Huang He (Yellow) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze) rivers Qinling Shandi Mountains - divide northern China from the south

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8 Rivers Huang He (Yellow River)—Located in northern China flows into the Yellow Sea - Called Yellow River because it carries tons of loess ( yellowish brown topsoil)

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10 Rivers Chang Jiang(Yangtze River) – Asia’s longest river - Flows through China and empties into the East China Sea - major trade route, but floods often cause great damage Japan and Korea have many short swift flowing rivers

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12 Water Resources China’s long river systems are important to its economy - provide crop irrigation, hydroelectric power, transportation

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14 Water Resources Three Gorges Dam on Chang Jiang will control floods & create power (world’s biggest) - Negative effectsare that one to two million people will have to move - hundreds of historical sites & factories will be submerged (Water Pollution?) - some species (alligator, river dolphin, others) may vanish -Dam could cost $75 billion rather than original $11 billion estimated

15 Water Resources Sea is important food source for East Asia - Japan has one of world’s largest fishing industries

16 Resources of East Asia East Asia is rich in Natural resources, but has uneven distribution - China, Mongolia, North Korea have natural & mineral resources - Japan, South Korea, Taiwan have limited natural resources Forests -Abundant in China, Japan, Taiwan, North and South Korea - Japan reserves forests by buying timber from other regions China has large petroleum, coal, natural gas reserves (makes it self-sufficient)

17 Climates Desert - Gobi Desert located in Mongolia is often cold and windy

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20 Climates Subarctic - Small subarctic zones on Mongolia’s and China’s Russian borders Humid Continental - northeastern China, northern Japan, North Korea, & northern South Korea Humid Subtropical - Southeastern China, southern South Korea, south Japan, north Taiwan

21 Climates Tropical climate zone in East Asia is small - strip of land along China’s southeastern coast - island of Hainan, southern tip of Taiwan Typhoon—tropical storm that occurs in western Pacific

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23 Climate Review Questions Which East Asian country has the world’s largest population? What type of landform is Taiwan? What type of Landform are North & South Korea? What are the world’s highest mountains & where are they located in relation to East Asia? What is Asia’s longest River? What river is also known as he Yellow River? Where would you find a subarctic climate in East Asia? On what river is the Three Gorges dam being built? What are the positive effects that the Three Gorges dam will have on China? What are the negative effects the Three Gorges Dam will have on China?

24 China

25 History Oldest continuous civilization - A settled society for 4,000 years -Stone Age cultures later ruled by dynasties—series of family rulers 1200s - arrived Europeans (Marco Polo) 1800s- European powers sought access to Chinese markets (Treaties) 1949 China became communist - Mao Zedong ruled mainland People’s Republic

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27 China’s Rural and Industrial Economies China is largely rural society & agriculturally self-sufficient - river valleys have rich soil; 60% of workers on farms Can only farm 13% of land due to mountains, deserts - grows enough to feed population The Industrial Economy - industrial growth stunted under planned economy through 1970s -1980s open marketplace created fast-growing economy

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29 Culture Chinese Inventions - Paper, printing, gunpowder, compass, porcelain, silk cloth Confucianism – inspired by Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 B.C.) - orderly, educated society has respect for past, ancestors - children obey parents; parents obey government, emperor Taoism—from Tao-te Ching book of Lao-tzu teachings (500s B.C.) - preserve, restore harmony in individual, universe Indian Buddhism grew in China & was influenced by Confucianism & Taoism

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31 China’s Population One-fifth of world’s people live in China population is about 1.3 billion Many of China’s 22 provinces are bigger than most countries -70% of people live in 12 eastern provinces

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35 Health Care China has provided health care for huge populace since 1950 China has dual strategy in developing health-care system People use traditional herbal remedies & acupuncture Doctors use modern medicine, Western drugs & surgery - most cities have hospitals - village clinics have trained medical workers (“barefoot doctors”)

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37 China Review Questions What does Confucianism believe that all children should do? What does Taoism believe is important? What is a dynasty? Who was the leader of Communist China until 1976?

38 Mongolia

39 History Mongols were nomadic herders until Genghis Khan conquered Central Asia Genghis Khan died & successors expanded empire 1300s - Empire broke up

40 History 1600s - China gained control of Mongolia Mongolians achieved independence Mongolia became Communist - remained Communist until 1989 (fall of USSR) Mongolia now moving toward democracy

41 Economic Prospects for Mongolia Many people herd & manage livestock (sheep, goats, camels, horses, cattle) - nomadic herding was economic base for centuries - cashmere industry uses soft wool of local goats Developing industries while making difficult shift to market economy - Soviets guided economy for 70 years (state owned factories)

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43 Daily Life in Mongolia Nomads once guided animals from grassland to grassland Nomads live in tents called yurts, made of felt, leather - yurts are even found in capital of Ulaanbaatar Many still raise sheep, cattle, goats; some are still nomadic - most live on farms and ranches with small villages in center

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46 Mongolia Review Questions What do goats in Mongolia produce? What is a yurt & in what East Asian country are they used?

47 Tawain

48 Taiwan’s Link to China Prehistoric people migrated to Taiwan from China, southeast Asia Chinese Nationalists lost to Communists & fled to island - established Republic of China (not recognized by China)

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52 Taiwan’s Economic Success Prosperity based on manufacturing industries and trade Has few resources but trained, motivated workers Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea are economic tigers - nations with cheap labor, high technology, & aggressive exports

53 Taiwan’s Economic Success Pacific Rim - economic, social region surrounding Pacific Ocean - East and Southeast Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Chile, U.S. coast

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56 Taiwan’s Culture Population and culture is almost exclusively Chinese - capital city of Taipei has Buddhist temples, Chinese art museums Well-educated population: many universities, 30 daily newspapers

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58 Taiwan’s Culture Most speak official language of Northern Chinese (Mandarin) People combine a number of religious, ethical beliefs - 90% practice blend of Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism Baseball is popular in Taiwan, other parts of Asia (especially Japan)

59 Taiwan Review Questions What three things are needed in order for a country to become an economic tiger? What is the Pacific Rim?

60 North & South Korea

61 Korea’s History Manchurians& Chinese migrated to area by 2000 B.C. Korea was often invaded by China & Japan Japan conquered Korea & ruled until WWII defeat in 1945 After WWII, northern Korea is controlled by USSR, southern by U.S North Korean troops invaded South Korea & began Korean War treaty ended war & divided peninsula

62 Culture Korea adopted many philosophical & religious ideas from China - Confucian, Buddhist influences Communism molds North Korean culture South Korea is influenced by Western culture North Korean government only allows Communist or folk art South Korean artists have more freedom of expression

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64 Population Patterns Most people live on coastal plains & river valleys South Korea has 45% of peninsula’s land & 66% of population

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66 Japan

67 Japan’s History First people came from South Pacific, or from Siberia U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry ended Japan’s isolation By the early 20th century, Japan is a major power (Fought U.S in WWII) Expanding empire put Japan’s interests in conflict with U.S After WWII - U.S. occupied Japan & brought political & economic reforms Japan became democracy

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69 An Economic Powerhouse Japan has world’s 2 nd largest economy Japan imports resources to manufacture products for export - exports autos, electronics, computers Strong ties between business and government help economy

70 Japanese Culture Chinese influence early language, religion, art, music, government Japan has been open to Western influences since 1800s Popular sports are baseball, golf, sumo wrestling, soccer, tennis

71 Japanese Culture Most clothes are Western; traditional clothes for special occasions Western music is popular, including rock, classical, & jazz - younger Japanese form rock bands

72 Life in Today’s Japan Highly structured educational system - students in school six days a week; six weeks of summer vacation - six years of elementary, three of junior high, three of high school - Japan has more than 1,000 universities and technical schools 75% live in cities & 60% live on 2.7% of land

73 Life in Today’s Japan Houses are small & sparsely furnished Many people in cities live in apartments - family of four in a one-bedroom apartment is common Some move to suburbs, but must commute several hours to work Coastal cities reclaim land with landfill landfill is solid waste buried in layers of dirt - Tokyo puts factories, refineries on landfill

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76 Physical Forces in the Ring of Fire Many Japanese cities are threatened by earthquakes - Japan is on the Ring of Fire—chain of volcanoes around Pacific Rim Subduction -oceanic plate slides under continental plate Since first records, at least 60 Japanese volcanoes have been active - Mt. Fuji, Japan’s best- known landform is a volcano

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79 Physical Forces in the Ring of Fire Earthquakes and Tsunamis - An average of 1,000 earthquakes occur in Japan each year - most are mild, but some cause many deaths, great destruction Great Kanto earthquake and its fires killed 140,000 people - left Tokyo in ruins, damaged or destroyed 700,000 homes

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81 Physical Forces in the Ring of Fire Underwater earthquakes move ocean floor; can create tsunami - huge wave of great destructive power that can reach over 100 feet

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86 Industrialization and Globalization Nations industrialized & East- West trade increased after WWII - “Made in China,” “Made in Japan” labels are common in West Regional economies merged &, global economy developed - global economy- nations are interdependent for goods & services Economically powerful nations in Pacific Rim zone of prosperity - called the Jakota Triangle— Japan, Korea (South), Taiwan

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90 Economic Problems Arise Asian economies run on efficiency, innovation, and cheap labor 1995 report from UNICEF (the United Nations Children’s Fund) - over 500,000 East Asian children work in factories & beg on streets

91 Economic Problems Arise Japan entered recession—an extended decline in business activity - Asian economic crisis spread through the world World Bank lent money to East Asian countries that promised reform - ban on child-labor & forced-labor practices - Ending the use of sweatshops - places where people work long hours in poor conditions for pennies

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93 Japan Review Questions What percentage of Japanese people live in cities? What is Japan’s best known landform? What is the Ring of Fire? What is subduction? How are landfills created in Japan? What is a recession? What is a sweat shop? What did the World Bank do & what was the stipulation behind its action? What did a UNICEF report say that East Asian children were doing? What is a global economy? What happened during the Great Kanto Earthquake? What is a Tsunami? What is the Jakota Triangle? What were shoguns?


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