Presentation on theme: "GHG Accounting Tools Mexico, 23 July 2013 Gary Crawford Vice President - Sustainable Development Veolia Environmental Services Marlene Sieck Federal Environment."— Presentation transcript:
GHG Accounting Tools Mexico, 23 July 2013 Gary Crawford Vice President - Sustainable Development Veolia Environmental Services Marlene Sieck Federal Environment Agency Germany Mushtaq Ahmed Memon Programme Officer, UNEP IETC
Outline CCAC MSW Initiative and GHG Need for GHG assessment tool Identifying the tools Paris Workshop
Introduction The CCAC MSW Initiative is working with the world’s largest leading cities to undertake a variety of efforts to tackle the largest sources of emissions from waste, including capping and closing open dumps, capturing and utilizing landfill gas, and proper waste handling, organics management and recycling. A key starting point for these cities is the identification of appropriate quantification tools to demonstrate the emission reductions from the above referenced actions.
SLCPs Although CO2 is understood to be the major contributor to climate change, shorter-lived pollutants, with lifetimes of days to years, also play a significant role in the modification of climate. Reducing emissions of these Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) has become a matter of urgency, particularly for communities, ecosystems and regions most at risk from near-term climate impacts. Furthermore, several of the SLCPs have additional deleterious effects on human and environmental health. Luckily, there are existing, viable methods to reduce SLCPs, with the necessary regulatory and institutional mechanisms often already in place to facilitate abatement.
MSW and SLCPs SLCPs are generated by both natural and anthropogenic sources, including the municipal waste sector. Although difficult to determine with any accuracy, the waste sector is estimated to generate 3-5% of total global anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, predominantly methane. As waste generation continues to increase in every country, this figure is likely to increase. The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) contributes to both the release and creation of all SLCPs. In recognition of the contribution of MSW management (MSWM) to global SLCP emissions, and the potential for implementation of rapid abatement actions in this sector, the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC) has included MSWM as one of its seven key focal areas.
SLCPs from MSW Table 1 Atmospheric lifetimes of SLCPs (source: UNEP (2011) Near-term Climate Protection and Clean Air Benefits: Actions for Controlling Short-Lived Climate Forcers)
Methane from MSW Methane (CH4) is emitted by both human-associated (anthropogenic) and natural sources. Anthropogenic sources include fossil fuel production, animal husbandry (enteric fermentation in livestock and manure management), rice cultivation, biomass burning, and waste management. It is estimated that roughly 50% of global methane emissions are anthropogenic Methane is generated by methanogenic bacteria, which feed off organic matter and thrive in moist, warm, anaerobic conditions. Landfills, particularly well-managed sites with regular compaction of the waste and use of daily cover material, are ideal environments for methanogenic bacteria. Organic waste, such as paper, cardboard, food and garden (vegetative) materials are abundant in municipal waste streams, ensuring well-fed bacteria and methane generation
Black Carbon (BC) BC, in the form of aerosol particles, also results from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass (i.e. wood). Open burning of waste, as well as controlled combustion of waste in incinerators are sources of BC. Complete combustion is not practically achievable in any system but in modern incineration plants (working according to Best Available Technic Standards) emissions are very low. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which is associated with respiratory disease and distress in humans and is emitted by waste combustion facilities, can be composed of 10-15% BC. BC absorbs visible light at all wavelengths (hence the reference to ‘black’), which results in several deleterious impacts: atmospheric warming, increased melting of ice and snow (where deposits of BC are found), and changed reflectivity and lifetime of clouds. Due to these complex interactions, a GWP has not been determined for BC. Further information on the health impacts of black carbon can be found in a WHO publication: WHO (2012) Health effects of black carbon
SLCPs emissions from MSW A number of waste management activities may result in the release of SLCPs to the atmosphere. Methane and black carbon are generated as a direct result of MSWM. The formation of tropospheric ozone is linked to emission levels of its major precursor, methane. HFCs may be released from discarded HFC-containing products (i.e. air conditioning units, refrigerators, etc.) during waste collection, processing and/or disposal. Although quantifying SLCP emissions from MSWM is not possible to achieve with any accuracy, the most significant SLCP associated with MSWM is understood to be methane emitted from landfilled waste. An estimated 1,460 MtCO2- e of methane are currently emitted each year from waste around the world, and accounts for an estimated 90% of the total greenhouse gases produced by the waste industry World Bank (2012), What a Waste.
Need for Assessment Tool CCAC MSW Initiative support cities to reduce SLCPs from MSW. To set the baseline and to track the progress, assessment of SLCPs is critical The local and national governments require an assessment tool to prepare the information for various projects (to quantify GHG reduction for financial support mechanisms) There are several calculation tools available for different needs. CCAC wants to find out what fits best for cities requirements within MSWI
CCAC MSWI related needs What are the needs of the CCAC MSW Initiative for GHG accounting tools? To develop a quick evaluation calculator for initial city assessments To establish a more detailed City « benchmark » evaluation To identify a tool for regular monitoring and verification To compare different treatment options and the resulting GHG emissions, differentiated per gas (calculated in CO2 eq) To determine approaches for estimating Black Carbon impacts and integrating them into the quantification tool(s) To provide guidance on some or all of the above Others?
Examples of some tools Reporting MethodsReporting LevelPurposeExamples Mandatory national reporting of GHG emissions National National GHG reporting for the Nations who signed the UNFCCC IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Methodologies Mandatory/Regulatory annual reporting for regulated facilities covering numerous parameters including GHGs Installation Regulations for integrated pollution prevention and control. These reporting requirements help to improve public access to information on the environment. Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTRS) - (Europe) US EPA Clean Air Act rules Reporting specific to GHG emissions in the framework of cap and trade systems. ETS directive (guidelines for monitoring and reporting GHG emissions from covered installations) Annual Reporting Protocols to prepare GHG inventory for companies, local governments, or facilities (often on a voluntary basis) Company/ Local Government/ Organisation Regular GHG reporting on the organisational level. GHG Protocol (WRI / WBCSD) EpE Waste Sector Protocol (2010) ISO 14064 Life Cycle Analysis used in decision making or planning support Various (National, regional, local) LCA modelling of waste management systems is carried out in order to form a technical and environmental platform for decision making. USEPA model “WARM” GHG Calculator –Env Canada WRATE SWM – GHG German FinanceCorp. EASEWASTE PAS 2050 / ISO 14048 GHG Calculator for SW - IGES Carbon Trading Project MechanismsProject Different project-based flexible mechanisms are operational. The estimation of their emission reductions is obtained through a “baseline versus project” approach CDM approved methodologies Voluntary project standards Offset protocols ( RGGI…) CCAR landfill protocol… GHG Protocol for Project Accounting
Analyzing various tools Ease of Use Flexibility of inputs Ease of modification in the future Ability to address Black Carbon from all sources (sources / activities included in tools) Accessibility Regional representitiveness Additional inputs and processes that would need to be built in Gases considered Transparency –access to methodology, formula, and indicators Output can be used by a local level decision maker Others? Used in Stratus Consulting Report
Paris Workshop – 19 and 20 September 2013 The objective of the workshop is to bring together experts and practitioners to discuss and evaluate available GHG and SLCP emission quantification methodologies An aim of the workshop will be to gather input to establish guidelines for understanding and using the different approaches to evaluating GHG and SLCP emissions and how it can be applied with a focus on the city level The guidelines will present the characteristics of the various tools: intended use; required input data; required user competence; ease of use; applicable waste activities; gases considered; regional representitiveness; etc
Expected Output of the Workshop A communication matrix on various tools with recommendations on improvements and/or integration of tools to develop a standard and easy to use tool - meeting the needs of CCAC MSW Initiative To develop a dynamic matrix with periodic updates based on the available new/improved tools – also leading to support the modifications in existing tools to meet demand Conclusion on use of standardized emission factors