Presentation on theme: "Energy and South Carolina Trish Jerman September 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Energy and South Carolina Trish Jerman September 2008
S.C. Energy Office Mission T o increase energy efficiency and diversity, enhance environmental quality and save energy dollars for South Carolina.
Programs Transportation Alternatives Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Energy Education and Outreach Radioactive Waste Disposal Energy Planning and Forecasting
South Carolina energy overview No conventional energy resources -- no coal, no oil, no natural gas and no uranium. Highly dependent on coal and nuclear power for electricity, and oil for transportation fuel.
S.C. energy statistics Spend nearly $20 billion on energy annually Rank 15th nationally in total energy consumption per capita
S.C. total energy consumption by fuel type South Carolina United States
S.C. total end-use energy consumption by sector South Carolina United States
Electricity in South Carolina South Carolina: Spent $5.5 billion on electricity in 2007. Is 5 th in nation in electricity consumption per capita. Is 10 th highest in the U.S. in average residential electricity bill. Averaged just under eight cents per kWh in 2007 across all sectors, 16 th lowest in the country.
United States South Carolina Electricity generation by fuel source
Natural Gas According to EIA, more than ¼ of S.C. households use natural gas as primary home heating source Cleanest burning of the fossil fuels
PollutantNatural GasOilCoal CO2117,000164,000208,000 CO4033208 NOx92448457 SOx11,1222,591 Particulates7842,744 Mercury0.0000.0070.016 Source: EIA Emissions – Pounds per billion Btu of energy input
Recent Growth in Natural Gas Production in the Lower 48 States Breaks with Historical Trends
Natural gas reserves growing Total U.S. proven natural gas reserves have grown about 10% over the last 10 years
Onshore production increasing Nearly 65% increase in production from “unconventional” sources. Gas shale production has increased more than 200% from 1998-2007. Actual “unconventional” production regularly beats EIA yearly outlook estimates.
Abundant onshore supply This map shows 23 prominent gas shales in North America.
Current shale estimates In 2007, a natural gas assessment stated that U.S. shales contain roughly 1,680 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of natural gas. That represents an 88-year supply assuming 2007 production levels.
Natural Gas – Transport S.C. served by two large pipelines Southern Natural Gas Transcontinental Natural Gas (TRANSCO)
TRANSCO Southern Southeastern Natural Gas Pipelines
Liquified Natural Gas Why? Reduces volume by more than 600 times (600 tankers instead of 1 LNG tanker) Where? Generally from areas with large discoveries: Algeria, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Qatar, and Trinidad Shipped to Elba Island near Savannah
Liquified Natural Gas Elba Island serves Eastern U.S., esp. Southeast First LNG facility in U.S. to accommodate two tankers
* in-service in mid- 2010 *approximately 190 miles of 42-inch and 36-inch diameter, natural gas pipeline. *compressor station will be constructed later, to increase capacity in 2012
Renewable energy options in S.C. Biomass-to-Energy Wood wastes Switchgrass Landfill gas Animal and human waste Wind Offshore Small-scale, land-based Solar Small-scale hydro Hydrogen
Currently, landfill gas is one of most successful forms of renewable energy in South Carolina. Santee Cooper now has 17.1 MW at four sites; projects 42 MW in the future. BMW utilizes landfill gas to produce the equivalent of 4.8 MW of electricity. Enoree Landfill in Greenville County is generating 3.2 MW of electricity which is being sold to Duke Energy. Kimberly-Clark constructed 3 MW- equivalent landfill gas project in Aiken Co. FujiFilm starting project in Greenwood. Another 75 MW of energy may be possible. Landfill gas
Future of renewable energy Attractive state incentives exist for biomass, but more needs to be done to encourage solar for businesses Biomass such as wood waste, agricultural products and by-products, and landfill gas most viable renewable options right now Solar, offshore wind, tidal and wave action are potentially abundant sources of energy in near future
Energy for transportation 13 th in the nation in per capita motor fuel consumption. In 2007, we used 3.2 billion gallons of motor fuel, costing $8.7 billion
Growth rate of oil consumption, 1990-2005 United States – 22% World – 25% South Carolina – 31%
Alternative transportation fuels Compressed natural gas (CNG) Propane Hydrogen The Central Midlands Regional Transit Authority (CMRTA) operates six natural gas vehicles which currently refuel on Flora Street in Columbia. 83 other vehicles in SC also run on CNG. Columbia will soon be getting a hydrogen fuel-cell powered bus.
Natural Gas-Powered Vehicles Advantages Nearly 87% of U.S. natural gas used is domestically produced 60-90% less smog- producing pollutants 30-40% less greenhouse gas emissions Less expensive than gasoline Disadvantages Limited vehicle availability Less readily available than gasoline & diesel Fewer miles on a tank of fuel
Natural Gas-Powered Vehicles Dual Fueled vehicles – Require two separate fueling systems, take up cargo space Dedicated vehicles – Honda GX CNG is the only model available now Mileage 24/36 28 mpg equivalent combined Retrofits possible
CNG and Hydrogen Natural gas is principle source of hydrogen for the foreseeable future CNG fueling stations likely will be the pathway to the H2 fuel infrastructure in the future Many equipment manufacturers are the same for CNG and Hydrogen vehicle systems and fueling Compression: CNG & C-H2 Liquefaction: LNG & L-H2 Biogas is a renewable source of H2
Biofuels Ethanol (E85, substitute for gasoline) & Biodiesel (B20, substitute for diesel) Reduce air pollution Create jobs in South Carolina Save money Decrease dependence on foreign oil Expansion of biofuels depends on development of feedstocks that are not used for food Arundo donax (Giant Reed) may be a useful bioenergy crop to produce cellulosic ethanol and/or energy.
Ethanol and biodiesel feedstocks Ethanol is made from: Corn Sugarcane, barley, sweet potatoes, etc. Cellulose (wood chips, switchgrass, etc.) Biodiesel is made from: Soy oil Canola oil Animal fats Waste cooking oil Jatropha seeds Chinese tallow tree Algae
Conclusion For more information: South Carolina Energy Office 1201 Main Street, Suite 430 Columbia, S.C. 29201 (803) 737-8030 www.energy.sc.gov