Presentation on theme: "Announcements – Nov 8 Nov. 13 (next Monday) - review Nov. 15 (next Wednesday) - Exam 3 Nov. 17 (next Friday) - no class."— Presentation transcript:
Announcements – Nov 8 Nov. 13 (next Monday) - review Nov. 15 (next Wednesday) - Exam 3 Nov. 17 (next Friday) - no class
Rocket fuel chemical found in water, produce December 1, 2004 WASHINGTON (AP) -- The government has found traces of a rocket fuel chemical in organic milk in Maryland, green leaf lettuce grown in Arizona and bottled spring water from Texas and California. Sufficient amounts of perchlorate can affect the thyroid, potentially causing delayed development and other problems. But Environmental Protection Agency official Kevin Mayer called for calm, saying in an interview Tuesday: "Alarm is not warranted. That is clear." Asked whether that level of chemical in milk was worrisome, Mayer, the EPA's regional perchlorate coordinator for Arizona, California, Hawaii and Nevada, said, "The answer is, we don't know yet."
BBC 10 September, 2004 UN warns of pesticide 'time-bomb’ Stockpiles have built up as pesticide products have been banned. The UN has warned that huge stockpiles of toxic chemical waste from obsolete pesticides are a "time bomb" for East Europe and the developing world. Its Food and Agriculture Organization has urged assistance for the disposal of the chemicals, which it says are often stored at unmanaged sites. Such stockpiles threaten the health of rural communities, says the FAO.
Solid/Hazardous Wastes Lecture Objectives: What do we do with our garbage? What are the problems with hazardous waste? What happened at Love Canal?
Introduction to Waste Management Solid Waste – objects or particles that accumulate on the site where they are produced. Municipal Solid Waste (Garbage) amounts to 230 million tons in U.S. annually (equivalent to 3 billion humans!!).
US Domestic Waste
Disposable Decades Mid-1950s – emphasis on a disposable lifestyle Wave of the future Way to reduce household duties. Convenience was sold to prosperous post-war (WWII) consumers. Convenience quickly changed to necessity. TV dinners first marketed in 1953.
Nature of the Problem U.S. volume of garbage has increased more than 50% since 1960 (although stabilized since 1990). Countries with higher standard of living produce more waste. Traditional Methods (dumping and burning) are no longer accepted. Urban areas running out of places to put garbage
Landfilling Most municipal solid waste in US is deposited in landfills Source of groundwater pollution Number of municipal landfills is declining. Some closed for violations, other because full New landfills costly and often resisted - NIMBY
Reducing the Number of Landfills
Incineration Prior to 1940, incineration was common in North America and western Europe. Many incinerators were eliminated because of foul odors and gritty smoke Currently, about 15% of U.S. municipal solid waste is incinerated.
Incinerator Types Refuse-Derived Fuel - Refuse is sorted to remove recyclable and unburnable materials. Higher energy content than raw trash. Mass Burn - Everything smaller than major furniture and appliances loaded into furnace. Creates air pollution problems. Reduces disposal volume by 80-90%. EPA has found alarmingly high toxin levels in incinerator ash.
Incineration Pros: Reduce volume 90%, weight 75% Heat from burning converted to electricity Cons: Create air pollution Concentrates toxins in ash More costly than landfills, as long as space available
Composting Harnessing natural decomposition to transform organic material into compost About 3800 composting facilities currently in use in the United States. Landscape Recycling Center 1210 E. University Ave., Urbana 344-LEAF (5323) www.city.urbana.il.us
Source Reduction Most fundamental method of reducing waste is to prevent it from being produced (Waste Prevention). Reduce and reuse – Individuals and Industry Saves natural resources. Reduces waste toxicity Reduces costs
Recycling Recycling initiatives have grown rapidly in US By 2000, 9,000 U.S. cities had implemented curbside recycling programs. Urbana’s curbside program began in 1986 http://www.ci.champaign.il.us/public_works/index.php Bottle Bills (10 states) Mandatory recycling laws (15 states)
Recycling Benefits Resource Conservation Pollution Reduction Crushed glass reduces energy required to manufacture new glass by 50%. One Sunday edition of N.Y. times consumes 62,000 trees. Only 40% of North American paper is recycled. Over 60% of aluminum cans recycled.
Recycling Benefits Saves money, raw materials, and land. Encourages individual responsibility. Reduces pressure on disposal systems. Japan recycles about half of all household and commercial wastes. Lowers demand for raw resources. Reduces energy consumption and air pollution.
US Recycling Rates
Recycling Concerns Plastics are recyclable, but technology differs from plastic to plastic. Industry is researching new technologies. Economics are of concern. demand for products must keep pace with growing supply
What Can You Do? Buy durable items and repair them Buy recycled goods and recycle them Buy beverages in refillable containers Rechargeable batteries Reduce junk mail Lobby for trash separation and recycling Choose items with minimal packaging & reduce number of bags used Compost yard and food waste http://www.city.champaign.il.us/public_works/pwrhp.html http://www.city.urbana.il.us/
Hazardous Wastes Hazardous Wastes – Dangerous by- products of industrial, business, or household activities for which there is no immediate use. Numerous types and forms: Heavy metals Organic wastes Old Computers Batteries Liquids, solids, sludge 1)Ignitable? 2)Corrosive? 3)Explosive? 4)Toxic?
Defining Hazardous Waste U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 1976: Cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible, illness; or pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed. Many chemical compounds have not been tested adequately for adverse affects!!
Issues Involved in Setting Regulations Identification of Hazardous &Toxic Materials Setting Exposure Limits Nearly all substances are toxic in sufficient quantities. Species-Specific Thresholds. Acute vs. Chronic Toxicity Effects of massive doses (acute) and small doses over time (chronic) differ. Synergism Assessing effects of chemical mixtures. Most toxicity studies done on a single compound.
Environmental Problems Caused By Hazardous Wastes Because most hazardous wastes are disposed on or in land, most serious effect is contaminated groundwater. 100,000 industrial landfill sites 180,000 surface impoundments Nearly 2% of North America’s underground aquifers could be contaminated. Once polluted, prohibitively costly to restore water to original state; often not even physically possible
Health Risks Each year, roughly 1,000 new chemicals are produced and distributed. 70,000 already in daily use. Main problem is often improper handling and disposal IEPA household hazardous waste collection (217) 782-6761 Mercury Thermostats/Thermometers, Antifreeze, Solvents, Metal Polishes, Drain Cleaners, Cleaning Products, Paint Removers, Oil-Based Paints (no water-based paints), Aerosol Paints, Paint Thinners, Fluorescent Bulbs, Hobby Chemicals, Pool Chemicals, Fungicides, Furniture Strippers, Used Oils, Insecticides, Herbicides, Pesticides, Weed Killers, Lawn Chemicals, Old Gasoline, Used Motor Oil, Household/Automotive Batteries, Propane Tanks (20 & 20 lb. cylinders), and Fire Extinguishers
Hazardous Waste Dumps: A Legacy of Abuse Prior to 1976, hazardous waste was essentially unregulated. Most common disposal solution was to bury or dump the wastes without concern for environmental or health risks.
Hazardous Waste Dumps When sites became full or unnecessary, they were simply abandoned. In North America alone, currently over 25,000 sites containing hazardous waste. U.S. has highest number of dumps needing immediate attention.
Federal Legislation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Modified in 1984 by Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. Aimed at rapid containment, cleanup, or remediation of abandoned toxic waste sites. Toxic Release Inventory - Requires 20,000 manufacturing facilities to report annually on releases of more than 300 toxic materials.
EPA Superfund Sites (Since 1980) Sites contaminated by hazardous waste and identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a candidate for cleanup because it poses a risk to human health and/or the environment. 1,300 Superfund sites across the country In Illinois: 40 active, 5 proposed, 2 cleaned http://www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/npl/il.htm http://www.epa.gov/superfund/
Superfund Sites Total costs for hazardous waste cleanup in the US are estimated between $370 billion and $1.7 trillion. For years, most of the funding has gone to legal fees, but this situation has improved over past several years. Studies of Superfund sites reveal minorities tend to be over-represented in these neighborhoods.
http://www.epa.state.il.us/land/hazardous-waste/household- haz-waste/index.html Household Hazardous Waste Collections The Illinois EPA coordinates one-day household hazardous waste collections each year in the spring and fall.
Love Canal 1892 -- William T. Love proposed a canal for navigation and hydropower Only one mile of the canal built, used for swimming and recreation 1920 – land sold at public auction became a municipal and chemical disposal site.
Including: benzene -- causes leukemia dioxin – causes cancer Hooker Chemical Company dumped over 20,000 tons of chemicals until 1953.
1953 - Hooker covered the site with dirt and clay and sold the land to the Niagara Falls Board of Education for $1.00 1955 - the 99th Street elementary school opened and homes were built on the 16-acre rectangular site 1960s-1970s repeated complaints to city
Aug. 7, 1978, President Jimmy Carter declared a federal emergency at Love Canal Aug. 2, 1978 - the NY State Department of Health recommended temporary relocation of pregnant women and young children April, 1978 – Report in newspaper about toxic chemicals 1976 -- Calspan Corporation hired as consultant
1990s – resettlement of area begins 1980s -- Human Heath issues documented Of 17 pregnancies in 1979 – 2 normal, 9 birth defects, 2 stillborn, 4 miscarriages Broken chromosomes Neurological Problems 1980 – Superfund Site
Managing Hazardous Wastes EPA pollution prevention hierarchy: 1. Reduce amount of pollution at the source. 2. Recycle wastes whenever possible. 3. Treat wastes to reduce hazard and/or volume. 4. Dispose of wastes on land or incinerate them as last resort.
Points to Know – Dec. 3 1) Know the 5 methods of waste disposal. Which is the most common method in the US, and what are two problems with this method? 2) What are some recycling initiatives in the US? 3) What can you do to help reduce the amount of solid waste generated? 4) What are the environmental problems and health risks caused by hazardous wastes? What is the main source of these problems? 5) Know the general story of the Love Canal.