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Solid and Hazardous Waste G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 21 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Solid and Hazardous Waste G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 21 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Solid and Hazardous Waste G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 21 G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13 th Edition Chapter 21 Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College Modified by Charlotte Kirkpatrick Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College Modified by Charlotte Kirkpatrick

2 Key Concepts  Types and amounts of wastes  Methods to reduce waste  Methods of dealing with wastes  Hazardous waste regulation in the US

3 Wasting Resources  Industrial and agricultural waste  Municipal solid waste  US: 1,700 lb/person/year: (54% in landfills, 30% recycled or composted and 16% incinerated) Fig p. 526 Fig p. 526

4 Hazardous Wastes  Contains one or more of 39 toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic compounds at levels that exceed established limits: (see sect. 11-3)  Catches fire easily: gasoline, paints, solvents  Reactive, explosive or able to release toxic fumes: acids, bases, ammonia, and bleach  Corrodes metal containers: industrial cleaning agents, oven and drain cleaners

5 Not Hazardous Wastes  Radioactive wastes  Household wastes  Mining wastes  Oil and gas drilling wastes  Liquids containing organic hydrocarbons  Cement kiln dust See Table 21-1 p. 527  <100 kg (220 lb) per month  Therefore hazardous waste laws do not regulate 95% of the country’s hazardous waste

6 Producing Less Waste and Pollution  Waste management (high waste approach) see list page 526  Waste management (high waste approach) see list page 526  Burying, burning, shipping  Waste prevention (low waste approach)  Reduce, reuse, recycle  Chemical or biological treatment  Burial

7 Dealing with Material Use and Wastes Fig p. 528

8 Dealing with Hazardous Wastes Fig p. 530

9 Solutions: Cleaner Production  Ecoindustrial revolution  Industrial ecology: cleaner production see p. 536  Closed material cycles  Wastes become raw materials  Industrial ecology: cleaner production see p. 536  Closed material cycles  Wastes become raw materials  Biomimicry see fig p.532 Refer to Solutions p. 533

10 Figure 21-5 Page 532 Surplus Sulfur Pharmaceutical plant Local farmers Fish farming Cement manufacturer Area homes Wallboard factory Greenhouses Oil refinery Sulfuric acid producer Electric power plant Sludge Waste Heat Waste Heat Waste Heat Waste Heat Waste Heat Surplus Natural gas Surplus Natural gas Waste Calcium sulfate Industrial Ecosystem Waste from one business become the raw materials for another

11 Solutions: Selling Services Instead of Things ( p )  Service-flow economy instead of materials flow  Uses a minimum amount of material  Products last longer  Products are easier to maintain, repair, and recycle  Customized services needed by customers See Individuals Matter p. 534

12 Reuse  Extends resource supplies  Maintains high-quality matter  Reduces energy use  Refillable beverage containers  Reusable shipping containers and grocery bags See Solutions p. 535  Bad news: we continue to replace reusable material with throwaway materials

13 Recycling  Primary (closed- loop): reproduce the same product  Post consumer waste: wastes discarded by the consumer  Secondary or downcycling (open loop): Reproduce a new product Fig p. 535

14 Characteristics of Recyclable Materials  Easily isolated from other waste  Available in large quantities  Valuable  Pay-as-you-throw garbage collection

15 Benefits of Recycling Fig p. 536

16 Recycling in the US  Centralized recycling of mixed waste (MRFs)  Separated recycling  Economic benefits  Increasing recycling in the US See Case Study p. 540

17 Outside users Pipeline Shredder Energy recovery (steam and electricity) Incinerator (paper, plastics, rubber, food, yard waste) Food, grass, leaves Separator MetalsRubberGlassPlasticsPaper ResidueCompost Recycled to primary manufacturers Landfill and reclaiming disturbed land Fertilizer Consumer (user) Figure 21-8 Page 538 Materials Recovery Facility (MRF’s)

18 Case Studies: Recycling Aluminum, Wastepaper, and Plastics  40% of aluminum recycled in US  Recycled aluminum uses over 90% fewer resources  Paper: preconsumer vs. postconsumer recycling  10% or less of plastic recycled in US  Plastics can be very difficult to recycle

19 Detoxifying Wastes  Bioremediation  Microorganisms break down wastes  Phytoremediation  Removal of wastes from the soil

20 Burning Wastes  Mass burn incineration  Air pollution  Waste to energy Fig p. 543

21 Wastes to Energy Incinerator

22 Burying Wastes  Sanitary landfill  Leachate collection  Monitoring wells  Emit greenhouse gases (CO 2 and methane)  Space near where waste is produced

23 Sanitary Landfill Fig p. 544

24 Sanitary Landfill

25 Deep-well Disposal of Liquid Hazardous Waste Fig p. 546

26 Hazardous Waste Landfill Fig p. 547

27 Above Ground Hazardous Waste Disposal Fig p. 547

28 Surface Impoundments Excavated depressions such as ponds, pits, or lagoons for disposing of liquid hazardous wastes

29 Exporting Wastes  Shipping to developing countries  Potentially huge profits for exporters  Basel Convention on Hazardous Waste  Many developing countries refusing wastes

30 Case Studies: Lead  Lead poisoning (neurotoxin) major problem in children; leads to death and survivors can suffer form palsy, partial paralysis, blindness, and mental retardation Primary Sources of Lead  Leaded gasoline (phased out by 1986)  Lead paint (banned in 1970)  Lead in plastics  Lead in plumbing  Progress is being made in reducing lead

31 Sources of Lead

32 Case Studies: Mercury  Vaporized elemental Mercury  Fish contaminated with methyl mercury  Natural inputs  Emission control  Prevention of contamination

33 Mercury Cycling

34 Case Studies: Chlorine  Environmentally damaging and potential health threat Sources of Chlorine  Plastics  Solvents  Paper and pulp bleaching  Water disinfection  Many safer and cheaper substitutes are available

35 Case Studies: Dioxins  Potentially highly toxic chlorinated hydrocarbons  Waste incineration  Fireplaces  Coal-fired power plants  Paper production Sources of Dioxins  Sewage sludge

36 Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States  Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: ID hazardous wastes and set standards, firms with more than 100 kg of hazardous waste must be permitted, cradle to grave monitoring  Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act: a.k.a. Superfund Act  National Priority List  Polluter-pays principle  Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act: a.k.a. Superfund Act  National Priority List  Polluter-pays principle  Brownfields: abandoned industrial and commercial sites that in most cases are contaminated: clean up and converted See Solutions p. 554

37 Solutions: Achieving a Low-Waste Society  Local grassroots action: bottom up change to fight environmental injustice  POP’s Treaty: International ban on 12 persistent organic pollutants (the dirty dozen) see list p. 555  Cleaner production  Improved resource productivity  Service flow economies

38 Four Key Principles to Live by Everything is connected There is no away for our wastes Dilution is not always the solution to pollution The best and cheapest way to deal with waste and pollution is to produce less of them and then reuse and recycle most of the materials we use. Everything is connected There is no away for our wastes Dilution is not always the solution to pollution The best and cheapest way to deal with waste and pollution is to produce less of them and then reuse and recycle most of the materials we use.


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