Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Environmental pollution control"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 15 Environmental pollution control 15.1 The goal of environmental pollution control15.2 The types of environmental pollution control15.3 The comprehensive treatment measures of environmental pollution15.4 Case study
2 15.1 The goal of environmental pollution control Environmental pollution and its characteristicsGenerally speaking,environmental pollutants is in lower concentration and long durationEnvironmental pollutants can be changed by the biological or chemical effect in environmentThe goal of environmental pollution controlPrevent pollutants going to water, atmosphere and soil systemRestore the use function of natural ecosystem
3 15.2 The types of environmental pollution control Concentration control and total amount controlTerminal control and process controlDecentralized control and centralized control
4 15.3 The comprehensive prevention and control measures of environmental pollution Water environmental pollution controlThe principle and countermeasures of water pollution comprehensive prevention and control(2) Basic methods of water pollution controlPhysical method, chemical method, physicochemical method and biological treatment method(3) Wastewater reclamation
5 Figure 15－1 The classification method of sewage biological treatment AerobicAnaerobicUnder naturalconditionsWater selfpurificationUnder artificiallySoilSuspended growthAdnate growthNatural water andoxidation pondsWastewaterirrigationActivated sludgeand its deformationBiological filter, Rotating biological contactor,Contact oxidation, Aerobic biological fluidized blanketHigh-temperature compostAnaerobic pondSeptic tank, Upflow anaerobic sludge blanketAnaerobic digesterAnaerobic biological fluidized blanket生物处理好氧处理自然条件下水体自净天然水体及氧化塘土壤净化污水灌溉人工条件下悬浮生长型活性污泥及其变形固着生长型生物滤池生物转盘接触氧化法好痒生物流化床厌氧处理高温堆肥厌氧塘化粪池上流式厌氧污泥床厌氧消化池厌氧滤池厌氧生物流化床Biological treatmentAerobic treatmentUnder natural conditionsWater self purificationNatural water and oxidation pondsSoil purificationWastewater irrigationUnder artificially conditionsSuspended growthActivated sludge and its deformationAdnate growthBiological filterRotating biological contactorContact oxidationAerobic biological fluidized blanketAnaerobic treatmentHigh-temperature compostAnaerobic pondSeptic tankUpflow anaerobic sludge blanketAnaerobic digesterAnaerobic filterAnaerobic biological fluidized blanketFigure 15－1 The classification method of sewage biological treatment
6 Figure 15－2 Basic process of activated sludge process Backflow sludgeSurplus sludgewater-exitwater inflowairprimary settling tanksecondary sedimentation tankaeration tank进水初沉池曝气池二沉池出水空气回流污泥剩余污泥water inflowprimary settling tankaeration tanksecondary sedimentation tankwater-exitairBackflow sludgeSurplus sludgeFigure 15－2 Basic process of activated sludge process
7 Figure 15－3 Land treatment system of waste water 蒸发蒸腾灌入污水作物可变的斜坡根区下土层慢速深度过滤evaporationtranspirationinject the sewagecropsVariable slopeRoot zoneUnder-soilslowDepth filtrationFigure 15－3 Land treatment system of waste water
8 (4) The treatment process of waste water The main task of primary treatment is to remove suspended solids in sewage, adjust pH valve, reduce the task of subsequent treatmentThe task of secondary treatment is to remove the dissolved and colloidal organic pollutants significantly. It is maily used biological method.The purpose of tertiary treatment is to further remove the pollutants which are not removed in secondary treatment.
9 wastewaterPrimary treatmentPrimary sludgetreatment or useSurplus sludgegrilleSedimentation tankGritchamberBiological aerationpool or biologicalfilterSecond sedimentationtankChemistry, adsorption, ion exchange,disinfection, equipmentSecondary treatment outlet(emissions, irrigation)Primary treatment outlettertiary treatment outlet(emissions, reoccupy)Sludgedigestion poolBackflow sludgedewateringsecondary treatmenttertiary treatment废水格栅一级处理沉沙池沉淀池二级处理生物曝气池或生物滤池二次沉淀池三级处理化学、吸附、离子交换、消毒等设备初沉污泥一级处理出水（排放、灌溉）回流污泥剩余污泥二级处理出水（排放、灌溉）三级处理出水（排放、再用）污泥消化池污泥脱水处理或利用wastewatergrillePrimary treatmentgrit chambersedimentation tanksecondary treatmentBiological aeration pool or biological filterSecond sedimentation tanktertiary treatmentChemistry, adsorption, ion exchange, disinfection, equipmentPrimary sludgePrimary treatment outlet (emissions, irrigation)Backflow sludgeSurplus sludgeSecondary treatment outlet (emissions, irrigation)tertiary treatment outlet (emissions, reoccupy)Sludge digestion poolSludge dewateringtreatment or useFigure 15－4 Typical technological process of Municipal wastewater treatment
10 （5） Wastewater utilization The renewed wastewater can be used in industrial water, agricultural irrigation, urban and groundwater recharge, water treatment.The affect of recycling and reuse in the entire water cycle is showed in figure 15-5大气中蒸汽地表水降水灌溉地下水废水农业回用城市用水工业用水水处理排入地表水工业回用废水回收地下水回注Atmosphere steamsurface waterprecipitationirrigationgroundwaterwastewaterAgricultural reusecity water consumptionIndustrial water consumptionWater treatmentdischarge into the surface waterIndustrial reuseWastewater recyclingreinjection of groundwaterFigure 15-5 The effect of water treatment, regeneration and reuse to water-cycling system
11 15.3.2 The control of atmospheric environmental pollution （1）The comprehensive treatment measures of atmospheric pollution（2）Basic method of atmospheric pollution treatment The treatment of particle pollutantsTreatment technology of gas polutantsCleaning particulate pollutants is usually used by duster device .Divided as its main mechanism,there are mechanical duster, wet duster, filter duster and electrostatic duster.
12 含尘气体净化气体排气管外旋排尘气体出口液入口气体入口液出口（泥渣）dusty gaspurified-gasvent-pipeoutward turningDischarging dustGas outletLiquid inletGas inletLiquid outlet (sludge )Figure Structure profile of cyclone precipitator and spray wet precipitator
13 Figure 15-7 Operation simplified graph of bag dust collector 逆吹阀吸气阀过滤时逆吹清净气体含尘气体风机阀-开阀-闭旋转除尘器Inverse blow valveSuction valveFiltering, inverse blowClean gasdusty gasfanValve - openValve - closerotatingprecipitatorFigure 15-7 Operation simplified graph of bag dust collector
14 The treatment of gas pollutant Absorption methodAdsorption methodCatalytic conversion processCombustion methodCondensation methodBiological method
15 15.3.3 Pollution control of solid waste （1）The definition and classification of solid waste（2）The treatment and disposal and utilization principle of solid wasteharmlessnessreductionresource（3）The treatment and resource method of solid wasteThe treatment and recycling technology of solid waste is mainlyinclude crushing, sorting, thermochemical processing andbiological treatment.
16 （4） The final disposal technology of solid waste The final disposal method of solid waste can be divided to land disposal and ocean disposal according to the sites of waster disposal.The land disposal is a method based on the land and the soil layer to dispose the solid, divided into stockpiling method, land farming method, landfill method, deep perfusion method etc. The ocean disposal is to put the solid waster into the ocean by the capacity of ocean environment and its self-purification capacity.
17 Figure 15-8 The structural graph of safe landfill 保护衬层/渗滤液收集系统垫层监视井护坡径流控制排气口最终填埋表面植被土层密封层中间层至渗滤液处理安全填埋场渗滤液收集防渗衬层渗滤液检测系统辅助衬层地下水位Protecting the lining layer/penetrating fluid collection system cushionMonitoring WellsrevetmentRunoff controldischarge portEventually landfill surfaceplant soilSealing layerinterlayerspenetrating fluid treatmentSafety landfillCollected penetrating fluidAnti-seepage lining layerpenetrating fluid detection systemAuxiliary lining layerUnderground water levelFigure The structural graph of safe landfill
18 （5）The treatment and disposal methods of hazardous waste The dangers of hazardous waste is mainly for inflammable, explosive, toxic, corrosive, radioactive and biological cumulative etc. The treatment and disposal methods of hazardous waste are as followingSolidification and wrappingIncinerationSafe land landfill
19 15.3.4 Pollution control of soil environment Pollution prevention measures of soil environment mainly including:Strengthen the source control and management ofcontaminated soilTechnical measure of soil pollution treatmentPhysical improvementChemical improvementBiological improvement
20 15.3.5 Other physical pollution control Noise pollution controlReform the technology, technics and equipments, reduce noise radiation intensityReasonable city planningStrengthening noise managementThe technology to noise controlSound absorption: to reduce the nosie by absorbing sound through sound absorption material or sound absorption structuresSound insulation : impeding the noise transmitting to the space by sound insulation structure, or control the noise in a certain range.Sound elimination: reduce propagation of the noise in air by silencers
21 Radioactive pollution control The main measures of radioactive pollution control are include:Strengthen the treatment of radioactive waste liquorProperly handling and disposal of radioactive solid wastesThe treatment of radioactive waste gas
22 Shielding isolation room Solidwastevolume reductionpackagingstoragetransportationemissionsprocessingWaste gasand liquidtreatment processShielding isolation roomcuringpurification废气废液净化排放贮存固化包装运输处理固体废物减容处理工程屏蔽隔离室Waste gas and liquidpurificationemissionsstoragecuringpackagingtransportationprocessingSolid wastevolume reductiontreatment processShielding isolation roomFigure 15-9 Basic process of radioactive pollution control
23 The control of electromagnetic radiation pollution Reduce the leakage of electromagnetic wavesAdopt effective control measures.Improve urban planning to achieve region contralThe control of light pollutionStrengthen urban planning and management, rational arrangement of light source,reduce the source of light pollutionSafe methods should be taken, such as using movable barriers surrounding the operating area to prevent the non-operator from directly exposure in the harmful light sourceTake the necessary personal protection, such as wearing goggles and protective masks which is effective personal protective measures
24 The control of heat pollution Improve thermal energy utilization ratio, reduce waste heat emissionsActive develop and use clean energyComprehensive utilization of waste heatIncrease afforest area
25 15.4 Case study Shenzhen Xiaping Landfill (1) the process of landfill (2) the treatment process of landfill leachate(3) the treatment and usage of landfill gas (LFG)(4) the measure of hygiene managementSpraying cars will spray the pesticides regularly, to kill the fly, to prevent the spread of bacteria.The sprinkler will sprinkes water regaularly to prevent the dust flying in the air and there is car washing equipment, to prevent polluting the road by the car’s sludge ,control dust, and also prevent taking pathogens outside.There are fence around the field to prevent light waster blown outside causing contamination.
26 Figure 15-10 Technological process of waste leachate treatment 调节池吹脱厌氧A/O系统混凝城市污水处理厂污泥填埋场达标排放后期达到城市二级污水处理厂指标后直接排入后期达到城市二级污水处理厂指标后直接排入调节池吹脱厌氧污泥填埋场A/O 系统混凝城市污水厂达标排放After it reach the city secondary sewage treatment plant directly and then it can directly discharged into theAdjustive poolstrippinganaerobicsludgelandfillA/O systemcoagulationMunicipal wastewater treatment plantreaching the standardFigure Technological process of waste leachate treatment
27 Figure 15-11 Treatment and utilization technology of landfill methane 收集井汇流中转器输气管抽气机（或气泵）气体净化设备自动点燃放空气体加压机燃气轮机（或气体内燃机）发电机Collecting WellsConvergence repeatergas pipingexhausting machine (or pump)Gas purification equipmentAutomatic lit ventGas pressure machineGas turbine (or gas internal combustion engine )generatorFigure Treatment and utilization technology of landfill methane