Presentation on theme: "27 August 2001 1 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Shredder waste in the EU with respect to Directive 2000/53/EC and the EFR-ESG formation."— Presentation transcript:
27 August 2001 1 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Shredder waste in the EU with respect to Directive 2000/53/EC and the EFR-ESG formation 7 September 2001 – 08.30 to 09.10 hrs. Mr Thorvald Isager, Chief of Environmental Issues, HJ Hansen Recycling Industries Member of the EFR -European Shredder Group
27 August 2001 2 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION The identification and implementation of practical and economic solutions to (1) minimise and (2) properly dispose of shredder waste are the most important actions that will determine the success of the EU End-of-life Vehicles Directive
27 August 2001 3 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Collectors / scrap yards EU End-of-life-Vehicles recycling simplified material ‘flow’ last holder/Owner Dismantler De-pollution / dismantling Shredding Aspirated dust / fluff steel Media & Metal Separation Non-ferrous metal non-metals Second hand parts Shredder “Second hand car” exports Non-magnetic shredder fraction De-pollution / dismantling Non-metallic waste New technologies To metal works Products
27 August 2001 4 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION The Shredding process – terminology Aspirated dust (obsolescent terms - “fluff” or “light fraction”) Magnetic separation Eddy current separation Non-magnetic fraction - (“heavy fraction” obs..)
27 August 2001 5 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Media & Metal Separation process - terminology MM1MM2 MM3 Eddy current separation Dense media separation - sg3.0 Dense media separation sg2.0 and glass
27 August 2001 6 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION End-of-life-Vehicles Recycling current EU infrastructure The term recognised refers to economic operators either acknowledged by Governments( by licence, permit etc) or in Voluntary agreements. Where there is an obligation to de-pollute, the recognised dismantlers are assumed to carry out de-pollution
27 August 2001 7 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION n Materials entering a shredder n End-of-life vehicles n Other metal containing scrap n Materials exiting a shredder n Recovered steel scrap n Non-magnetic shredder fraction n Aspirated dust / fluff n Materials entering a Media separation plant n Non-magnetic shredder fraction n Materials exiting a Media separation plant n Recovered non-ferrous metals n Recovered non metals n Non-metals destined for energy recovery n Materials going for final disposal n Incineration without energy recovery n Landfill n Materials utilised by other industries Where waste arises here
27 August 2001 8 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION End-of-life-Vehicles arising and therefore volumes arising as shredder aspirated dust (fluff) and non-metallic wastes Non-metallic shredder wastes and shredder aspirated dust (fluff) arisings estimated between: 1,654,000 (LOW) - 3,032,000 (HIGH) tonnes This range is due to the loss of ELVs because of exports of second hand cars, these exports are expected to increase on EU enlargement.
27 August 2001 9 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Aspirated dust (fluff) and non- metallic waste issues n volumes represent <0.3% of overall EU waste arisings - the European Environment Agency reports that the EU produces 250 million tonnes of Municipal waste and 850 million tonnes of industrial waste per annum. n If ELVs are not de-polluted – waste may test as hazardous n European Waste list entries (Chapter 16 01 - ELVs; Chapter 16 02 - WEEE; Chapter 17 C&D waste; Chapter 19 10 - waste from shredding of metal- containing wastes; Chapter 19 12 - wastes from the mechanical treatment of wastes) n Fluff and non-metallic wastes are a burden to shredders and to MMS plant A negative cost – landfill – hazardous vs. non-hazardous A negative cost – incineration – hazardous vs. non-hazardous n Environmental taxes and charges are not harmonised in the EU. Gate prices of landfill sites and incinerators also vary
27 August 2001 10 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Aspirated dust (fluff) and non- metallic waste issues - Reducing the burden on the environment - n Reduce the volumes arising by:- n Design ( reduce the amount of non-metals – or reduce the types of non- metals – select recyclable non-metals) n Dismantling before shredding n Separation for material recovery after shredding n Reduce the hazardous nature of arisings n design (reduce hazardous components in vehicles) n depollute ELVs before shredding n Increase re-use and recycling as alternatives to landfill and incineration
27 August 2001 11 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Parts per million (logarithmic scale) Year of analysis (Danish example)
27 August 2001 12 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Lead content in shredder waste 1990 - 2001 199019911992199319941995199619971998199920002001 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 PPM (Danish example)
27 August 2001 13 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Alternatives to landfill and incineration of non-metals n re-use n recovery for material recycling n recovery for energy use The case of tyres:- An estimated 250 million worn tyres arise in the EU annually, of which around 60 million from ELVs arrive at dismantlers, scrap yards and shredders. Of these about 18 million are fit for re-use (some for retreading) and are sold on, leaving 42 million tyres or 336,000 tonnes for material recovery (30,000tpa), energy recovery or incineration since the EU Landfill Directive bans from landfilling whole tyres from 2003 and shredded tyres from 2006. Though tyres may still be used in landfill engineering as a leachate drainage blanket in the construction of new landfill cells.
27 August 2001 14 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Re-use n Design for re-use? n Hand-stripping by dismantlers n safety issues n quality issues n age related issues (obsolescence)
27 August 2001 15 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Non-metallic material recovery options n Sorting n dismantling - by plastic type n automated sorting ( e.g. glass separation by screening … /... foam recovery ) n the need for a sustainable markets for recovered materials n recovered material specifications could help, but quality issues arise? n other n pyrolysis n Melting cyclone n Cokeless cupola n Blast furnace reductant? n Microwave technology n Cryogenic technology n what is the status of each of these technologies ?? n Which of the Directive’s targets do they contribute to ?? n Reminder… no legal certainty = no investment
27 August 2001 16 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Energy recovery options n Incineration with energy recovery n Use in cement kilns n Iron oxide contributes to cement manufacture n Substitute fuels
27 August 2001 17 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION End-of-life-Vehicles Directive targets n For vehicles produced before 1 Jan 1980 - may use targets Re-use & Recovery 75% Re-use & Recycling 70% n 1 Jan 2006 for all ELVs Re-use & Recovery 85% Re-use & Recycling 80% n 1 Jan 2015 for all ELVs Re-use & Recovery 95% Re-use & Recycling 85%
27 August 2001 18 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Timeline of Directive n On October 21, 2000……….Directive published in OJ n fromOctober 21, 2000……..MSs may immediately implement Free take back n by April 21, 2002………..….MSs to bring into force laws, regulations and administrative provisions to comply with the Directive n fromJuly 1, 2002……………Free take back for Vehicles put on the market from this date One may conclude that there is not much time in which to organise systems in EU members states that presently have under-developed infrastructure for: de-polluting ELVs; for recycling non-metals; or for data-capture
27 August 2001 19 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION EFR-ESG work n improve understanding of the directive ( Interpretation by Member States- vs.-European Commission ) n influence and participate in the transposition into National Legislation n influence and participate in the practical and feasible implementation in Member States n To move forward on these issues EFR-ESG formed two Committees n Legal & Technical Committee n Committee for liaison with car dismantlers and car manufacturers
27 August 2001 20 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION ESG Legal & Technical Committee n Monitoring data on Members State legislation and new technologies; compilation of statistics n to promote shredder capabilities to other stakeholders – particularly through good public relations. To reinforce the European Shredders Group as the 'point of contact' on ELV issues in Europe. n EFR website to promulgate information: (www.efr2.org) n translations of the animation of the shredder and media separation operations provided in Danish, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish - available through the BIR website
27 August 2001 21 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION ESG Committee for liaison with car dismantlers and car manufacturers n Liaison with car manufacturers at the top level to arrive at the best practical & economic solution to achieving the ELV Directives environmental objectives n Liaison with the dismantlers at the top level to arrive at the best practical & economic solution to achieving the ELV Directives environmental objectives n To discuss cost recovery and finance options; n To promote shredder capabilities to other stakeholders – particularly through good public relations. To reinforce the European Shredders Group as the 'point of contact' on ELV issues in Europe.
27 August 2001 22 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Impediments to progress n Interpretation of the Directive – vs. – harmonisation (e.g. Fuel substitutes/Energy Recovery/Pyrolysis) n Implementation timescale – vs. – harmonisation n Financial problems - vs. - harmonisation - vs.- competition (ELV funding; landfill costs; incineration costs; infrastructure costs) n Competitivity issues – access to information n Waste shipment issues - limitations imposed by the EU legislation
27 August 2001 23 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION What are the tonnages of and likely solutions to attaining the Directives targets 2006 - 2015 for the non-metallic wastes? Energy recovery Re-use and/or Material recycling (or by using: Pyrolysis; Melting cyclone; Cokeless cupola; Microwave technology; Cryogenic technology; or as a blast furnace reductant ? ) Incineration and/or Landfill 199520062015 Capacity needed doubles A rd reduction Million tonnes <0.3 - 0.6 0.3 - 0.6 0.6 - 1.2 0.3 - 0.6 0.6 - 1.2 1.0 - 1.8 >1.3- 2.4 estimated Capacity needed doubles A combination of activities/technologies will be required.
27 August 2001 24 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION n which technology contributes to which target? n Will the answer to this be science based or a political decision and at which level EU or Member State? n Legal certainty of the status of technologies is required by operators and investors n how to develop and support the combination of economically sustainable processes, not yet in place but required to meet these targets? n Perhaps a funding system - an annual fee collected with the car insurance as in Denmark - will be essential to develop infrastructure and support the processing of non-metallic waste? The enormous increase in the Re-use and Energy Recovery capacities required raise questions of...
27 August 2001 25 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Examples of activities from two of the EU Members States..
27 August 2001 26 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Activities in Germany: A Pilot plant for Shredder residue n Operated by:- R-plus Recycling GmbH, Eppingen n Technology:WESA-SLF-Verfahren n Project time table:December 1999 - December 2002 n Project funding:Dm 1,000,000 from ARGE-Altauto n Scientific evaluation by:Steinbeis-Transferzentrum, Verfahrens-, Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Heilbronn n Project aim:To separate the organic and inorganic fractions from the shredder residue by a dry recycling process n Expected products: n a magnetic ferrous fraction n copper chips n a mix of non-ferrous metals and minerals n a homogeneous organic fraction of specific quality
27 August 2001 27 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Activities in Germany: Shredder residue valorisation n To recover between 340.000 t and 740.000 tonnes per annum of Shredder residue by 2015 n Recovery capacities of Shredder residue no further information available Recovered material Recovered energy Potential: Blast furnace use Power station use Household incineration plants 50.000 tonnes/annum of untreated shredder residue 70.000-100.000 tonnes/annum of treated shredder residue Recovered material Available: SVZ (Gasification: Product Methanol) CapacityRecovery typeRecovery process
27 August 2001 28 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Activities in France : Shredder residue recovery RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Shredding & sorting of shredder residues : Optimization of sorting process Plastics sorting & recovery inerting of the non-recoverable part Partners of the different studies (1990-1997) : CFF Recycling - Eco-VHU - Elf ATO - CGEA - Renault - Peugeot - Gifam - Galloo - Eco Emballage - ECR - MTB - MEWA - Steinert - … Remarks : 1990 - 1997 : Many studies about the sorting & recovery of the shredder residue were carried out Since 1998 : Studies are rather discreet : Industrial strategies in context of waiting for ELV Directive give a confidential nature to the studies, so that further information is currently not available.
27 August 2001 29 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Activities in France : Shredder residue valorisation To recover around 200.000 tonnes per annum of Shredder residue by 2015 Recovery capacities for shredder residues :
27 August 2001 30 EUROPEAN FERROUS RECOVERY & RECYCLING FEDERATION Discussions and questions...