1 MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE Management & Practices Asssitant Engineer (Mech) Er. Chinmoy ChakrabortyAsssitant Engineer (Mech)Agartala Municipal Corporation
2 What is MSWMunicipal Solid Waste (MSW) more commonly known as trash or garbage consists of household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food2
3 What is MSWhabits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tones of solid waste, in 2012 it is about 160 million tones. This comes from our homes, schools, hospitals, and businesses. Municipal Solid Waste does have four broad category-Organic, Toxic, Recyclable, BMW.
4 Recyclable : Paper, glass, metals, plastics. What is MSWOrganic Waste : kitchen waste, vegetables, flowers, leaves, fruits etc.Toxic Waste : Old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, fertilizer pesticide containers, batteries etc.Recyclable : Paper, glass, metals, plastics.BMW : Hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body fluids.
5 Approximate Decomposition Time of Waste Type of WasteDegeneration TimeOrganic waste such as vegetable and fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc.a week or two.Paper10–30 daysCotton cloth2–5 monthsWood10–15 yearsWoolen items1 yearTin, aluminum, and other metal items such as cans100–500 yearsPlastic bagsone million yearsGlass bottlesundetermined
6 Management for MSWManagement is the collection, transportation, processing, recycling and disposal, monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetic. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances.
7 Management for MSWWaste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas. Management for non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.
8 MSW Management Transfer Station (Compaction) 56% Compost (14%) 30% Open DumpingScientific DumpingTransfer StationResource RecoveryTransfer Station(Compaction)Recyclable Inorganic & Others Organic56%7.0Compost (14%)30%98 %NH4SANITARY LANDFILLOPEN GROUND16.0Ground Water
9 Disposal & ProcessingMSW rules 2000 clearly specifies “DISPOSAL” in terms of the specified manner so as to prevent contamination of ground water, surface water and ambient air quality.ULB’s responsibility is to adopt suitable technology of combination of technologies to make use of waste so as to minimize the burden of landfill.9
10 Disposal & Processing Few Technology Options: Technology Status Sanitary Landfill with recovery of organic wasteA good option. Most of the Ulbs are adopting this option.VermiculturePractical for small volume of waste. Large area is required.Power Generation through bio-methanationCan be used for source segregated food waste with low CN ratioAn aerobic digestion for organic manureThere is a risk factor of waste water discharge10
13 Scientific landfill must have following infrastructure facilities Disposal and ProcessingScientific landfill must have following infrastructure facilitiesApproach RoadsWeigh BridgeAdministrative Building & LaboratorySite DrainageLeachate Collection & TreatmentLandfill Gas CollectionMonitoring Network13
14 Waste from the city are to be carried in perfectly Disposal and ProcessingWaste from the city are to be carried in perfectlycovered condition by using Compactors etc.All carried waste are initially be stacked onconcrete yard protected by surroundingdrainage system.Entire quantity of waste collected passes throughthe processes -Sanitization14
15 Bioconversion & value enhancement Segregation of recyclable item Disposal and ProcessingBioconversion & value enhancementSegregation of recyclable itemBio degradable waste (moisture content < 20%) finally goes to mechanical plantMechanical plant does have certain process where further segregation is done while waste moves through different sizes trommel/scanner.15
16 Closed Box or Tunnel Method Windrow Composting with weekly turning for Disposal and ProcessingTypes of CompostTrenching MethodAnaerobicEnclosed Hall MethodClosed Box or Tunnel MethodWindrow Composting with weekly turning foraeration either by lifting ,shifting or turning16
17 Disposal and Processing Compost Plant with Trommel & Conveyor17
18 Disposal and Processing LandfillAfter the composting process is over the rejects are taken to the Landfill in which no. of cells are made to run for a certain period.The base liner of each cell at initial layer is a composite liner comprising of 50 cm highly compacted soil.Over this a Geo-synthetic Clay Liner (GCL) is used to prevent ground water pollution.18
19 Disposal and Processing LandfillA 1.5 mm HDPE Geo membrane is placed over the GCL. Leachate collection system is placed over the Geo-membrane with other additional layers of Gravel, Geo Textile etc. to make it perfectly impermeable.19
20 Disposal and Processing ClosureAfter the Landfill Cell is fully filled up it is to be properly capped. The various layers are placed on the waste as gravel of 200 mm thick, soil layer 600 mm thick, 1 mm thick HDPE liner. Over that a 150 mm gravel layer is placed as a drainage layer then a soil layer of 400 mm thick is placed for vegetation, plantation etc. for a pleasing look20
21 Disposal and Processing Landfill site after Scientific Closure21
22 Improvement of waste collection from slum areaa. Disposal and processingTechnical Steps for handling MSW :Primary CollectionRoad SweepingD2D CollectionImprovement of waste collection from slum areaa.Handling of other wasteConstruction DebrisDrainage silt22
23 Effective Transportation with GPS Tracking Waste Segregation Disposal and ProcessingTechnical Steps for handling MSW :Effective Transportation with GPS TrackingWaste SegregationWaste ProcessingCompost PlantSanitary Landfill with Leachate Treatment.Handling of BMW.Education & Awareness23
26 Quantity in percentage StatisticsParametersQuantity in percentageWeight in TonsCompostable organics72.5182.25Recyclable2.87.00Metal & Glass1.503.75Plastics6.5016.25Inerts & Others16.7041.75Total250.0026
27 Collection & Transportation Primary CollectionNGOs to collect household waste generally kitchen waste from the household bins (distributed to house hold from AMC’s end) and transport through tricycle van/ auto tipper to dispose off primarily in the community bins of capacity 1.1/4.5 cum available in the main roadsNo of NGOs- 20User Charge per Household : Rs. 30 PM27
28 Collection & Transportation Primary CollectionHotel, restaurants and other commercial establishments are also covered in door to door collection.No of NGOs : 01User Charge : Rs. 250 PMAll vegetable markets are also covered by NGOsNo of NGOs : 1028
29 Collection & Transportation 1.1 cum & 4.5 Cum container29
33 Collection & Transportation 600 nos. 1.1 cum container and 60 nos. 4.5 cum metallic community bins are placed across the city.21 nos. refuse compactor to transport waste from 1.1 cum capacity CB.6 nos. dumper placer for transportation of waste from 4.5 cum capacity CB.18 open tipper truck for transportation of waste10 nos. mini auto tipper are in the service of door to door collection33
34 Collection & Transportation Most of the vehicles movement are tracked with GPS system namely vehicle tracking system introduced in the year 2012.To handle debris, construction material 6 nos. skid steer loader along with 02 nos. back hoe loader are utilized which minimizes manpower & timeDe-siltation is being done using 2 nos. De-silting Machines comprising 4 dump tanks. Work is in progress for covered and un covered drains.34
35 Collection & Transportation BMW (Bio Medical Waste) is collection done through 02 nos. specialized vehicle from 65 nos. of hospitals, pathological labs, clinic and incinerated in out incinerator at Hapania.To handle debris, construction material 6 nos. skid steer loader along with 02 nos. back hoe loader are utilized which minimizes manpower & time.35
38 Collection & Transportation BMW Collection-Transportation Vehicle –Processing in Incinerator38
39 Latest Initiatives20 nos. TATA Ace based hopper type mini tipper will shortly be inducted in the door to service which will be made departmental activity to ensure cent percent D2D collection across the whole AMC area .Setting of “Design, Build and Operate basis 250 TPD Solid Waste Processing Plant is in progress at Devendra Chandra Nagar.02 nos. new 14 cum refuse compactor will be inducted in the service.39