2What is PLASMA? “Fourth State” of matter Ionized gas at high temperature capable of conducting electrical currentLightning is an example from nature
3Characteristics of Plasma Arc Technology Temperatures 4,000°C to over 7,000°CTorch power levels from 100 kW to 200 MW produce high energy densities (up to 100 MW/m3)Torch operates with most gasesAir most commonA gasification and/or a vitrification (melting) processNot an incineration processPermits in-situ operation in subterranean boreholes
4Plasma arc technology is ideally suited for waste treatment Organic compounds (MSW, hazardous, toxic) broken down to elemental constituents by high temperaturesGasifiedConverted to fuel gases (H2 & CO)Acid gases readily neutralizedInorganic materials (glass, metals, soils, etc.) melted and immobilized in a rock-like vitrified mass which is highly resistant to leachingP
5Plasma Arc Technology Remediation Facts No other remediation technology can achieve the sustained temperature levels (> 7000°C) or energy densities (up to 100 MW/m3)All known contaminants can be effectively treated or remediatedContaminated soil, rock, and landfill deposits can be readily converted to an inert rock-like material suitable for construction
7Plasma Gasification of MSW Torch Power 120 kWh1 ton MSW 75 ft3Gas CleaningFuel Gas 30,000 ft3Rock Residue Weight: 400 lbVolume: 2 ft3800 kWhGravel Aggregate Bricks
8Plasma Gasification of MSW Notional Heat Balance Heating Value Output Electricity Heat Input= 28.6Coke 0.8 MBtuAir – 0.56 MBtuGas Heat Energy 2.94 MBtuMSW 1 Ton – MBtuProduct Gas 51,600SCF Heating Value = 8.79MBTUPLASMA GASIFIERLosses 0.95 MBtuElectricity 0.12 MWHr – 0.41 MBtu
9Net Electricity to Grid (kWh/ton MSW) (2) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) – to – Electricity Thermal Process ComparisonsNet Electricity to Grid (kWh/ton MSW) (2)Plasma AdvantageProcess (1)Plasma Arc GasificationConventional Gasification- Fixed/Fluidized Bed TechnologiesPyrolysis & Gasification- Thermoselect TechnologyPyrolysis- Mitsui R21 TechnologyIncineration- Mass Burn Technology816685571544-20%40%50%(1) 300 – 3,600 TPD of MSW(2) Steam Turbine Power GenerationReference: EFW Technology Overview, The Regional Municipality of Halton, Submitted by Genivar, URS, Ramboll, Jacques Whitford & Deloitte, Ontario, Canada, May 30, 2007
10Plasma WTE Emission Control Systems Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) System: Removes fly ash and heavy metalsFabric Filter (FF) System:Removes ~95% of particulate matter (PM)Removes heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc.)Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) System:Removes ~99.99% of mercuryReduces ~98% of dioxinsSpray Dryer (SD) System:Lime and water injection to remove acid gasesRemoves most remaining mercurySelective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) System:Ammonia (NH3) injection to convert NOx into nitrogen and waterPlasma WTE plant emissions will be cleaner than natural gas emissionsfrom domestic household gas stoves.
11Pounds of CO2 Emissions per MWH of Electricity Produced Pounds CO2/MWHMSWIncinerationCoal3,000PlasmaNaturalGas2,0001,000Oil2,988 (1)2,249 (1)1,672 (1)1,419 (2)1,135 (1)Power Generation Process(1) EPA Document:(2) Complete Conversion of Carbon to CO2; MSW Material & Heat Balance, Westinghouse Plasma Corp.
13Plasma WTE Processing -- An Ultimate MSW Disposal System ? Accept all solid and liquid wastesNo preprocessingCan include hazardous/toxic materials, medical wastes, asbestos, tires, etc.Closed loop systemNo direct gaseous emissions to the atmosphereNo landfill requirementsTotal waste reclamationRecover fuel value of wastesProduce salable residues (e.g., metals and aggregates)
14US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Studies: Conclusions WTE power plants produce electricity with less environmental impact than almost any other source of electricityMSW is the only important WTE materials stream, up to 4% of the nation’s electrical energy demandSignificant greenhouse gas emissions savings. For each ton of waste processed in WTE units, more than 1 ton of CO2 equivalent emissions are avoided (from landfills and combustion of fossil fuels).WTE is preferred over landfilling waste.
15Commercial Project: Plasma Gasification of MSW in Japan The Plasma Direct Melting Reactor (PDMR) at Mihama-Mikata, Japan converts unprocessed MSW and WWTP Sludge to fuel gas, sand-size aggregate, and mixed metal nodules.Commissioned in 2002 at Mihama-Mikata, Japan by Hitachi Metals, LTDGasifies 24 TPD of MSW & 4 TPD of sewage sludgeProduces steam and hot water for local industries
16Commercial Project: Plasma Gasification of MSW in Japan The Plasma Direct Melting Reactor (PDMR) at Utashinai, Japan converts unprocessed MSW and ASR to electricity, sand-size aggregate, and mixed metal nodulesCommissioned in 2002 at Utashinai, Japan by Hitachi Metals, LTDOriginal Design – gasification of 170 TPD of Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR)Current Design – Gasification of approximately 300 TPD of MSWGenerates up to 7.9 MW of electricity with ~4.3 MW to grid
17Plasma WTE Project (Florida) Geoplasma, LLCSt. Lucie County, FloridaFeedstock: 600 TPD MSWEnergy: 22 MW to the gridCapital Cost (est.): $120 MillionStart Date: 2012 (2 year project)** Permitted for construction
18Plasma WTE Project (Iowa) Plasma Power, LLCMarion/Cedar Rapids/Linn County, IAFeedstock: 250 TPD MSW *Energy (est.): 47 MW to gridCapital Cost (est.): $100 MillionStart Date: 2012 (2 year project)* Syngas is supplemented with natural gas.
20Plasma WTE Demonstration Plants Plasco (Ottawa, Canada)94 TPD MSW to Power (1MWH/ton)30 month demo completed in Jan 2011Several commercial projects under considerationEuroplasma (Bordeaux, France)150 TPD MSW & Biomass (12 MW to the grid)Completion in 2012
21Capital Costs: Incineration vs. Plasma Gasification Facilities Incineration-Only and Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Facilities
23Plasma Processing at Fossil Fuel Power Plants Equipment EliminatedCombustion ChamberHot gasCoal Ash Feed toPlasma SystemMSWBiomassCoalWastesSteam Option
24Collocated Plasma WTE & Fossil Fuel Power Plants: A “WIN – WIN” Collaboration Fossil Fuel Power Plant BenefitsSignificant Cost SavingsReduced fossil fuels, emissions, and landfillingMore efficient fossil fuel combustionLow cost MSW process gasReduced pollution control equipmentPlasma Processing of Contaminated Coal AshPermanent elimination of potentially hazardous conditions (no landfilling)Some WTE potential and salable byproductsMSW Plasma Plant BenefitsCapital Costs / O&M Costs Reduced >50%Plasma WTE becomes a highly profitable enterpriseTipping feesEnergy ProductionSolid by-product sales
25Zero WasteThe recycling of all materials back into nature or the marketplace in a manner that protects human health and the environmentUnder the goals of Zero Waste, all materials leaving the coal plants will be recycled, and emissions will meet all environmental regulations by wide marginsSignificant power plant cost savingsUtilization of waste feedstocksReduced pollution control equipmentCoal ash conversion into salable construction materials
30Summary and Conclusions Plasma processing has unique treatment capabilities unequaled by existing technologiesPlasma processing of MSW has the potential to supply ~5-8% of U.S. electricity needsIt may be more cost-effective to take MSW to a plasma facility for energy production than to dump it in a landfillWhen fully developed, it may become cost-effective to mine existing landfills for energy productionPlasma processing of MSW in the U.S. could:Significantly reduce the MSW disposal problemSignificantly alleviate the energy crisisReduce or eliminate the need for landfills