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Plasma Arc Gasification of Solid Waste Applied Plasma Arc Technologies, LLC P.O. Box 950211 Atlanta, GA 30377-0211 ©2012 APAT v3.0 A.

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Presentation on theme: "Plasma Arc Gasification of Solid Waste Applied Plasma Arc Technologies, LLC P.O. Box 950211 Atlanta, GA 30377-0211 ©2012 APAT v3.0 A."— Presentation transcript:

1 Plasma Arc Gasification of Solid Waste Applied Plasma Arc Technologies, LLC P.O. Box 950211 Atlanta, GA 30377-0211 ©2012 APAT v3.0 A member company of Georgia Tech’s Advanced Technology Development Center March 2012

2 What is PLASMA? “Fourth State” of matter Ionized gas at high temperature capable of conducting electrical current Lightning is an example from nature 2

3 Characteristics of Plasma Arc Technology Temperatures 4,000°C to over 7,000°C Torch power levels from 100 kW to 200 MW produce high energy densities (up to 100 MW/m 3 ) Torch operates with most gases Air most common A gasification and/or a vitrification (melting) process Not an incineration process Permits in-situ operation in subterranean boreholes 3

4 Plasma arc technology is ideally suited for waste treatment Organic compounds (MSW, hazardous, toxic) broken down to elemental constituents by high temperatures Gasified Converted to fuel gases (H 2 & CO) Acid gases readily neutralized Inorganic materials (glass, metals, soils, etc.) melted and immobilized in a rock-like vitrified mass which is highly resistant to leaching 4

5 Plasma Arc Technology Remediation Facts No other remediation technology can achieve the sustained temperature levels (> 7000°C) or energy densities (up to 100 MW/m 3 ) All known contaminants can be effectively treated or remediated Contaminated soil, rock, and landfill deposits can be readily converted to an inert rock-like material suitable for construction 5

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7 Plasma Gasification of MSW Torch Power 120 kWh 1 ton MSW 75 ft 3 Gas Cleaning Fuel Gas 30,000 ft 3 Rock Residue Weight: 400 lb Volume: 2 ft 3 800 kWh Gravel Aggregate Bricks 7

8 Plasma Gasification of MSW Notional Heat Balance PLASMA GASIFIER MSW 1 Ton – 11.31 MBtu Coke 0.8 MBtu Air – 0.56 MBtu Electricity 0.12 MWHr – 0.41 MBtu Product Gas 51,600SCF Heating Value = 8.79MBTU Losses 0.95 MBtu Gas Heat Energy 2.94 MBtu Heating Value Output Electricity Heat Input = 28.6 8

9 Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) – to – Electricity Thermal Process Comparisons Plasma Arc Gasification Conventional Gasification - Fixed/Fluidized Bed Technologies Pyrolysis & Gasification - Thermoselect Technology Pyrolysis - Mitsui R21 Technology Incineration - Mass Burn Technology Process (1) (1) 300 – 3,600 TPD of MSW (2) Steam Turbine Power Generation 816 685 571 544 Net Electricity to Grid (kWh/ton MSW) (2) - 20% 40% 50% Plasma Advantage Reference: EFW Technology Overview, The Regional Municipality of Halton, Submitted by Genivar, URS, Ramboll, Jacques Whitford & Deloitte, Ontario, Canada, May 30, 2007 9

10 Plasma WTE Emission Control Systems Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) System: Removes fly ash and heavy metals Fabric Filter (FF) System: Removes ~95% of particulate matter (PM) Removes heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, etc.) Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) System: Removes ~99.99% of mercury Reduces ~98% of dioxins Spray Dryer (SD) System: Lime and water injection to remove acid gases Removes most remaining mercury Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) System: Ammonia (NH 3 ) injection to convert NO x into nitrogen and water Plasma WTE plant emissions will be cleaner than natural gas emissions from domestic household gas stoves. 10

11 Pounds of CO 2 Emissions per MWH of Electricity Produced (1) EPA Document: (2) Complete Conversion of Carbon to CO 2 ; MSW Material & Heat Balance, Westinghouse Plasma Corp. Power Generation Process Pounds CO 2 /MWH MSW Incineration Coal 3,000 MSW Plasma Natural Gas 2,000 1,000 Oil 2,988 (1) 2,249 (1) 1,672 (1) 1,419 (2) 1,135 (1) 11

12 MSW Solid Byproducts Molten Stream Processing (Product) Air Cooling (Gravel) Water Cooling (Sand) Water Cooling (Metal Nodules) Air Blown (“Plasma Wool”) Salable Product Uses Coarse Aggregate (roads, concrete, asphalt) Fine Aggregate (concrete, asphalt, concrete products) Recyclable metals Insulation, sound proofing, agriculture 12

13 Plasma WTE Processing -- An Ultimate MSW Disposal System ? Accept all solid and liquid wastes No preprocessing Can include hazardous/toxic materials, medical wastes, asbestos, tires, etc. Closed loop system No direct gaseous emissions to the atmosphere No landfill requirements Total waste reclamation Recover fuel value of wastes Produce salable residues (e.g., metals and aggregates) 13

14 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Studies: Conclusions WTE power plants produce electricity with less environmental impact than almost any other source of electricity MSW is the only important WTE materials stream, up to 4% of the nation’s electrical energy demand Significant greenhouse gas emissions savings. For each ton of waste processed in WTE units, more than 1 ton of CO 2 equivalent emissions are avoided (from landfills and combustion of fossil fuels). WTE is preferred over landfilling waste. 14

15 Commercial Project: Plasma Gasification of MSW in Japan Commissioned in 2002 at Mihama-Mikata, Japan by Hitachi Metals, LTD Gasifies 24 TPD of MSW & 4 TPD of sewage sludge Produces steam and hot water for local industries The Plasma Direct Melting Reactor (PDMR) at Mihama-Mikata, Japan converts unprocessed MSW and WWTP Sludge to fuel gas, sand-size aggregate, and mixed metal nodules. 15

16 Commercial Project: Plasma Gasification of MSW in Japan Commissioned in 2002 at Utashinai, Japan by Hitachi Metals, LTD Original Design – gasification of 170 TPD of Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR) Current Design – Gasification of approximately 300 TPD of MSW Generates up to 7.9 MW of electricity with ~4.3 MW to grid The Plasma Direct Melting Reactor (PDMR) at Utashinai, Japan converts unprocessed MSW and ASR to electricity, sand-size aggregate, and mixed metal nodules 16

17 Plasma WTE Project (Florida) Geoplasma, LLC St. Lucie County, Florida Feedstock: 600 TPD MSW Energy: 22 MW to the grid Capital Cost (est.): $120 Million Start Date: 2012 (2 year project)* * Permitted for construction 17

18 Plasma WTE Project (Iowa) Plasma Power, LLC Marion/Cedar Rapids/Linn County, IA Feedstock: 250 TPD MSW * Energy (est.): 47 MW to grid Capital Cost (est.): $100 Million Start Date: 2012 (2 year project) * Syngas is supplemented with natural gas. 18

19 Plasma WTE Project (Alabama) Coskata, Inc. Boligee/Green County, AL Feedstock: 1,500 TPD Wood Biomass Energy: 150,000 gallons/day Ethanol Capital Cost (est.): $500 Million* Start Date: TBD * $88 Million USDA Loan Guarantee 19

20 Plasma WTE Demonstration Plants Plasco (Ottawa, Canada) 94 TPD MSW to Power (1MWH/ton) 30 month demo completed in Jan 2011 Several commercial projects under consideration Europlasma (Bordeaux, France) 150 TPD MSW & Biomass (12 MW to the grid) Completion in 2012 Several commercial projects under consideration 20

21 Capital Costs: Incineration vs. Plasma Gasification Facilities 21 Incineration-Only and Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Facilities

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23 Plasma Processing at Fossil Fuel Power Plants Equipment Eliminated Combustion Chamber Hot gas Coal Ash Feed to Plasma System MSW Biomass Coal Wastes Steam Option

24 Collocated Plasma WTE & Fossil Fuel Power Plants: A “WIN – WIN” Collaboration Fossil Fuel Power Plant Benefits Significant Cost Savings Reduced fossil fuels, emissions, and landfilling More efficient fossil fuel combustion Low cost MSW process gas Reduced pollution control equipment Plasma Processing of Contaminated Coal Ash Permanent elimination of potentially hazardous conditions (no landfilling) Some WTE potential and salable byproducts MSW Plasma Plant Benefits Capital Costs / O&M Costs Reduced >50% Plasma WTE becomes a highly profitable enterprise Tipping fees Energy Production Solid by-product sales 24

25 25 Zero Waste The recycling of all materials back into nature or the marketplace in a manner that protects human health and the environment Under the goals of Zero Waste, all materials leaving the coal plants will be recycled, and emissions will meet all environmental regulations by wide margins Significant power plant cost savings Utilization of waste feedstocks Reduced pollution control equipment Coal ash conversion into salable construction materials

26 Landfill Remediation Concept 26

27 27 Potential In-Situ Landfill Remediation Equipment (based on an older DOE technology)

28 Commercial Plasma Waste Processing Facilities (Asia) LocationWasteCapacity (TPD)Start Date Mihama-Mikata, JPMSW/WWTP Sludge282002 Utashinai, JPMSW/ASR3002002 Kinuura, JPMSW Ash501995 Kakogawa, JPMSW Ash302003 Shimonoseki, JPMSW Ash412002 Imizu, JPMSW Ash122002 Maizuru, JPMSW Ash62003 Iizuka, JPIndustrial102004 Osaka, JPPCBs42006 Taipei, TWMedical & Batteries42005 28

29 Commercial Plasma Waste Processing Facilities (Europe & North America) LocationWasteCapacity (TPD)Start Date Bordeaux, FRMSW ash101998 Morcenx, FRAsbestos222001 Bergen, NOTannery152001 Landskrona, SWFly ash2001983 Jonquiere, CanadaAluminum dross501991 Ottawa, CanadaMSW852007 (demonstration) Anniston, ALCatalytic converters241985 Honolulu, HIMedical12001 Hawthorne, NVMunitions102006 Alpoca, WVAmmunition102003 U.S. NavyShipboard72004 U.S. ArmyChemical Agents102004 29

30 Summary and Conclusions Plasma processing has unique treatment capabilities unequaled by existing technologies Plasma processing of MSW has the potential to supply ~5-8% of U.S. electricity needs It may be more cost-effective to take MSW to a plasma facility for energy production than to dump it in a landfill When fully developed, it may become cost-effective to mine existing landfills for energy production Plasma processing of MSW in the U.S. could: Significantly reduce the MSW disposal problem Significantly alleviate the energy crisis Reduce or eliminate the need for landfills 30

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