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ALTERNATIVE POWER Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering 2002 Student Conference University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta March 15 - 17, 2002 Doug Heaton.

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Presentation on theme: "ALTERNATIVE POWER Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering 2002 Student Conference University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta March 15 - 17, 2002 Doug Heaton."— Presentation transcript:

1 ALTERNATIVE POWER Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering 2002 Student Conference University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta March , 2002 Doug Heaton P. Eng. Project Development Manager EPCOR Utilities Inc.

2 Alberta’s restructuring experience:  Fundamental principles behind restructuring are sound  Prices will stabilize with more generation coming on stream  Despite California, no one has stopped deregulating. In fact Ontario will move ahead in 2nd Quarter, 2002 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

3 Generation generates electricity Distribution & Transmission (wires) transmits electricity to provincial grid system; distributes electricity to consumer; manages and reads meters DeregulatedRegulatedDeregulated Retail sells electricity, customer service, billing and administration: takes electricity from source to end user ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

4 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference 2000 Energy Source Profile for North America

5 A diverse fuel mix is desirable to ensure: Security of energy supply Power price stability System reliability ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

6 Energy Sources for Alternative Power Generation   Wind   Solar   Coalbed methane   Small hydro (run-of river water)   Biomass   Biogas (agricultural)   Landfill gas ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

7 Today’s High Profile Alternative Generation Systems l l Microturbines l l Fuel cells ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

8 WIND ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

9 Vision Quest, Castle River, AB Vestas 660 MW, 50 Metre Tall

10 Comparison of Wind Power Capacity in Various Countries n n Germany: 6,113 MW n n Denmark: 2,297 MW n n USA: 5,250 MW n n Spain: 2,402 MW n n Canada: 198 MW ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

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12 Peigan Nation - EPCOR, Brocket, AB NEG Micon 900 kW, 72 Metres Tall

13 Weather Dancer 1 Capital cost$1.8 million Output900 KW Tower height72 metres Blade radius26 metres Concrete base25 square metres x 8.2 metres deep (500 tonnes of concrete) ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

14 The amount of power available in the wind is determined by the equation: w = 1/2 r A v 3 where w is power, r is air density, A is the rotor area, and v is the wind speed. Wind power is a measure of the energy available in the wind. It is a function of the cube (third power) of the wind speed. If the wind speed is doubled, power in the wind increases by a factor of eight (2 3 ). This relationship means that small differences in wind speed lead to large differences in power.

15 SOLAR ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

16 Passive Solar Heating

17 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Active Solar Heating

18 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Active Solar Generating

19 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference EPCOR Centre, Edmonton 13 kW DC

20 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference EPCOR Centre, Edmonton 13 kW DC

21 COALBED METHANE ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

22 Coalbed Methane

23 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

24 SMALL HYDRO ALTERNATIVE POWER SOURCES Alberta Federation of REA’s

25 EPCOR’s Taylor Hydroelectric Project MW Run-of-River, Magrath, Alberta

26 BIOMASS ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

27 Gasifier Project Burlington Electric's McNeil Station in Burlington, VT

28 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference 23 MW Fluidized Bed Biomass Generating Station Whitecourt, Alberta

29 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Biogas

30 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

31 Integrated Manure Utilization System

32 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Ribe Biogas Plant, Denmark

33 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Ribe Biogas Plant, Denmark Cattle manure Hog manureDigestor tanks

34 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Ribe Biogas Plant, Denmark Plant Data Primary tanks: 2, each of 680 m³ Dosing tank: 1 of 150 m³ Reactors: 3, each of 1,750 m³ Storage tanks (central): 2, each of 680 m³ Gas storage: 1,000 m³ Storage tanks (local: 22) Operating Data Biomass feed: 400 m³/d Biogas production, gross: 77 MWh/d (100%) Process heat, consumption: 12 MWh/d(15,5%) – Process power, consumption: 2 MWh/d (2,5%) Surplus energy, net: 63 MWh/d

35 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Processed Manure

36 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Landfill Gas

37 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Clover Bar Landfill, Edmonton

38 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

39 EPCOR’s Clover Bar Landfill Gas Plant

40 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Mountaingate Landfill Gas Plant, California

41 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference 1 MW Jenbacher LFG Reciprocating Engine Marina Landfill, California

42 Microturbines ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

43 MICROTURBINES Power to Utility Grid, Heat & Power for On-site Use Power to Utility Grid, Heat & Power for On-site Use Offset High Retail Electric Rates Offset High Retail Electric Rates Meet Strict Air Emission Regulations Meet Strict Air Emission Regulations Poor Quality Landfill Gas (> 35% CH 4 ) Poor Quality Landfill Gas (> 35% CH 4 ) Small Quantity Landfill Gas (> 489 Nm 3 /day, 12 scfm) Small Quantity Landfill Gas (> 489 Nm 3 /day, 12 scfm) Innovative / Renewable Technology Funding Innovative / Renewable Technology Funding ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

44 Fuel Heating Value: > 13.4 MJ/m 3 ( > 350 Btu/scf HHV) Heat Rate for 30 kW(e): kW(t) (436,000 Btu/hr) Efficiency:23.5% Water Vapor Content: Dew Pt + 10 O C Hydrogen Sulfide Content: < 70,000 ppm v Particulate Content: < 20 ppm Pressure: 55 to 80 psig ALTERNATIVE POWER MICROTURBINES

45

46 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference MICROTURBINES NOx Emissions (g/kWh) 20 US Utility Average 3.24 Ontario Power Generation Forecast 1.55 Peaking Gas Turbine 1.8 Capstone 30 kW 0.06

47 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference MICROTURBINES

48 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Honeywell Parallon 75 kW Microturbine Turbine and compressor $68,200 Mechanical $3,200 Electrical $13,400 Civil $4,700 Metering $1,900 Engineering $7,900 TOTAL $99,300

49 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Shipment of 40 Honeywell Parallon 75 Microturbines to Calgary from Albuquerque

50 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference MICROTURBINES Secure Power’s 5 unit Elliott Energy T-80kW

51 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Lopez Canyon Landfill, California: 50 x 30 kW Capstone Microturbines

52 FUEL CELLS ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

53 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Proton Exchange Membrane or Solid Polymer Fuel Cell Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Alkaline Fuel Cell Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Regenerative Fuel Cell Zinc Air Fuel Cell

54 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

55 Alkali KOH Fuel Cells  Old inefficient technology  Used on NASA program  No interest for large scale power generation

56 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells  Concentrated phosphoric acid used as electrolyte at 200 o C.  Platinum on carbon black electrodes.  Contained in pressure vessels.  Natural gas steam-reformed to hydrogen.

57 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells  Molten alkali carbonates used as electrolyte at 650 o C.  Porous nickel - ceramic anode.  Porous nickel oxide cathode.  Porous lithium aluminate electrolyte matrix.

58 Fuel Cell Energy: 2 MW Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Santa Clara, California ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

59 Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are solid and operate at low temperatures 80 o C.  Suitable for transportation applications.  Technology promoted by Ballard (Vancouver).

60 DaimlerChrysler Jeep Commander Fuel Cell Hybrid

61 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Tubular)  Operate at 1000 o C.  Developed by Siemens - Westinghouse over the past decade.  Shaped like lengths of 36” x 1” pipe.

62 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Bundle

63 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

64 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Tubular)  Nickel yttria - stabilized zirconia anode.  Strontium - doped lanthanum manganite cathode.  Yttria - stabilized zirconia electrolyte.  Magnesium - doped lanthanum chromite interconnects.

65 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Fuel Cell Efficiency

66 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Global Thermoelectric Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

67 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Planar)  Operate at 600 o C o C.  Developed by Global Thermoelectric (Calgary)  Flat sheets.

68 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (Planar)  Ceramic cells with stainless steel interconnects.  High cell efficiency of 60% and capable of 85% with combined cycle operation.  Does not need external hydrogen infrastructure (reformer). Can operate on natural gas, propane and carbon monoxide.

69 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Siemens - Westinghouse Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

70 ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference Ballard 250 kW PEM Fuel Cell

71 Plug Power: 7 kW PEM Residential Fuel Cell ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

72 Expectation for Mature Product SOFC PEM Fuel : Natural Gas Hydrogen Temperature : 950 o C o C Electrical Efficiency : 60% 40% Capital Cost Investment $(Can)/kWh : 1500* 1500* Power Generation Cost cents/kWh : Power/Heat : 2.2/1 1/1 * Year 2010 SOFC for decentralized power applications has 30% lower life cycle cost when compared to PEM

73 f REA’s

74 Levelized Generation Costs, $/KWh D-size battery360 dollars Solar25 cents Fuel cell10 – 14 cents Wind6.8 – 8.5 cents Biomass6 – 7.5 cents Natural gas5 – 7 cents Coal5 – 6 cents Small hydro4 – 6 cents ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

75 AltEnergy 2002 Conference Edmonton, Alberta Biomass Environmental Fuel Cells Information Technology Fusion Finance Wind Energy Suppliers/Services Legal Tidal Power Geothermal Solar Energy Friday, April 26, 2002 Plenary Session: 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm Conference Hours: 8:00 am - 4:00 pm Exhibits Open: 9:30 pm - 4:30 pm ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

76 For questions in the future: Doug Heaton P. Eng. Project Development Manager EPCOR Utilities Inc. ALTERNATIVE POWER CSChE 2002 Student Conference

77 ? Questions


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