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Presentation on theme: "18-1."— Presentation transcript:

1 18-1

2 Upon successfully completing this chapter, you will be able to
Summarize and compare the types of waste we generate List the major approaches to managing waste Delineate the scale of the waste dilemma Describe conventional waste disposal methods: landfills and incineration Evaluate approaches for reducing waste: source reduction, reuse, composting, and recycling Discuss industrial solid waste management and principles of industrial ecology Assess issues in managing hazardous waste 18-2

3 Central Case: The Beare Road Landfill: Making Good Use of Old Garbage
“We can’t have an economy that uses our air, water, and soil as a garbage can.” –David Suzuki : The Beare Road pit received municipal garbage for Toronto’s ever-increasing garbage 1983: landscape restoration was undertaken 1996: began to collect the methane-rich gas being generated by the decomposting garbage (LFGTE, landfill gas-to-electricity) 18-3

4 Approaches to Waste Managment

5 Approaches to waste management
Municipal solid waste = non-liquid waste that comes from homes, institutions, and small businesses Industrial solid waste = waste from production of consumer goods, mining, agriculture, and petroleum extraction and refining Hazardous waste = solid or liquid waste that is toxic, chemically reactive, flammable, or corrosive Wastewater = water used in a household, business, or industry, as well as polluted runoff from our streets and storm drains 18-5

6 We have several aims in managing waste
Three main components of waste management Minimizing the amount of waste we generate (source reduction) Recovering waste materials and finding ways to recycle them Disposing of waste safely and effectively 18-6

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8 We have several aims in managing waste (cont’d)
Waste stream = flow of waste as it moves from its sources toward disposal destinations More efficient use of materials, consume less, buy goods with less packaging, reusing goods Recovery (recycling, composting) = next best strategy in waste management Recycling = sends used goods to manufacture new goods Composting = recovery of organic waste 18-8

9 Municipal Solid Waste 18-9

10 Patterns in the municipal solid waste stream vary from place to place
Municipal solid waste is also referred to as trash or garbage In Canada, paper, organics, and plastics are the principal components of municipal solid waste Even after recycling, paper is the largest component of solid waste In 2008, 2.2 kg per person per day In developing countries, food scraps are the primary contributor to solid waste Wealthy nations invest more in waste collection and disposal 18-10

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13 Waste generation is rising in all nations
Since 1960, waste generation has increased in North America by 300% Plastic has accounted for greatest relative increase Waste generation in Canada has kept pace with population growth In many industrialized nations, per capita waste generation rates have leveled off or decreased in recent years Increase popularity of recycling 18-13

14 Open dumping in the past has given way to improved disposal methods
Historically people dumped their garbage wherever it suited them Most industrialized nations now bury waste in lined and covered landfills or burn it in incineration facilities Diversion rates are increasing in Canada Recycling or composting increased from 21% to 27% in 2008 18-14

15 Waste disposal is regulated by three levels of government
Municipal: Collection, diversion, and disposal of solid waste Drop-off facilities for hazardous waste Provincial and territorial: Movement of waste materials within the jurisdiction Licensing of treatment facilities Legislation and guidelines for landfill sites Federal government: International agreements about waste Transboundary movements of waste materials 18-15

16 Sanitary landfills are engineered to minimize leakage of contaminants
Sanitary landfills = waste buried in the ground or piled in large, engineered mounds Leachate = liquid that results when trash dissolves in water as rainwater percolates downward 18-16

17 Landfills can be transformed after closure
Many landfills lie abandoned Managers closed smaller landfills and made fewer larger landfills Decommissioning = shutting down an industrial site and getting it ready for cleanup and repurposing Growing cities converted closed landfills into public parks Rouge Park in Toronto Fresh Kills in New York 18-17

18 Landfills have drawbacks
Experts believe that leachate (toxic fluid) will eventually escape The liner will become punctured Leachate collection systems eventually aren’t maintained It is hard to find places suitable for landfills The Not-In-My-Backyard (NIMBY) syndrome The “garbage barge” case 1987: Islip, New York’s landfills were full, and a barge traveled to empty the waste in North Carolina, which rejected the load, as did Louisiana and Mexico It returned to Queens to incinerate the waste, after a 9,700 km journey 18-18

19 Incinerating trash reduces pressure on landfills
Incineration = a controlled process in which mixed garbage is burned at very high temperatures; often used in Europe to also generate energy; proposed for Duke Point. Incineration in specially constructed faculties can be an improvement over open-air burning of trash But, the remaining ash must be disposed of in a hazardous waste landfill Hazardous chemicals are created and released during burning Scrubbers = chemically treat the gases produced in combustion to remove hazardous components and neutralize acidic gases 18-19

20 18-20

21 Many incinerators burn waste to create energy
Waste-to-energy facilities (WTE) = use the heat produced by waste combustion to create electricity Waste generates about 35% of the energy generated by burning coal Companies contract with communities to guarantee a minimum amount of garbage Long-term commitments interfere with the communities’ later efforts to reduce waste 18-21

22 Landfills can produce gas for energy
Bacteria can decompose waste in an oxygen-deficient environment Landfill gas = a mix of gases that consists of roughly half methane Can be collected, processed, and used like natural gas When not used commercially, landfill gas is burned off in flares to reduce odors and greenhouse emissions More than 40 operational projects in Canada collect landfill gas and convert it into energy 18-22

23 Garbage justice? Do you know where your trash goes?
weighing the issues Garbage justice? Do you know where your trash goes? Where is your landfill or incinerator located? Are the people who live closest to the facility wealthy, poor, or middle class? What race or ethnicity are they? Do you know whether the people of this neighbourhood protested against the introduction of the landfill or incinerator? 18-23

24 Reducing waste is a better option
Source reduction = preventing waste generation in the first place Avoids costs of disposal and recycling Helps conserve resources Minimizes pollution Can save consumers and businesses money Strategies Reduce packaging Ban or per-bag charges for plastic grocery bags Increase the longevity of goods 18-24

25 Reuse is one main strategy for waste reduction
Donate used items to charity Reuse boxes, paper, plastic, wrapping paper, and so on Buy groceries in bulk Decline bags at stores and bring cloth bags shopping Bring your own cup to coffee shops Buy rechargeable batteries Select goods with less packaging Compost kitchen and yard wastes Rent or borrow items instead of buying them 18-25

26 Reducing Packaging: Is It A Wrap?
weighing the issues Reducing Packaging: Is It A Wrap? Reducing packaging cuts down on the waste stream, but how, when, and how much should we reduce? Packaging can serve very worthwhile purposes, such as safeguarding consumer health and safety. Can you think of three products for which you would not want to see less packaging? Can you name three products for which packaging could easily be reduced without ill effects to the consumer? Would you be any more or less likely to buy these products if they had less packaging? 18-26

27 Composting recovers organic waste
Composting = the conversion of organic waste into mulch or humus through natural biological processes of decomposition There are now more than 350 centralized composting programs in Canada 28% of the Canadian solid waste stream is made up of materials that can easily be composted 57% of Canadian households do some form of composting 18-27

28 Recycling consists of three steps

29 Recycling has grown rapidly and can expand further
95% of Canadian households have access to recycling programs Recycling rates vary from one product or material type to another and from one location to antoher Increase has been driven by Economic forces Desire to reduce waste 18-29

30 Costs of Recycling and Not Recycling
weighing the issues Costs of Recycling and Not Recycling Should recycling programs be subsidized by governments even if they are run at an economic loss? What types of external costs—costs not reflected in market prices— do you think would be involved in not recycling, say, aluminum cans? Do you feel these costs justify sponsoring recycling programs even when they are not financially self- supporting? Why or why not? 18-30

31 Financial incentives can help address waste
Pay-as-you-throw = uses financial incentives to influence consumer behavior The less waste a house generates the less it is charged for trash collection Return-for-refund = consumers pay a deposit, and receive a refund for returning used bottles Greatly reduced beverage container litter All provinces and territories in Canada except for Nunavut 18-31

32 Edmonton showcases reduction and recycling
Edmonton, Alberta, has created one of the world’s most advanced waste management programs Waste: 35% sanitary landfilled, 15% is recycled, 50% is composted 88% of the people participate in curbside recycling 18-32

33 Industrial Solid Waste

34 Industrial solid waste
Industrial waste = waste from factories, mining, agriculture, petroleum extraction, etc. 18-34

35 Regulation and economics each influence industrial waste generation
Most methods and strategies of waste disposal, reduction, and recycling are similar to municipal solid waste The amount of waste generated by a manufacturing process is one measure of its efficiency Physical efficiency is not equal to economic efficiency It can be cheaper to generate waste than to avoid waste The rising cost of waste disposal encourage industries to decrease waste and increase physical efficiency 18-35

36 Industrial ecology seeks to make industry more sustainable
Industrial ecology = redesigning industrial systems to reduce resource inputs and to minimize physical inefficiency while maximizing economic efficiency Life cycle analysis = examine the life cycle of a product and look for ways to make the process more ecologically efficient Pollution prevention (P2) strategies = aimed at reducing waste and preventing pollution at its source 18-36

37 Businesses are adopting industrial ecology
Interface Modified tile design and production methods to reduce waste Cut waste generation by 80%, fossil fuel use by 45%, and water use by 70%, while raising profits by 49% Canadian Tire Auto parts return initiatives Xerox Take-back/lease programs ENVIRx program Return unused medications to pharmacies for disposal 18-37

38 Waste exchanges are an offshoot of industrial ecology
Concept of industrial ecology is based on a “closed loop” Wastes are recycled back through the system Waste exchange = a network service with the goal of linking producers of waste with industries or individuals that can make use of the waste as raw materials The Waste Exchange of Canada 18-38

39 Hazardous Waste 18-39

40 Hazardous waste 1999: Canadian Environmental Protection Act:
Flammable = substances that easily catch fire Corrosive = substances that corrode metals in storage tanks or equipment Reactive = substances that are chemically unstable and readily react with other compounds, often explosively or by producing noxious fumes Toxic = substances that harm human health when they are inhaled, are ingested, or contact human skin 18-40

41 Hazardous wastes have diverse sources
Households currently are the largest source of unregulated hazardous waste Household hazardous waste (HHW) Paints, batteries, oils, solvents, cleaning agents, pesticides Canadians improperly dispose of tonnes of HHW each year Average home has close to 45 kg of hazard wastes Two classes are particularly hazardous Organic compounds Heavy metals 18-41

42 Organic compounds and heavy metals can be hazardous
are particularly hazardous because their toxicity persists over time and synthetic organic compounds resist decomposition Keep buildings from decaying, kill pests, and keep stored goods intact Their resistance to decay causes them to be persistent pollutants They are toxic because they are readily absorbed through the skin They can act as mutagens, carcinogens, teratogens, and endocrine disruptors 18-42

43 Organic compounds and heavy metals can be hazardous (cont’d)
Lead, chromium, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, tin, and copper Used widely in industry for wiring, electronics, metal plating, pigments, and dyes They enter the environment when they are disposed of improperly Heavy metals that are fat soluble and break down slowly are prone to bioaccumulation 18-43

44 “E-waste” is a new and growing problem
Electronic waste (e-waste) = waste involving electronic devices Computers, printers, VCRs, fax machines, cell phones Disposed of in landfills, but should be treated as hazardous waste (6% of a typical computer is composed of lead) Some people and businesses are trying to use and reuse electronics to reduce waste Serious concerns about health risks to workers 18-44

45 Several steps precede the disposal of hazardous waste
For many years, hazardous waste was discarded without special treatment Public did not know it was harmful to human health Assumed the substances would disappear or be diluted in the environment Since the 1980s, cities designate sites or special collection days to gather household hazardous waste 18-45

46 There are three disposal methods for hazardous waste
Secure landfills Surface impoundments Deep-well injection These methods do nothing to lessen the hazards of the substances but do keep the waste isolated 18-46

47 Secure landfills Must have several impervious liners and leachate removal systems Design and construction standards are stricter than for ordinary sanitary landfills Must be located far from aquifers 18-47

48 Surface impoundments Surface impoundments = store liquid hazardous waste Shallow depressions are lined with plastic and clay Residue of solid hazardous waste is transported elsewhere The underlying clay layer can crack and leak waste Rainstorms cause overflow, contaminating nearby areas 18-48

49 Deep-well injection Deep-well injection = a well is drilled deep beneath the water table and waste is injected into it Long-term disposal The well is intended to be isolated from groundwater and human contact Wells become corroded and leak waste into soil 18-49

50 Radioactive waste is especially hazardous
Radioactive waste is particularly dangerous and persistent Geologic isolation = using the absorptive capacity and impermeability of naturally occurring rock to block contaminants Multiple-barrier approach = engineering the facility to place as many barriers as possible, both physical and chemical, in the pathway of any escaping contaminants 18-50

51 Contaminated sites are being cleaned up, slowly
18,000 Canadian contaminated sites, including priority sites for cleanup activities: Faro Mine, Yukon ($14.6 million) Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt, British Columbia ($4.56 million) Port Radium Mine, Northwest Territories ($7.1 million) Belleville Small Craft Harbour, Ontario ($6.8 million) Brownfields = sites that have been contaminated but have the potential to be cleaned up and remediated 18-51

52 Conclusion Modern methods of waste management are far safer for people and gentler on the environment Recycling and composting are making rapid progress Canada has changed from virtually no recycling to diverting nearly 25% of all solid waste Our prodigious consumption habits have created more waste than ever before Finding ways to reduce, reuse and efficiently recycle the materials and goods that we use stands as a key challenge for this century 18-52

53 QUESTION: Review All of the following are three main components of waste management except: Minimizing the amount of waste we generate Recovering waste materials and finding ways to recycle them Disposing of waste safely and effectively All of these are components of waste management      Answer: d 18-53

54 QUESTION: Review Within a sanitary landfill, waste is…
      Poured into deep wells Stored in large piles and then burned Buried in the ground or piled up in large, carefully engineered mounds Put onto barges and shipped overseas Answer: c 18-54

55 QUESTION: Review What are some ways we can reduce the amount of items entering the waste stream? Donate used items to charity Buy groceries in bulk Buy rechargeable batteries All of the above are ways to reduce the waste stream Answer: d 18-55

56 QUESTION: Review Industrial ecology is defined by all of the following EXCEPT: Redesigning industrial systems to reduce resource inputs Examining the entire life cycle of a given product   Minimizing physical inefficiency Maximizing economic efficiency Answer: b 18-56

57 QUESTION: Review Which of the following are disposal methods for hazardous waste? Landfills Surface impoundments Injection wells All of the above are disposal methods Answer: d 18-57

58 QUESTION: Review Radioactive waste ….
Is dangerous, but is not persistent in the environment Is not harmful to the environment, but is persistent Is dangerous to human health and is persistent Is not dangerous to human health, but is dangerous to the environment Answer: c 18-58

59 QUESTION: Interpreting Graphs and Data
Which statement is false for this figure? Paper makes up most of the solid waste Compostable material is a significant part of solid waste Glass recycling would have the greatest impact on solid waste Metals are part of solid waste Answer: c 18-59

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