3Outline: Solid Waste Waste Disposal Methods Shrinking the Waste Stream RecyclingHazardous and Toxic WastesFederal LegislationResource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund Act)Management Options
4HIGH WASTE SOCIETYEnough aluminum to rebuild the country’s commercial airline fleet every 3 mounthsEnough tires each year to encircle planet Earth almost 3 times18 billion disposable diapers2 billion disposable razors19 million computers8 million television sets17 billion pounds of polystyrene peanuts
53,000 square miles of used carpet 13,200 pounds of construction wastes per person trillion pounds2.5 million non-returnable plastic bottles per hour1.5 billion pounds of edible food per year186 billion pieces of junk mail per yearThis is only part of the 1.5% of all solid municipal waste
6WASTEAccording to EPA, US produces 11 billion tons of solid waste annually.About half is agricultural waste.More than one-third is mining related.Industrial Waste million metric tons.Hazardous/Toxic - 60 million metric tons.Municipal Waste million metric tons.Two kg per person / per day.Waste Stream
8WASTE - DISPOSAL METHODS Open DumpsOpen, unregulated dumps are still the predominant method of waste disposal in developing countries.Most developed countries forbid open dumping.Estimated 200 million liters of motor oil are poured into the sewers or soak into the ground each year in the US.Five times volume of Exxon Valdez.
9Waste Disposal Methods LandfillsSanitary LandfillsRefuse compacted and covered everyday with a layer of dirt.Dirt takes up as much as 20% of landfill space.Since 1994, all operating landfills in the US have been required to control hazardous substances.
11LandfillsHistorically, landfills have been a convenient, inexpensive waste-disposal option.Increasing land and shipping fees, and demanding construction and maintenance requirements are increasing costs.Suitable landfill sites are become scarce.Increasingly, communities are rejecting new landfills.Old landfills are quickly reaching capacity and closing.
12Waste Disposal Methods Exporting WasteAlthough most industrialized nations have agreed to stop shipping hazardous and toxic waste to less-developed countries, the practice still continues.Garbage imperialism also operates in wealthier countries.Indian reservations increasingly being approached to store wastes on reservations.
13Waste Disposal Methods Incineration and Resource RecoveryEnergy Recovery - Heat derived from incinerated refuse is a useful resource.Steam used for heating buildings or generating electricity.
14Incinerator TypesRefuse-Derived Fuel - Refuse is sorted to remove recyclable and unburnable materials.Higher energy content than raw trash.Mass Burn - Everything smaller than major furniture and appliances loaded into furnace.Creates air pollution problems.Reduces disposal volume by 80-90%.Residual ash usually contains toxic material.
16Mass burn incineration Burning WastesMass burn incinerationAdvantagesReduced trashvolumeLess need forlandfillsLow waterpollutionDisadvantagesHigh costAir pollution(especiallytoxic dioxins)Produces ahighly toxic ashEncourageswaste productionAir pollutionWaste to energy
17Incinerator Cost and Safety Initial construction costs are usually between $100 and $300 million for a typical municipal facility.Tipping fees are often much higher than tipping fees at landfills.EPA has found alarmingly high toxin levels in incinerator ash.Concentrated in fly ash.Pollution control methods are not guaranteed to be 100% effective.
18Recycling Potential Problems Market prices fluctuate wildly. ContaminationMost of 24 billion plastic soft drink bottles sold annually in the US are PET, which can be melted and remanufactured into many items.But a single PVC bottle can ruin an entire truckload of PET if melted together.
20Recycling Benefits Saves money, raw materials, and land. Encourages individual responsibility.Reduces pressure on disposal systems.Japan recycles about half of all household and commercial wastes.Lowers demand for raw resources.Reduces energy consumption and air pollution.
21Recycling Benefits Example Recycling 1 ton of aluminum saves 4 tons of bauxite, 700 kg of coke and pitch, and keeps 35 kg of aluminum fluoride out of the air.Producing aluminum from scrap instead of bauxite ore cuts energy use by 95%.Yet still throw away more than a million tons of aluminum annually.
22Shrinking the Waste Stream CompostingBiological degradation of organic material under aerobic conditions.DemanufacturingDisassembly and recycling of obsolete consumer products.ReuseReusable glass container makes an average of 15 round-trips between factory and customer before it has to be recycled.
23Shrinking the Waste Stream Producing Less WasteExcess packaging of food and consumer products is one of our greatest sources of unnecessary waste.Paper, plastic, glass, and metal packaging material make up 50% of domestic trash by volume.Increase use of photodegradable and biodegradable plastics.Too much emphasis on recycling ?
24Hazardous WasteLegally, hazardous waste is any discarded liquid or solid that contains substances known to be:Fatal to humans or laboratory animals in low doses.Toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic to humans or other life-forms.Ignitable with a flash point less than 60o C.Explosive or highly reactive.
25Hazardous Waste Disposal Federal LegislationResource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)Comprehensive program requiring rigorous testing and management of toxic and hazardous substances.Cradle to grave accounting.
26Hazardous Wastes Contains one or more of 39 identified compounds Catches fire easilyReactive or explosiveCorrodes metal containers
27Not Hazardous Wastes Radioactive wastes Household wastes Mining wastes Oil and gas drilling wastesLiquids containing organic hydrocarbonsCement kiln dust<100 kg (220 lb) per month
28HAZARDOUS AND TOXIC WASTES EPA estimates US industries generate 265 million metric tons of officially classified hazardous wastes annually.At least 40 million metric tons of toxic and hazardous wastes are released into the environment each year.
30Federal LegislationComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA).Modified in 1984 by Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.Aimed at rapid containment, cleanup, or remediation of abandoned toxic waste sites.Toxic Release Inventory - Requires 20,000 manufacturing facilities to report annually on releases of more than 300 toxic materials.
31Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (Superfund Act) Government does not have to prove anyone violated a law, or what role they played in a superfund site.Liability under CERCLA is “strict, joint, and several”, meaning anyone associated with a site can be held responsible for the entire clean-up cost.
32Superfund SitesEPA estimates 36,000 seriously contaminated sites in the US.By 2000, 1,551 sites had been placed on the National Priority List for cleanup with with Superfund financing.Superfund is a revolving pool designed to:Provide immediate response to emergency situations posing imminent hazards.Clean-up abandoned or inactive sites.
33Superfund SitesTotal costs for hazardous waste cleanup in the US are estimated between $370 billion and $1.7 trillion.For years, most of the funding has gone to legal fees, but this situation has improved over past several years.Studies of Superfund sites reveal minorities tend to be over-represented in these neighborhoods.
34How Clean is CleanBrownfields - Contaminated properties that have been abandoned or are not being used up to potential because of pollution concerns.Up to one-third of all commercial industrial sites in urban core of many big cities fall into this category.In many cases, property owners complain that unreasonably high purity levels are demanded in remediation programs.
35THE LOVE CANAL TRAGEDY “THERE IS NO AWAY” Between 1942 and 1953 Hooker Chemicals and Plastics sealed chemical wastes containing at least 200 different chemicals into steel drums and dumped them into an old canal excavation near Niagra Falls, New York.Hooker Chemicals covered over and sold the landfill to the Niagra Falls School board for $1. There was a disclaimer denying legal responsibility for injury caused by toxic chemicalsHooker warned the School Board not to disturb the topsoil because of possible danger from toxic wastes.By 1959 an elementary school and 949 homes were built in the 10 square block area of Love Canal
36Love Canal continued Roads and sewers crisscrossed the dump site. An expressway built at one end of the dump blocked ground water from reaching the Niagra River creating a “bath tub” effect allowing ground water and rainwater to build up and come to the surface.1978 residents began complaining about chemical smells and chemical burns their children received playing in the canal area.Complaints were ignored!!In 1977 chemicals begin leaking into storm sewers, gardens, and basements of homes.
37“An Individual Matters” In 1978 after considerable citizen pressure led by Lois Gibbs and considerable media publicity the state acted.Her children began experiencing “unexplained illnesses.”She formed the Love Canal Home Owners Association.This grass roots organization brought hazardous waste issues to national prominence and spurred th federal Superfund legislation to clean up toxic waste sites.
38What has happened since? The state closed the school and arranged for the 2239 homes nearest the landfill evacuated, purchased and destroyed.Two years later President Jimmy Carter declared Love Canal a federal disaster area .The Federal Government had the remaining 564 relocated and provided funding to buy 564 new homes elsewhere.Residents of all but 72 of the homes moved out.
39The dump site was covered with a new clay cap and surrounded by a drainage systems that pumps leaking wastes to a new treatment plant.After 15 years of court battles OxyChem parent company of Hooker agreed to a $98 million settlement and agreed to pay New York state $7.1 million for site clean up.Because of the difficulty of linking exposure of specific chemicals to specific health threats, the long term health effects on Love Canal remain remain unknown and contoversial.
40In June 1990 the EPA declared the “Black Creek Village” safe and allowed state officials to begin selling the remaining 234 homes at a 10-20% discount.The dump has not been cleaned up only fitted with a drainage system.EPA acknowledges that the dump will leak again.Buyers must sign an agreement that New York State and the Federal Governmentmake no guarantees about the safety of living in these homes.
41Love Canal is a vivid reminder that we can never really throw anything away, that wastes don”t stay put, and that preventing pollution is much safer and cheaper than trying to clean it up.
42Hazardous Waste Management Options Produce Less WasteAvoid creating wastes in the first placeRecycle and ReuseConvert to Less Hazardous SubstancesPhysical Treatment (Isolation)IncinerationChemical Processing (Transformation)Bioremediation (Microorganisms)
43Hazardous Waste Management Options Store PermanentlyRetrievable StorageCan be inspected and periodically retrieved.Secure LandfillsModern, complex landfills with multiple liners and other impervious layers and monitoring systems.
45Summary: Solid Waste Waste Disposal Methods Shrinking the Waste Stream RecyclingHazardous and Toxic WastesFederal LegislationRCRACERCLAManagement Options
46Producing Less Waste and Pollution Waste management (high waste approach)Burying, burning, shippingWaste prevention (low waste approach)Reduce, reuse, recycleChemical or biological treatmentBurial
47Dealing with Materials Use and Wastes 1st Priority2nd PriorityLast PriorityPrimary Pollutionand Waste Prevention• Change industrialprocess to eliminateuse of harmfulchemicals• Purchase differentproducts• Use less of a harmfulproduct• Reduce packaging andmaterials in products• Make products thatlast longer and arerecyclable, reusable oreasy to repairSecondary Pollution• Reduce products• Repair products• Recycle• Compost• Buy reusable andrecyclable productsWaste Management• Treat waste to reducetoxicity• Incinerate waste• Bury waste inlandfill• Release waste intoenvironment fordispersal or dilutionFig. 21.4, p. 521
48Dealing with Hazardous Wastes Produce Less WasteConvert to Less Hazardous or Nonhazardous SubstancesPut in Perpetual StorageManipulateprocessesto eliminateor reduceproductionRecycleandreuseLandtreatmentIncinerationThermalChemicalphysical, andbiologicalOcean andatmosphericassimilationLandfillUndergroundinjectionWastepilesSurfaceimpoundmentsSaltformationsArid regionunsaturatedzone
49Reuse Extends resource supplies Maintains high-quality matter Reduces energy useRefillable beverage containersReusable shipping containers and grocery bags
50Characteristics of Recyclable Materials Easily isolated from other wasteAvailable in large quantitiesValuablePay-as-you-throw garbage collection
51Benefits of Recycling Reduces global warming Reduces acid deposition Reduces urbanair pollutionMake fuelsupplieslast longerReducesSavesenergyenergy demandwater pollutionRecyclingReduces solidwaste disposalmineraldemandProtectsspecieshabitatdestructionFig. 21.7, p. 530
52INDIVIDUALS MATTERRay Anderson CEO of Interface Atlanta based company that makes carpetLease carpet - Install clean & inspect carpet on monthly basisRepair carpet overnightrecycle carpet into new carpet using renewable energyDeveloped new polymer SoleniumCan be recycled, cleaned with water, will not mildew
53Burying WastesSanitary landfillLeachate collectionMonitoring wellsEmit greenhouse gases (CO2 and methane)Space near where waste is produced
54Sanitary Landfill Compacted solid waste Topsoil Sand Clay Garbage Synthetic linerSubsoilWhen landfill is full,layers of soil and clayseal in trashMethane storageand compressorbuildingElectricitygeneratorLeachatetreatment systemMethane gasrecoveryPipe collect explosivemethane gas used as fuelto generate electricityCompactedsolid wastestorage tanksmonitoringwellGroundwaterLeachate pipesLeachate pumped upto storage tanks forsafe disposalClay and plastic liningto prevent leaks; pipescollect leachate frombottom of landfill
55Deep-well Disposal Advantages Safe method if sites are chosen carefullyWastes can beretrieved ifproblemsdevelopLow costDisadvantagesLeaks or spills atsurfaceLeaks fromcorrosion of wellcasingExisting fracturesor earth quakescan allow wastesto escape intogroundwaterEncourageswaste productionFig , p. 538
58Exporting WastesShipping to developing countriesPotentially huge profits for exportersBasel Convention on Hazardous WasteMany developing countries refusing wastes
59Case Studies: Lead Lead poisoning major problem in children Primary Sources of LeadLeaded gasoline (phased out by 1986)Lead paint (banned in 1970)Lead in plasticsLead in plumbingProgress is being made in reducing lead
60Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States Resource Conservation and Recovery ActComprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability ActSuperfundNational Priority ListPolluter-pays principleBrownfields
61Solutions: Achieving a Low-Waste Society Local grassroots actionInternational ban on 12 persistent organic pollutants (the dirty dozen)Cleaner productionImproved resource productivityService flow economies