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L ANDFILLS Environmental Policy 371 1 Megan Bennett Helen Daly Kimberly Hossler Allison Kroeger Seth Maney Kyle Nichting Greg Ochab.

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Presentation on theme: "L ANDFILLS Environmental Policy 371 1 Megan Bennett Helen Daly Kimberly Hossler Allison Kroeger Seth Maney Kyle Nichting Greg Ochab."— Presentation transcript:

1 L ANDFILLS Environmental Policy Megan Bennett Helen Daly Kimberly Hossler Allison Kroeger Seth Maney Kyle Nichting Greg Ochab

2 T WO T YPES OF L ANDFILLS 1) Natural Attenuation Landfill 2) Containment Landfill - Single Lined -Double Lined

3 1) N ATURAL A TTENUATION L ANDFILL 3

4 2) C ONTAINMENT L ANDFILLS Single Lined Landfills Double Lined Landfills 4

5 L ANDFILLS & A IR P OLLUTION 5

6 M AJOR A IR P OLLUTANTS bacterial breakdown of mercury radiation with ozone sulfur compounds with other chemicals, there is also medical waste and infectious disease remains radioactive slag, and toxic and radioactive sewage Asbestos 6

7 C ARBON D IOXIDE Emitted through aerobic and anaerobic respiration of bacterial decomposers A major greenhouse gas that causes global warming 7

8 M INOR A IR I SSUES Dust Particles from topsoil coverings and wind Can be solved by large walls surrounding the area Odor issues Hydrogen sulfide which smells like rotten eggs can be deadly in large quantities Can be solved by building landfills in isolated areas and spraying anti odor agents 8

9 L ANDFILLS & HEALTH EFFECTS 9

10 N EGATIVE H EALTH E FFECTS OF L ANDFILL G AS Ammonia People who inhale 50,000 parts per billion (ppb) of ammonia for less than 1 day experience minor and temporary irritation. People who inhale 100,000 ppb of ammonia in the air for more than 6 weeks experience eye, nose, and throat irritation 10

11 S TUDY ON L ANDFILL G AS H EALTH I MPACTS New York State Health Department Study Researched cancer risk in communities near landfills from 1980 to Cancers studied: Leukemia Non–Hodgkins Lymphoma Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Kidney Cancer Bladder Cancer Brain cancer Women living near landfills have 4x more risk for bladder cancer and leukemia The study had many limitations. The Department of Health concluded that this study does not prove that there is a direct relationship between living very close to the landfill and female bladder cancer and leukemia 11

12 M ORE N EGATIVE H EALTH I MPACTS OF L ANDFILL G AS Odor Originate from certain compounds and wastes in the landfill. Human exposure to landfill odor can cause headaches and nausea 12

13 M ETHANE G AS AS A R ENEWABLE E NERGY S OURCE 13

14 M ETHANE G AS AS A F ORM OF R ENEWABLE E NERGY 50% of the gas released from landfills is methane. Methane gas can be used to power industrial facilities and heat homes. BMW paint shop and manufacturing facility in Spartanburg, SC On August 8, 2005, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 was signed into legislation. 14

15 C OLLECTION OF M ETHANE G AS FROM L ANDFILLS 15

16 S OIL, B ROWNFIELDS, & S UPERFUND 16

17 EPA’ S B ROWNFIELDS P ROGRAM Brownfield: A property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant. Designed to empower states, communities, and other stakeholders in economic redevelopment to work together in a timely manner to prevent, assess, safely clean up, and sustainably reuse brownfields. 17

18 B ROWNFIELDS Four main goals: 1. Protecting the Environment 2. Promoting Partnerships 3. Strengthening the Marketplace 4. Sustaining Reuse 450,00 sites nationwide 18

19 S UPERFUND ! C omprehensive E nvironmental R esponse, C ompensation and L iability A ct of 1980 (CERCLA aka Superfund) Heavily contaminated toxic waste sites that have been abandoned 1,315 sites listed on the Superfund National Priority List (NPL) $8.5 billion trust fund 19

20 L AND R EMEDIATION ! Excavate soil and remove it to a disposal site away from ready pathways for human or sensitive ecosystem contact. Aeration of soils at the contaminated site (with attendant risk of creating air pollution) Bioremediation, involving microbial digestion of certain organic chemicals. Extraction of groundwater or soil vapor with an active electromechanical system. Containment of the soil contaminants. 20

21 R ECYCLING 21

22 Recycling Reduces the effects of landfills Makes for cleaner and safer environment Easy as taking out the trash Half of Americans have access to curbside recycling The EPA estimates that 75% of what Americans throw away could actually be recycled, even though only 25% of it is 22

23 Recycling In 1999, recycling and composting activities prevented about 64 million tons of material from ending up in landfills and incinerators Aluminum Cans In 2003, 54 billion cans were recycled, equivalent to 15 million barrels of crude oil, which is America’s entire gas consumption for one day Can be recycled over and over again Paper Paper makes up nearly 35% of the municipal solid waste stream Every ton of paper recycled saves about 3.3 cubic yards of landfill space Plastic Bottles In 2006, Americans drank about 167 bottles of water each, yet recycled only 38 bottles per person 38 billion water bottles being thrown into landfills Plastic bottles that go to landfills take about 700 years before they finally start to decompose 23

24 Recycling 1994, EPA awarded Ohio JTR grant 2007, illegal to discard lead-acid battery 24

25 C ONCLUSION 25

26 L ANDFILLS & E NVIRONMENTAL P OLICY Has previously been seen more negatively Regulatory Industrial Complex: Mutually beneficial relationship between government and waste management industry Recent Shift in Policy More environmentally friendly Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) 26

27 F UTURE OF L ANDFILLS & E NVIRONMENTAL P OLICY Continued usage and modernization Policy must emphasize their ability to both help the environment and contribute to the economy 27


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