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AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF KARACHI - WASTE-TO-ENERGY OPTION Dr Mansoor Imam, Engr Muhammad Khalid.

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Presentation on theme: "AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF KARACHI - WASTE-TO-ENERGY OPTION Dr Mansoor Imam, Engr Muhammad Khalid."— Presentation transcript:

1 AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF KARACHI - WASTE-TO-ENERGY OPTION Dr Mansoor Imam, Engr Muhammad Khalid

2 AGENDA OF PRESENTATION Introduction of Karachi & Karachi Municipal Corporation Waste Generation Profile and Existing Infrastructure Waste Generation and Compositional Studies at Representative Towns, Temporary GTS & Landfill Site Results and Analysis Conclusion 2

3 KARACHI: SOME FACTS Area: 3530 km2 (1360 sq mi) Population:20 millions approx. Land control:30% with KMC 3 Solid Waste Generation (tons/day) S. No.Districts in Metropolis Solid Waste Generation (tons/day) 1District East2376 2District West1629 3District Central1790 4District South2156 5District Malir1449 6Others600 7Total10,000

4 THE FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT DMC’s Functions Waste generation, Waste handling & separation, storage and processing at source Collection / Separation and processing and transformation of solid wastes Transfer and transport KMC’s Functions Recycling & Treatment Disposal / Landfilling 4

5 KMC EFFORTS TO IMPROVE SWM-KARACHI In 1992 a separate SWM Department established under the Municipal Services Group offices With the Technical & Financial Assistance of JICA, KMC has established Semi-Aerobic Landfill Site in North-West part of city for the scientific disposal of waste covering 500 acres KMC has 02 landfill site (s) – Gond Pass and Jamchakro 5

6 KMC EFFORTS TO IMPROVE SWM-KARACHI In 1998 KMC has installed 02 Incineration plant for the safe disposal of infectious waste from Health Care facilities at Mewa Shah The incineration capacity of both plants are 01 ton/hour 6

7 KMC EFFORTS TO IMPROVE SWM-KARACHI In 2006 the then CDGK proposed Garbage Transfer Station at Mewa Shah Grave Yard The subsequently approved by the GoS (Rs 56.0 Million) The scheme was dropped as KMC signed an International Concessionaire contract with Shengong Shanghai Environmental Protection Company but the contract was not materialized due to lack of financial resource Rs 6.0 Billion was required annually to be paid to Shengong Shanghai to operate the function, however CDGK had limited resources of Rs 2.6 Billion. To overcome the deficit KMC imposes Municipal Utility Services Charnges. The potential is Rs 2.8 Billion/year while Rs 0.24 Billion/year is collected 7

8 EXISTING RESOURCES OF KMC There are two designated dump sites in the jurisdiction of KMC. -Jam Chakro dump site. -Gond Pass dump site. Both sites are situated in North West of Karachi. Area of each is 500 acres. Sufficient up to The titles of both the lands are still with Govt of Sindh. 8

9 JAMCHAKRO LANDFILL SITE -WEIGH BRIDGE 9

10 JAM-CHAKRO LANDFILL SITE CONTROL ROOM 10

11 EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN KARACHI There is no Scientific Landfill site in Karachi, the existing sites will exhausted by 2016 There is no designated Garbage Transfer Station for City No formal Material Recovery Facility No Composting / Biogas Plants No Waste to Energy Plants Adhoc arrangement for lifting and transportation of waste Scavenging is common and every body has access Open Burning is common Open Nallah full of garbage / main reason of City communication collapse during rainy days Various diseases related to poor waste management 11

12 LOOKING FOR ISWM Waste to Energy Options 1 st Step to Carryout a Waste Generation and Compositional Studies KMC carried out studies with the help of Academia, Consultants and local operators 12

13 REPRESENTATIVE WASTE COMPOSITIONAL STUDIES AT KARACHI JUNE-JULY, 2013 Difficult to carryout studies for entire City Lag 1& 2: Out of 18 Towns, 03 representative towns were selected (Saddar Town, Gulshan Town, Gulberg Town) Waste sampling and analysis carried out at various levels at all income levels (High, Medium & Low Income) Source (door to door) Communal Bin Lag 3: Garbage Transfer Station Lag 4: Landfill Site 13

14 PROJECT AREA (03 TOWNS+ 04 GTS+01 LANDFILL SITE) 14 Towns, GTS, Landfill

15 METHODOLOGY OF SAMPLING 15 VERTICAL WASTE ANALSIS HORIZONTAL WASTE ANALYSIS METHODOLOG Y Waste Characterization Laboratory Analysis Source / Door to door collection High High Income Group sqyd houses, Low High Income Group 300 sqyd houses, High Medium Income 240 Sqyd houses, Low Medium Income 80 to 240 sqyd, Low Income below 80 sqyd and slum Minimum of 200 Kg samples collected for continuous 03 days for Waste Characterization Moisture content, Organic and inorganic content, Nitrogen content, Carbon content, Calorific Value Communal Bia Landfill Site / Garbage Transfer Station Minimum of 1000 Kg sample collected for continuous 12 days for Waste Characterization

16 RESULTS – SADDAR TOWN 16

17 MSW CHARACTERISTICS COMPARISON FOR INCOME LEVEL GROUPS (DOOR TO DOOR COLLECTION) SADDAR TOWN 17

18 MSW CHARACTERISTICS COMPARISON FOR INCOME LEVEL GROUPS (TRANSFER STAGES) SADDAR TOWN 18

19 COMPARISON OF CALORIFIC / HEAT VALUE OF MSW ACROSS WASTE STREAM FOR INCOME LEVEL GROUPS IN SADDAR TOWN 19

20 MSW CHARACTERISTICS COMPARISON IN INCOME LEVEL GROUPS (COMMUNITY BIN) SADDAR TOWN 20

21 RESULTS GULSHAN IQBAL 21

22 GULSHAN TOWN WASTE COMPOSITIONAL STUDIES RESULTS DOOR TO DOOR GULSHAN IQBAL 22  Gulshan Medium Income (door to door)

23 MSW CHARACTERISTICS VARIATION OBSERVED IN INCOME LEVEL GROUPS (COMMUNITY BIN) GULSHAN TOWN 23

24 RESULTS GULBERG TOWN 24

25 MSW CHARACTERISTICS VARIATION IN INCOME LEVEL GROUPS (DOOR TO DOOR COLLECTION) GULBERG TOWN 25

26 MSW CHARACTERISTICS VARIATION IN INCOME LEVEL GROUPS (COMMUNITY BIN) GULBERG TOWN 26

27 RESULTS AT GTS 27 GTS KorangiGTS Baloch Colony

28 COMPARISON OF VARIATION IN MSW CHARACTERISTICS AT GARBAGE TRANSFER STATIONS (GTS) AND LANDFILL 28

29 AT LANDFILL 29

30 CHANGE IN COMPOSITION FROM SOURCE TO LANDFILL SITE 30 Recyclable ItemHigh Income Door to Door (%) High Income Community Bin (%) Surjani Site Landfill Site (%) Comments Paper/Cardboard Plastic Bags PET Metals Glass Percent Recyclable contents Increase in quantity and no. of plastic bags,

31 CHANGE IN COMPOSITION FROM SOURCE TO LANDFILL SITE 31 Calorific Value ItemHigh Income Door to Door (%) High Income Community Bin (%) Surjani Site Landfill Site (%) Comments Paper/Cardboard Plastic Bags PET Textile Rubber DiapersIncluded in inert material 7.6 Inert Percent Calorific Value contents Increase of plastic bags, textile and diapers from source to disposal site

32 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS RESULTS AT LANDFILL SITE Sample No.Total Moisture (%) Gross Calorific Values (K.cal/kg) Organic Carbon Total (TOC) % Carbon (%)Hydrogen (%)Nitrogen (%) Sample No. 8 Landfill Site Sample No. 9 Landfill Site Sample No. 5 (A) Landfill Site Sample No. 5 (B) Landfill Site Sample No. 6 (A) Landfill Site Sample No. 6 (B) Landfill Site Sample No. 8 (A) Landfill Site Sample No. 8 (B) Landfill Site Sample No. 11 Landfill Site

33 LANDFILL WASTE ANALYSIS TownsCollection and Transportation Mechanism to the Landfill Site Gulberg Town and 30% part of Gulshan Town The waste reaching the landfill site from Gulberg Town undergoes two-stage sorting; 1 st stage occurs at door to door collection by informal collection services and 2 nd stage sorting during the transferring / filling of waste from informal waste-picking carts to the community bins / roll arm containers. It is observed at the landfill site that the quality of waste is intact and has gathered not much of the dirt material enabling further processing. SaddarIn the middle and low income area of Saddar Town the private sanitary staff collects waste using the wheel barrows and transports the same to the larger waste collection points / community bins made of cement concrete structure. The two-stage sorting of waste took place at the source and at the bin. The quality of waste reaching landfill site form collection points is good enough to be used for further processing where cement concrete bins are intact and surface is lined. Shahfaisal Town, 40% of Gulshan Town, Jamshed Town using the Temporary Garbage Transfer Station The waste hauled from GTS to the landfill site is perhaps the most contaminated with dirt and of low recyclable contents. It is due to the reason that it undergoes a repeated cycle of sorting, segregation and recovery exercise, at source, at the community bin at the temporary GTS.. Nazimabad, North Nazimabad, Liaquatabad & other areas (unspecified) Tripper trucks directly discharge the waste at landfill site. The waste arising from these areas have already undergone two-stage recovery. DHA, Cantonment Board Clifton, Faisal and similar agencies This type of operations involves one-stage sorting that takes place at the time of door to door collection by private operator’s staff, the quality of waste reaches to the landfill site is very fresh and good and has good potential for further processing. Also to certain extent the recyclable contents are higher than the other areas and the calorific value is also good due to one-stage sorting, secondly the waste characteristics are also good owing to its origin being from very high income group category. 33

34 CONCLUSION Waste to Energy Project may be considered as the Calorific Value of Waste at the Landfill Site ranges b/w 4500 to 4000 K.Cal/Kg with Moisture Content 70 to 90%. During study it is witnessed that around 2000 tons/day of good quality of waste is available at Sujani Landfill Site. Through good waste collection and transportation strategy waste to convert into energy can be increased upto 3500 tons/day A suitable Waste to Energy technology feasibility studies may be further carried out for installation Land/Basic Infrastructure is available in and around the landfill site to develop such plants 34

35 THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR TIME AND PARTICIPATION QUESTIONS PLEASE 35


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