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Chapter 22: Waste Management www.aw-bc.com/Withgott.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22: Waste Management www.aw-bc.com/Withgott."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22: Waste Management

2 Waste unwanted material or substance resulting from human activity or process municipal solid waste (trash) hazardous waste toxic chemically reactive flammable corrosive industrial solid waste goods mining agriculture petroleum extraction and refining

3 Waste Management minimize your waster find ways to recycle waste materials disposing waste safely and effective

4 Minimizing Waste: Source Reduction more efficient use of materials buy fewer goods less packaging use goods longer reusing goods (purchasing used, donating)

5 Recovery: Recycling and Composting best strategy in waste management recycling: sending used goods to facilities for extraction and processing of raw materials composting: organic decomposition used for the recovering of organic waste

6 Recycling and Composting in the U.S.

7 Waste Stream

8 Municipal Solid Waste in the U.S. 71% consists of paper, yard debris, food scraps, plastics packaging nondurable goods outdated goods in 2005 we generated 246 million tons, almost one ton per person! average person generates 2 kg of waste per day

9 Waste Generation throwaway society increase in packaging poor quality goods developing countries are becoming more throwaway societies recycling has stabilized the waste production in some industrialized countries

10 Open Dumping trash dumped wherever it suites the person municipalities began taking care of the trash specific sites for trash noxious smoke and nasty smell cities began burying the trash and burning some in incinerators (Midlothian)

11 Sanitary Landfills regulated by health and environmental guidelines resource conservation and recovery act 1976 amended in '84 – partial decomposition by bacteria – compressed by its weight – layered with soil speeds decomposition reduces infestation – limited infiltration of rainwater allows biodegradation by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria

12 Protection against Environmental Contamination location – away from wetlands – away from earthquake-prone faults – 6m above water table bottom and sides must be lined with plastic 2-4 ft of clay to prevent contamination of aquifers leachate has to be collected, treated and kept for 30 years after the landfill close to prevent contamination regular monitoring of groundwater

13 Closing of Landfill

14 Drawbacks leachate is inevitable liner can be punctured maintenance cease eventually landfills are kept dry, but bacteria prefer wet so decomposition slows down finding suitable areas (not-in-my-backyard) – garbage barge (NY 1987) located in poor/minority communities

15 Incineration: benefits it reduces pressure on landfills it can generate 35% of the energy generated by coal power plant can produce gas as a byproduct to be used for energy it is a controlled process where garbage is burned at very high temperatures

16 Incinerator: Drawbacks resulting components are toxic scrubber and baghouse "clean" the byproduct toxic gases can still be created and released to the atmosphere ashes have to be disposed in hazardous waste landfills Texas receives the trash to be incinerated from the surrounding states

17 Composting recovers organic waste converts organic waste into mulch or humus home composting is used to enrich soil reduces need for chemical fertilizer reduces landfill waste

18 Recycling diverted 58 million tons of materials away from incinerators and landfills in steps – colleting – processing – manufacturing

19 Who Recycles and Who Doesn't

20 Financial Incentives "bottle bill" passed in 1970 originally 5¢ per container of aluminum or glass container litter has decreased 69-84% total litter has decreased 30-64%

21 "bigger and better bill" include plastic bottles – will use unclaimed money – legislator has not pass it yet refunds need to be adjusted for inflation – 26¢ per container might be appropriate – might increase return rates

22 Industrial Solid Waste neither municipal nor hazardous regulated by state and local government examples are waste from factories, mining, agriculture and oil extraction consists of disposal, reduction and recycling methods similar to those of municipal waste – but less restricted – may not require landfill liners – may not include leachate collection systems – may not include groundwater monitoring

23 Industrial Solid Waste less waste = higher efficiency higher efficiency may mean higher costs rising costs of waste disposal acts like an incentive to produce less waste illegal dumping is a problem in Dallas

24 Industrial Ecology holistic approach integrating principles of engineering, chemistry, ecology and economics reduces resource inputs minimizes physical inefficiency maximizes economic efficiency

25 Industrial Ecology industrial systems should function like ecological systems Life-cycle analysis – examine the life-cycle of a product from its origin as raw material to the end product to its use to its disposal study how waste products from one can be the raw material in another

26 Industrial Ecology businesses are taking advantage of the results of industrial ecology as it reduces waste lessen impact on Earth saves money American Airlines are buying new planes Interface (carpet and tile company)

27 Hazardous Waste materials that can harm human health ecological damage – die-offs caused by toxins waste in rivers & lakes atmospheric pollution – trash fires

28 Hazardous Waste Ignitable corrosive reactive toxic Gas fire in Dallas, 2008

29 Sources Household biggest source of hazardous waste – paints – batteries – oils – solvents – cleaning agents – lubricants – pesticides

30 Organic Compounds particularly hazardous as their toxicity persists over time resist bacterial, fungal and insect activity – plastics – rubber tires – pesticides – solvents – wood preservatives

31 Heavy Metals persist over time become a problem when disposed improperly widely used in industry – lead – mercury – chromium – arsenic – cadmium – tin – copper

32 Proceeding for Disposal Love Canal (Erin Brockovich) since then people are more aware 1980s sites were designated facilities were designated for exchange and reuse of chemicals EPA set standards for managing hazardous waste problem of illegal dumping

33 Methods of Disposing Hazardous Waste help isolate the hazardous waste from people, wildlife and ecosystems – landfill – surface impoundments – deep-well injection

34 Landfill more strict guidelines than those of municipal waste several liners leachate removal system located far from aquifers

35 Surface Impoundments liquid hazardous waste stored in ponds lined with plastic and clay water is allowed to evaporate leaving a residue of solid hazardous waste once dry the material is removed and transported for permanent disposal used ONLY for temporary storage problems: – underlying can crack and leak – materials may evaporate and blow to other areas – rainstorms may cause overflow

36 Surface Impoundment

37 Deep-Well Injections long term disposal well is drilled beneath the water table into porous rock isolated from water table and human contact 9 billion gallons of hazardous waste per year are placed in injection wells in the U.S. problems: – wells can corrode – wastes can leak into soil eventually entering aquifers

38 Deep-Well Injection

39 E-Waste most of them are disposed in landfills should be treated as hazardous waste must be kept out of conventional landfills recycling has become more popular

40 Cleaning Contaminated Sites Difficult, expensive, time-consuming 1980 CERCLA federal program to clean up sites "superfund" legislation based on taxes to petroleum industry and chemical raw materials EPA evaluates the site – how toxic it is – how near it is to a developed area – if there is a threat to drinking water

41 Problems congress let the superfund tax expire in 2004 since then the superfund went bankrupt government hasn't restore funds for such program yet fewer cleanups are being completed

42 As of mid % of the sites listed as priority sites have been cleaned average cost of 25 million dollars takes years to clean up a site we may have no idea of how to dispose some of the toxins U.S. and other countries must PREVENT hazardous waste contamination in the first place The End


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