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February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer1 Waste Management in Germany Dr.-Ing. Helmut Schnurer Deputy Director General from 1985 until 2006 Head of Waste Management.

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Presentation on theme: "February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer1 Waste Management in Germany Dr.-Ing. Helmut Schnurer Deputy Director General from 1985 until 2006 Head of Waste Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer1 Waste Management in Germany Dr.-Ing. Helmut Schnurer Deputy Director General from 1985 until 2006 Head of Waste Management Directorate at the Federal Ministry for the Environment Bonn, Germany

2 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer2 Some Data and Figures (1) Until 1975: uncontrolled landfills in FRG Most of them closed within a few years and replaced by central waste management facilities (engineered landfills, MSWI) Today: High Tech Industry transfers waste to secondary raw materials and energy: –turnover of 50 billion EURO/a – jobs Invested money : –9 billion EURO for remediation and closure of > 500 landfills –3 billion EURO for new facilities to recycle and recover 12.5 Mill t of waste per year (bio waste, RDF) –7.5 billion EURO for new facilities to pretreate 14 Mill t of MSW per year

3 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer In details.... Quelle: Statistisches Bundesamt

4 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer4 MAIN PRINCIPLES / OBJECTVES of German (and European) Waste Policy Priority for avoidance, material recycling and energy recovery of waste Implementation of extended producer responsibility for products Stop landfilling of bio degradable waste Mandatory pretreatment of solid wastes Contribution to climate protection Harmonization within European Union

5 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer5 The new closed substance cycle Implementing the vision of the 1992 world summit of Rio on sustainable development  Closed Substance Cycle and Waste Management Act 1996 in Germany (China: Circular Economy) First priority now on substitution of resources (raw materials for production or secondary fuels for energy; priority should be given to the more environmentally friendly way) Recycling must be environmentally sound, economically reasonable and socially viable Disposal of wastes only, if recycling or recovery is not possible (problem of enforcement!) Steep increase in recycling and recovery quotas in Germany (>>50 %…80% and higher) for many types of waste

6 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer6 Steps of Development (1) First: reduce waste for disposal –Inform / motivate citizens and industry –Start of separate collection of recycable waste –Promote reuse (packaging) –Increase gate fee for landfills Second: priority for recycling/(recovery) –Reduce waste going to landfill (no capacities) –Save resources (secondary raw materials/RDF) –Introduce extended producer responsibility (packaging, batteries, waste oil, scrap cars, WEEE) –Promote composting, paper recycling and others

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8 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer8 High standards of recycling (achieving quotas of %) Main fields of actions: Bio waste for composting / anaerobic digestion Waste paper Packaging of all types* Construction and demolition waste Batteries* Waste wood Industrial waste End of life vehicles* Electric and electronic equipment* (* EPR-regulations in EU)

9 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer9 Bio waste for composting / anaerobic digestion Separate collection of 7.3 mil tons of bio waste in 2004 Composting is only allowed for separately collected bio-degradable wastes (listed) Problems with separate collection in cities 813 facilities for composting 85 facilities for digestion (wet or dry) Limited market for compost Increase of digestion due to promotion of renewable energy (climate protection)

10 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer10 Waste paper (graphic paper) Nationwide separate collection from households and commercial enterprises in bins or containers Voluntary agreement by the „paper chain“ to use waste paper as a resource (mainly in other than production of graphic paper) One reason: decreasing acceptance of recycling paper in the public Recycling rate >80% (no fully closed loop) Paper fibres cannot recycled for ever

11 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer11 Packaging of all types German Packaging Ordinance from 1991 covers Sales Packaging Secondary Packaging Transport Packaging and any packaging material Responsibility for producer, filler or retailer to take back and recycle (extended producer responsibility) Establishment of separate collection and recycling systems by industry For sales packaging from households and similar sources: Dual System with Green Dot label (at the beginning a monopolistic system) Now growing competition by alternative systems Minimum quotas between 60 and 75% for all packaging materials (achieved, even for plastics!)

12 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer12 Batteries and Accumulators Reduction of hazardous substances (heavy metals) by European regulation (first European product standard for new products) Take back obligation for producers, importers and retailers Collection system exists for take back at points of sale (retailers) System organize transport, sorting and recycling/disposal of collected batteries Surcharge on new batteries to finance this system Collection rate is increasing but should be be further improved Recycling of collected batteries >60% Recycling of car batteries >98%: mandatory deposit system (appr. 10 $ when buying a new one without giving back an old one)

13 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer13 End of Life Vehicles (ELV) European Directive on ELV is implemented Prohibition to use certain heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium-6 with certain exemptions) in new vehicles (  new product standard) Take back obligation by producer or importer Detailed Requirements for dismantling and recycling Recycling and recovery quotas of 85% in 2006 and 95% in 2015 have to be achieved Need to change the existing techniques (either more dismantling before the shredder process or sorting out recyclable fractions from shredder light weight waste)

14 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer14 Waste from Electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) European Directives on WEEE and RoHS are implemented in Germany Prohibition of certain heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr-6) and flame retardants in new equipment with few exemptions (  new product standard) Consumers can give back old appliances without being charged for at municipal collection points (shared responsibility between industry and public waste management authorities) Collection must achieve 5 kg per inhabitant and year (nationwide) Take back obligation for producers and importers from municipal collection points individual solution negotiable for commercially used equipment Industry must proof high quotas for reuse, recycling and recovery (up to 80% of collected waste)

15 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer15 Waste wood Very large commodity (from demolition, furniture waste, packaging, production of wood products) Legal ordinance with requirements and standards for material and energy recycling No priority on material or energy recycling (renewable source) Prohibition of disposing off waste wood in landfill Increasingly use for waste to energy due to promotion of electricity from renewable sources

16 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer16 Construction and Demolition Waste Voluntary agreement by industry to reduce the wastes going to land fills by 50% in 10 years (achieved) Good results for demolition waste, very good results for road excavation waste and poor results for mixed wastes from construction sites Results in 2002 (last year of data evaluation): Total amount of waste from construction industry (all kinds): 214 mill t, recycling 186 mill  reuse and recycling rate of 87 % Total amount of demolition, construction and road excavation waste was 73 mill from which 51 mill t of secondary construction material was produced  recycling rate of 70% Increasing problems to market secondary construction materials due to conflicts with more ambitious goals for the protection of groundwater and soil (conflicts between different authorities with different legal requirement) Balance between environment in different areas, economy and „Circular Economy“ has to be found Probably a new regulation – instead of deregulation!

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18 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer18 But, not all waste can be avoided, recycled, or recovered; at least not presently! What should be done with the remaining residual waste? Landfilling?

19 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer19 Problems with Landfilling Wastes Landfill CPB- Reactor Landfill gas Surface water Water = Leachate Barriers

20 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer20 Why landfilling of wastes is not a good solution Mixed waste contains organic as well as hazardous substances: Production of landfill gas (only 50% can be collected and treated; the remaining 50% are a hazard to climate) Production of leachate (long term collection and treatment is necessary – which is expensive) Engineered barriers will not work for ever but fail in ??? Landfilling shifts problems only to the future Remediation of old landfills may be necessary (problem for future generations) – but how? (examples) On the long term, landfill is the most expensive „solution“ and the contrary of sustainability Landfill of waste, therefore has lowest priority in Germany (and EU) Exemptions for inert wastes, if not recyclable

21 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer21 Steps of Development (2) Third: stop landfilling of untreated MSW, because of –Opposition from citizens against new sites –High costs for new landfills and aftercare –Old landfills became contaminated sites –Landfilling is the contrary of sustainability –Landfilling adds significantly to the emissions of climate damaging gases (methane) New regulations limit the contents of biodegradable material (TOC) and of soluble hazardous substances

22 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer22 Treatment of solid wastes Balance necessary between proven techniques and promising new developments has to be found Proven solution: Incineration Efficient energy recovery Recycling of ashes for construction purposes Off gas treatment products go for recycling or into underground storage in deep salt formations (in Germany a means of recycling) Alternatives (since 2002): Mechanical-Biological-Treatment Biological treatment in closed boxes to avoid hazardous emissions Fraction with low calorific value (<6000 kJ/kg) may be landfilled Fraction with high calorific potential has to go for incineration with energy recovery German regulations do not decide on technical solution – but request a high standard of immobilisation of wastes, leaving open possibilities for new technologies (create no obstacles) Switzerland and Austria have achieved similar goals already in 2000/2004 European regulation is existent now with similar requirements

23 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer23 Wastes must be treated before landfilling Goals: Organic substances have to be mineralized Soluble hazardous substances have to be destroyed or extracted or converted into stable condition Solution: Thermal treatment destroys organic matter Thermal treatment extracts soluble substances or transfers them into stable condition Mechanical-biological treatment (alternative to incineration) needs thermal treatment for high calorific residues Additional advantage: substitution of energy

24 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer24 Steps of Development (3) Fourth:Consequences of restrictions for landfilling: All MSW has to be pre-treated since 2005 Regulations do not define the way – but the results: specifications of pre-treated waste + stringent requirements to protect emissions into air and water

25 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer25 Integrated Waste Management System waste can be avoided can be recovered can be landfilled recycling or energy recovery landfill thermal treatment secondary raw material energy yes no

26 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer Abfallwirtschaft im Jahr 2001

27 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer Waste Management in Germany in Mill tons of MSW Landfill: 28 Mill tons Waste Incineration 6 Mill tons

28 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer28 What are the solutions in Germany? Waste incineration with efficient energy use and stringent emission control has priority Mechanical-biological treatment with energy recovery of the high calorific fraction has second priority Co-incineration of certain wastes in fossil fired power plants and cement kilns is used increasingly; ( also secondary fuel to substitute fossil fuel in district heating, paper mill, chemical industry, tyre-production, metal affinery, even food production) Anaerobic digestion of organic wastes with energy use of the bio-gas is increasing Common denominator: thermal treatment which has achieved political acceptance in Germany, even in the Green Party (pre requisites are limitation to residual waste and stringent emission standards)

29 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer Emissions from waste incineration in Germany (per t of MSW) Before 1990 Today t NOX t SO2 180 kg Cd 130 kg Hg 6 g Dioxin t NOX 0,9 t SO2 1,2 kg Cd 1,2 kg Hg 0,003 g Dioxin

30 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer30 Steps of Development (4) Fifth: Solutions in Germany (public and private operators) Rely on proven technology: Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI, mainly grate) –73 MSWI facilities are operating presently –Total capacity of 17.9 million tons per year (65%) Mechanical-biological-treatment (MBT) –66 facilities with 7.2 mill t/y (26%) Co-incineration in coal fired power plants and cement kilns –presently only 2.3 mill t/y, 8% [Praxis is similar in some other European countries like A, CH, DK, F, NL, S]

31 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer31 „alternative“ Technologies failed (1) Thermoselect –One facility built at Karlsruhe –Never reached specifications/continuous operation  shut down  loss of 400 mill € Schwel-Brenn-Verfahren –Developed by experienced company (Siemens) –Pilot plant al Ulm worked well –First full scale facility started construction but was not finished due to technical problems and increasing costs Gasification at Schwarze Pumpe –Facility worked well with specific wastes –Operation terminated due to not competitive high operating costs

32 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer32 „alternative“ Technologies failed (2) Pyrolysis –Several small sized plants were built –Only one is still operating (technical problems and how to dispose hazardous tar) Plasma Technology –Only experiments and test rigs; no large facility for waste has been realized Katalytic Depolimerisation –Small test rig promises to transfer waste into diesel –No large facility has proven to be available for mixed waste Deep well injection –In theory an ideal solution for organic sludge –Technical realisation failed

33 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer33 Lessons to be learned Established technologies for defined and clean substancies don‘t work autimaticly for heterogeneous wastes  MSW = chameleon Alternative technologies have to cope with: –Existing stringent emission standards –Warrant reliable continous operation –Verify a complete analysis of inputs/outputs –Proof of reliable costs (invest, operation, maintenance) If a solution for managing the arising wastes is needed urgently – proven technology is recommended Decision to rely on alternative technology can only be recommended, if disposal of arising wastes will be secured – in case of the new technology system fails

34 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer34 A new Experience: Waste Management contributes to Climate Protection (Research Report BMU/UBA/Oeko-Institut/ifeu, 8/2005) Methane-emissions from dumps are 21-times more effective than CO 2 Out phasing landfills for solid waste in Germany has reduced such gas emissions significantly Incineration of organic waste has no impact on climate change Outphasing landfill and other waste activities contribute to a total reduction of 46 mill t CO 2 equivalents from 1990 until 2005 (which is the highest individual contribution to climate protection in Germany) Mayor contributions for reductions aside out phasing of landfills are –MSWI and Co-incineration (substitution of fossil fuel) –Metal recycling –Paper recycling –Glass recycling Total reductions from 1990 until 2020 are assumed to be 50 mill t, mainly by not landfilling (76%), MSWI (9%), co-incineration (7%) and material recycling (5%) The reduction potential for the old EU (15 MS) could be 134 mill t CO 2 equivalents, almost 100 mill t from terminating landfilling!the (USA?)

35 February 2008Dr. Helmut Schnurer Landfills are significant emitters of climate changing gases Organic substances in MSW lead to the generation of methane. Reduction of emissions are possible by: - reduce landfilling of wastes - pre-treatment of wastes - improved gas collection

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