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Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson 019 Waste Management Ch 16 Environment & Ecology Waimanalo Gulch landfill.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson 019 Waste Management Ch 16 Environment & Ecology Waimanalo Gulch landfill."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson 019 Waste Management Ch 16 Environment & Ecology Waimanalo Gulch landfill

2 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Where’s it all going?

3 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Central Case: Transforming New York’s Fresh Kills Landfill After 50 years, the largest landfill in the world closed in It was the primary repository of New York City’s garbage.

4 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Approaches to waste management Waste: any unwanted material or substance that results from human activity or process Municipal solid waste: non-liquid waste that comes from homes, institutions, and small businesses Industrial solid waste: waste from production of consumer goods, mining, agriculture, and petroleum extraction and refining Hazardous waste: solid or liquid waste that is toxic, chemically reactive, flammable, or corrosive Wastewater: water used in a household, business, or industry, as well as polluted runoff from our streets and storm drains

5 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Waste Stream

6 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Municipal solid waste is rising In the U.S., waste generation per person has risen 72%. - Even after recycling, paper is the largest component of solid waste. - We are a throwaway society.

7 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson The U.S. municipal solid waste stream The average American generates 2.1 kg (4.6 lb) of trash per day — more than citizens of any other nation.

8 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Waste generation is rising in all nations Wealthy consumers discard items that can still be used. - At many dumps and landfills in the developing world, poor people support themselves by selling items they scavenge.

9 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Improved disposal methods In the U.S. and other developed countries, recycling, composting, reduction, and reuse are decreasing pressure on landfills.

10 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson A typical sanitary landfill To protect against environmental contamination, landfills must be located away from wetlands, earthquake- prone faults, and 6 m (20 ft) above the water table.

11 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Landfills can be transformed after closure Proposed plan for Fresh Kills Landfill with Windfarms

12 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Landfills have drawbacks Leachate will eventually escape. - The liner will become punctured. - Leachate collection systems aren’t maintained. It is hard to find places suitable for landfills. - The not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) syndrome The “garbage barge” case - In 1987, Islip, New York’s landfills were full, and a barge traveled to empty the waste in North Carolina, which rejected the load. - After Louisiana and Mexico rejected the barge, it returned to New York to incinerate the waste.

13 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson A typical solid waste incinerator Incinerating trash reduces landfill pressure

14 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Many incinerators create energy Incineration reduces the volume of waste and can generate electricity. Waste-to-energy facilities (WTE): use the heat produced by waste combustion to produce steam to create electricity Kapaa Quarry

15 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Landfills can produce gas for energy CH 4

16 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Reducing waste is a better option Source reduction: preventing waste generation in the first place - Avoids costs of disposal and recycling - Helps conserve resources - Minimizes pollution - Can save consumers and businesses money Much of the waste stream consists of materials used to package goods.

17 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Waste can be reduced by manufacturers Waste can be reduced by manufacturers if consumers: - Choose minimally packaged goods - Buy unwrapped fruits and vegetables - Buy in bulk

18 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Waste can be reduced by manufacturers vs Chokes animal lifeLitters environment

19 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Reuse is a major strategy for reducing waste

20 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Reuse is a major strategy for reducing waste Buy in bulk Reusable coffee cup

21 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Composting recovers organic waste Composting: the conversion of organic waste into mulch or humus through natural biological processes of decomposition - Can be used to enrich soil - Earthworms, bacteria, soil mite, sow bugs, and other organisms convert waste into high-quality compost.

22 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Recycling consists of three steps Recycling: collecting materials that can be broken down and reprocessed to manufacture new items

23 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Recycling has grown rapidly and can expand Recycling has exploded in the past 20 years. Recycling rates vary widely, depending on the product. - 99% of auto batteries - 11% of plastics are recycled.

24 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Financial incentives can address waste Waste managers have used economic incentives to reduce the waste stream. Pay-as-you-throw approach: uses financial incentives to influence consumer behavior - The less waste a house generates, the less it is charged for trash collection. Bottle bills: consumers receive a refund for returning used bottles and cans - These laws are profoundly effective and resoundingly popular.

25 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Industrial solid waste Industrial waste: waste from factories, mining, agriculture, petroleum extraction, etc billion tons of waste/year in the U.S. — 97% is wastewater

26 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Industrial ecology Redesigning industrial systems to reduce resource inputs and maximize physical and economic efficiency - Industry mimics nature with little waste - Waste from one organism is food for another - Everything is connected by cyclic processes - Living off nature’s interest Businesses can use industrial ecology to save money while reducing waste.

27 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Brewery Mushroom Growing Chicken Raising Methane Gas Production Fish Ponds Conventional Waste Managment in Fiji Brewery waste dumped into oceans to destroy coral reefs Methane vented Muck cleaned out Muck dumped on fields Waste piles up

28 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Brewery Mushroom Growing Chicken Raising Methane Gas Production Fish Ponds Hydroponic Gardening Industrial Ecology in Fiji Brewery waste fertilizes mushrooms Mushroom residue feeds chickens Chicken waste is composted Solids become fish food Nutrients used in gardens

29 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Ahupua’a

30 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Hazardous waste Hazardous waste is defined as: Ignitable: substances that easily catch fire (natural gas, alcohol) Corrosive: substances that corrode metals in storage tanks or equipment Reactive: substances that are chemically unstable and readily react with other compounds (i.e., explosively or by producing noxious fumes) Toxic: substances that harm human health when they are inhaled, ingested, or contact human skin

31 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Hazardous wastes have diverse sources Industry: produces the largest amount of hazardous waste - But disposal is highly regulated in developed countries. Mining Households: include paints, batteries, oils, solvents, cleaning agents, pesticides - The average home contains 45 kg (100 lb). Small businesses Agriculture Utilities Building demolition

32 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson “E-waste” is a new and growing problem Electronic waste (“e-waste”): waste involving electronic devices

33 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Several steps precede disposal of hazardous waste Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA): states are required to manage hazardous waste - Large generators of hazardous waste must obtain permits and track wastes “from cradle to grave.”

34 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Illegal dumping of hazardous waste Kapaa Quarry Honolulu

35 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Disposal of hazardous wastes: surface impoundments Surface impoundments: temporarily store liquid hazardous waste Plastic lining

36 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Deep-well injection A well is drilled deep beneath the water table and waste is injected into it

37 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson Munitions Cleanup Ordinance Reef Kaho’olawe

38 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson QUESTION: Review _______ is defined as “non-liquid waste from homes, institutions, and small businesses.” a)Waste b)Municipal solid waste c)Industrial solid waste d)Hazardous waste e)Wastewater

39 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson QUESTION: Review All of the following are main components of waste management EXCEPT: a)Minimizing the amount of waste generated b)Recovering waste materials c)Recycling waste materials d)Disposing of waste safely and effectively e)All of these are components of waste management.

40 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson QUESTION: Review Within a sanitary landfill, waste is: a)Poured into deep wells b)Stored in large piles and then burned c)Buried in the ground or piled up in large, carefully engineered mounds d)Put onto barges and shipped overseas e)Any of these occurs in a sanitary landfill

41 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson QUESTION: Review What are some ways we can reduce the amount of items entering the waste stream? a)Donate used items to charity b)Buy groceries in bulk c)Buy rechargeable batteries d)Make double-sided photocopies e)All of the above are ways to reduce the waste stream.

42 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson QUESTION: Review Industrial ecology is defined by all of the following EXCEPT: a)Redesigning industrial systems to reduce resource inputs b)Making industrial systems work more like ecological ones c)Minimizing physical efficiency d)Maximizing economic efficiency e)Eliminating environmentally harmful products

43 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson QUESTION: Review By EPA definition, hazardous waste can be: a)Ignitable b)Hot c)Large d)Moveable e)Chemically stable

44 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson QUESTION: Review Which of the following are disposal methods for hazardous waste? a)Hazardous waste landfills b)Surface impoundments c)Injection wells d)All of the above are disposal methods.

45 Copyright © 2009 Benjamin Cummings is an imprint of Pearson QUESTION: Interpreting Graphs and Data a)Less waste is going to landfills. a)Recycling plays a smaller role than in b)Combustion is increasing. c)Composting is increasing. Which statement is false for this figure?


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