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An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States

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Presentation on theme: "An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States"— Presentation transcript:

1 An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Landfill Methane Outreach Program (LMOP) File Last Updated: June 2008

2 Why EPA is Concerned about Landfill Gas
Why is methane a greenhouse gas? Methane absorbs terrestrial infrared radiation (heat) that would otherwise escape to space (GHG characteristic) Methane as GHG is over 20x more potent by weight than CO2 Methane is more abundant in the atmosphere now than anytime in the past 400,000 years and 150% higher than in the year 1750 Landfills were the second largest human-made source of methane in the United States in 2006, accounting for 22.6% generated There are many cost-effective options for reducing methane emissions while generating energy Projects reduce local air pollution and create jobs, revenues, and cost savings Regarding the 4th bullet: largest anthropogenic source for 2006 was enteric fermentation, barely beating out landfills, at 22.7% of total CH4 in See executive summary of report, page ES-10. Waste chapter, page 8-1, just states “approximately 23 percent”.

3 EPA’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program
Established in 1994 Voluntary program that creates alliances among states, energy users/providers, the landfill gas industry, and communities Mission: To reduce methane emissions by lowering barriers and promoting the development of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial landfill gas energy (LFGE) projects.

4 Landfill Gas 101 Landfill gas (LFG) is a by-product of the decomposition of municipal solid waste (MSW): ~50% methane (CH4) ~50% carbon dioxide (CO2) <1% non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) For every 1 million tons of MSW: ~0.8 megawatts (MW) of electricity ~432,000 cubic feet per day of LFG If uncontrolled, LFG contributes to smog and global warming, and may cause health and safety concerns

5 Typical Methane Curves
There are many cost-effective options for reducing methane emissions while generating energy Projects reduce local air pollution and create jobs, revenues, and cost savings

6 Landfill Regulations NSPS and MACT
Require gas collection and control system (GCCS) if Design capacity > 2.5 million megagrams or > 2.5 million cubic meters, and Annual nonmethane organic compound emission rate > 50 megagrams

7 GCCS Requirements Collect landfill gas from
Active areas that have held waste for five years or longer Closed areas that have held waste for two years or longer

8 GCCS Requirements (continued)
Send gas to Flare that complies with provisions in 40 CFR §60.18 Control system that it at least 98 percent efficient Treatment system that prepares gas for subsequent sale or use

9 Benefits of using landfill gas
Environmental benefits Replaces non-renewable resources Revenue source for landfill owner or operator Gas leaving treatment system is no longer subject to control requirements Cost savings for end users

10 Look Who's Using Landfill Gas!

11 LFG Has Been Used to Help Produce…
Aluminum Alternative fuels (biodiesel, CNG, ethanol, and LNG) Aquaculture (e.g., tilapia) Arts & crafts (blacksmithing, ceramics, glass) Biosolids (drying) Bricks and concrete Carpet Cars and trucks Chemicals Chocolate Consumer goods and containers Denim Electronics Fiberglass, nylon, and paper Furthering space exploration Garden plants Green power Ice cream, milk, and tea Infrared heat Juice (apple, cranberry, orange) Pharmaceuticals Pierogies and snack food Soy-based products Steel Tomatoes (hydroponic) Taxpayer savings and increased sustainability!

12 Modern Sanitary Landfill
Flare/ LFGTE Plant Gas Header Pipe Intermediate/ Final Cover Leachate Plant Liner System Waste Cells Gas Extraction Wells Monitoring Probes File Last Updated: June 2008

13 File Last Updated: June 2008
The level of LFG treatment needed prior to combustion depends on site-specific factors and the type of combustion device Some LFG treatment systems are simpler than the one shown in this diagram File Last Updated: June 2008

14 Options for using gas Landfill gas to energy plant Direct thermal

15 Diversity of Project Types Electricity Generation
Internal Combustion Engine (range from 100 kW to 3 MW) Gas Turbine (range from 800 kW to 10.5 MW) Microturbine (range from 30 kW to 250 kW) File Last Updated: June 2008

16 Diversity of Project Types Direct Use of LFG
Direct-use projects are growing! Boiler applications – replace natural gas, coal, fuel oil Combined heat & power (CHP) Direct thermal (dryers, kilns) Natural gas pipeline injection Medium & high Btu Greenhouse Leachate evaporation Vehicle fuel (LNG, CNG) Artist studio Hydroponics Aquaculture (fish farming) Greenhouse Burlington, NJ Pottery Studio Sugar Grove, NC LFG-fired Boiler Ft. Wayne, IN File Last Updated: June 2008

17 Typical Electric Project Components & Costs
3 MW, engine, 15-yr project: Total capital cost = ~$3.76 million Gas compression & treatment, engine, & generator = ~$3.5 million Interconnect equipment = ~$260,000* Annual operation & maintenance cost = ~$570,000/year *interconnect costs can vary widely

18 Typical Direct-Use Project Components & Costs
800 scfm, 5-mi pipeline, 15-yr project: Total capital cost = ~$1.63 million Gas compression & treatment = ~$230,000 Pipeline = ~$280,000/mile (Plus end-of-pipe combustion equipment retrofits, if needed) Annual operation & maintenance cost = ~$140,000/year

19 Technology Trends Electricity Projects
Operational cogeneration projects: 12 reciprocating engine, 3 gas turbine, 2 microturbine, 1 steam turbine

20 Technology Trends Direct-Use Projects

21 CHP and Direct-Use Case Study BMW Manufacturing Greer, SC
LMOP 2003 Project of the Year CHP and Direct-Use Case Study BMW Manufacturing Greer, SC 9.5-mile pipeline from Palmetto Landfill to BMW 2003 – 4 KG2 gas turbines retrofitted to burn LFG 4.8 MW of electricity generated and 72 million Btu/hr of heat recovered 2006 – Converted paint shop to utilize LFG in oven burners and for indirect heating LFG accounts for nearly 70% of BMW’s energy needs BMW saves at least $1 million/yr LMOP 2006 Energy End User Partner of the Year

22 Regulations that Affect LFGE
LFGE projects may be affected by a variety of federal, state, and local air quality regulations. Applicable federal Clean Air Act regulations include: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) / Emission Guidelines (EG) Title V Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) New Source Review (NSR) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)

23 State of the National LFG Industry (April 2008)
At least 450 operational projects in 43 states supplying: 11 billion kilowatt hours of electricity and 77 billion cubic feet of LFG to direct-use applications annually Estimated Annual Environmental Benefits Carbon sequestered annually by ~17,800,000 acres of pine or fir forests, or CO2 emissions from ~182,000,000 barrels of oil consumed, or Annual greenhouse gas emissions from ~14,300,000 passenger vehicles Estimated Annual Energy Benefit Powering more than 870,000 homes and heating nearly 534,000 homes

24 Many Untapped LFG Resources
Currently ~540 candidate landfills with a total gas generation potential of 240 billion cubic feet per year (~14,000 MMBtu/hr) OR electric potential of 1,280 MW (~10 million MWh/yr) If projects were developed at all these landfills, estimated Annual Environmental Benefit = Carbon sequestered annually by ~12.4 million acres of pine or fir forests OR annual greenhouse gas emissions from ~9.9 million passenger vehicles, AND Annual Energy Benefit = Powering 808,000 homes OR heating 1.5 million homes per year Annual environmental benefits if all candidate landfills are developed = an average between if all landfills develop direct-use projects or if all develop electricity-generating projects 530 of the 540 candidate LFs are included in either bullet 1 or 3 on the next slide

25 Many Untapped LFG Resources (cont.)
~485 landfills have a gas collection system but no energy project Potential of 285,000 MMBtu/day or 1,000 MW ~110 landfills have an energy project and excess LFG available Potential of 70,000 MMBtu/day or 250 MW ~1,000 landfills do not have a gas collection system Potential of 236,000 MMBtu/day or 840 MW the ~485 LFs with GCCS but no energy project do not have an operational OR under construction project; 285 of these 485 are candidate LFs the ~1,000 LFs without a GCCS are ONLY those w/o GCCS that HAVE WIP in the database since a potential could be calculated for them – i.e., this is not the whole universe of LFs without a GCCS; 245 of these 1,000 are candidate LFs

26 Estimated Annual Environmental Benefits for FL
Currently 16 operational projects and 1 under construction (60.9 MW and 3,800 scfm) Carbon sequestered annually by ~126,000 acres of pine or fir forests, or CO2 emissions from ~1.29 million barrels of oil consumed, or Annual greenhouse gas emissions from ~101,000 passenger vehicles Potential – 22,400 scfm from 19 candidate landfills, if all developed direct-use projects: Carbon sequestered annually by ~151,000 acres of pine or fir forests, or CO2 emissions from ~1.5 million barrels of oil consumed, or Annual greenhouse gas emissions from ~122,000 passenger vehicles

27 Current Operational & Under Construction LFGE Projects in FL
Baseline LF, Ocala – 3.2 MW Reciprocating Engines Berman Road LF, Okeechobee – Leachate Evap. (40,000 gpd) Brevard Co. Central Disposal Facility, Cocoa – 6.2 MW Recip. Engines Central Disposal SLF, Pompano Beach – 11.3 MW Gas Turbines & Steam Turbine Girvin Road LF, Jacksonville – 430 kW Recip. Engine Highlands Co. Solid Waste Management Center, Sebring – Direct Thermal (Asphalt plant) Lena Rd. Co. LF, Bradenton – Direct Thermal (WWTP) North Central LF, Winter Haven – Direct Thermal (WTE plant) North LF, Jacksonville – 540 kW Boiler/Steam Turbine

28 Current Operational & Under Cons. LFGE Projects in FL (cont.)
Orange County SLF, Orlando – 12.4 MW Steam Turbine Osceola Road Solid Waste, Geneva – 6.4 MW Reciprocating Engines PBCSWA RRF Site #7 – Direct Thermal (under construction) Saint Lucie County SLF, Fort Pierce – Boiler for steam production Springhill Regional LF, Campbellton – 4.8 MW Reciprocating Engines SW Alachua SLF, Archer – 2.4 MW Recip. Engines Tomoka Farms Road LF, Port Orange – 3.6 MW Recip. Engines Trail Ridge LF, Baldwin – 9.6 MW Recip. Engines

29 Candidate Landfills in LMOP Database in FL
Bee Ridge, Sarasota Bridgeway Acres, St. Pete Citrus Co., Lecanto Gulf Coast, Ft. Meyers Indian River Co., Vero Beach Lee/Hendry Co., Labelle Leon Co., Tallahassee Martin Co., Palm City Medley Naples Collier Co. New River Regional, Raiford North Dade, Opa-Locka Perdido, Cantonment Sarasota Central, Nokomis South Dade, Homestead SE Hillsborough Co., Lithia Southport Rd., Kissimmee West Nassau, Callahan Zemel Rd., Punta Gorda

30 LMOP Tools and Services
Network of 700+ Partners (and growing) Newsletter and listserv Direct project assistance Technical and outreach publications Project and candidate landfill database Web site ( Support for ribbon cuttings/ other PR Presentations at conferences State training workshops Annual conference

31 LMOP Locator Database tool that geographically matches landfill to end users or end users to landfill Provides information about possible end user or landfill Name Address Distance Technical landfill data

32 LFGcost Excel-based tool that assists in financial feasibility determination Works with gas curve information Landfill, unit price, and financial inputs Cost models for various project types Financial outputs – NPV, IRR, payback

33 For More Information
T4: Swarupa WA ND MT MN NH ME SD WI VT OR ID WY MI NY IA MA NE T1: Rachel PA RI OH CT T3: Tom NV IL IN NJ UT CO KS MO WV DE CA KY VA MD OK TN NC AR AZ NM SC MS AL GA T2: Victoria TX LA AK PR FL VI HI Rachel Goldstein (202) Victoria Ludwig (202) Swarupa Ganguli (202) Tom Frankiewicz (202) File Last Updated: June 2008

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