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Landfill Gas Utilization Hayley Eberly Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin C, 2007 BASF, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Landfill Gas Utilization Hayley Eberly Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin C, 2007 BASF, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Landfill Gas Utilization Hayley Eberly Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin C, 2007 BASF, 2007

2 Agenda  Landfill Gas Overview  Environmental Effects of Landfill Gas  Life of Landfill Gas  Landfill Gas Utilization  Technological Changes  Potential Problems  Questions Flare Image, n.d.

3 Landfill Gas Composition Landfill Gas (LFG) Overview  1 million tons of waste produces 432,000 ft 3 /day of LFG  Produced by  Bacterial decomposition  Volatilization  Chemical reactions  Composed of different gases  Heating value of 500 BTU/SCF  Half the heating value of natural gas Edgar, n.d. Landfill Gas Primer, n.d.

4 Environmental Effects  Landfills are the 2 nd largest human source of methane  Represent 23 % of all methane produced  Methane absorbs 20X more infrared radiation by weight than CO 2  LFG releases carbon dioxide  Landfill gas also contains…  Volatile organic compounds (VOC)  Contribute to ozone formation  Hazardous air pollutants (HAP)  Affect human health when exposed Frequently Asked Questions, 2008

5 Landfill gas is piped to a plant and partially displaces natural gas usage. Life of Landfill Gas Methane Generated From, 2008 Trash is delivered to landfill. The waste decomposes and produces landfill gas.

6 Landfill Gas Utilization  Cheaper than natural gas  Refineries and petrochemical plants account for 14% of the natural gas used as fuel by industry in the U.S.  Significantly reduces the amount of carbon dioxide and methane released into the atmosphere by landfills  Can reduce NO x emissions when mixed with methane  No equipment changes downstream from burner Edgar, n.d. Landfill Gas Direct, 2005 Schematic of LFG System

7 Technological Changes  Install separate fuel train and gas spuds for LFG  Dual fuel - fed by separate gas lines that connect at an intake flow regulator valve  Larger valve openings for higher volumetric flow  Maintain natural gas fuel train and gas ring  Replace internal parts with corrosion- resistant materials  Treat LFG before entering boiler to avoid condensation and corrosion Edgar, n.d. Uses in Industry, 2004 Schematic of a Natural Gas Co-fired Boiler

8 Potential Problems  Adiabatic flame temperature (AFT)  Natural gas – 2300 K  Landfill gas – 2100 K  50/50 mixture – 2200 K  Flame stability and burning velocity  With good mixing in the combustor, LFG has comparable stability to methane  Install UV sensors  Stable zone of combustion  Smaller for LFG than methane  Must ensure constant heating value or mix with methane  Corrosion  Use corrosion-resistant materials  Maintain temperature above dew point of corrosive materials  Preheat combustion air  Insulate the stack Edgar, n.d.

9 References  BASF. (2007). Retrieved November 22, 2008, from Linde Engineering Web site:  C, C. M. (2007, October 30). The Macho Response. Message posted to  Edgar, T. F. (n.d.). Evaluation of Environmental Emissions for Combustion of Landfill Gas in a Texas Petrochemical Plant. Retrieved from University of Texas Web site: %20Feasiblity%20Analysis.pdf  Frequently Asked Questions About Landfill Gas and How It Affects Public Health, Safety, and the Environment. (2008, July 2). Retrieved November 23, 2008, from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Web site: faq-3.htm  Landfill Gas Primer - An Overview for Environmental Health Professionals [U.S. Department of Health and Human Services]. (n.d.). Retrieved November 23, 2008, from  An Overview of Landfill Gas Energy in the United States. (2008, June). Retrieved November 18, 2008, from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Web site:  Flare Image. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2008, from State Energy Conservation Office Web site:  Methane generated from Sioux Falls Regional Landfill to provide energy for POET ethanol plant. (2008). Retrieved November 23, 2008, from POET Web site:  Landfill Gas Direct Use. (2005, May 6). Retrieved November 24, 2008, from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Web site:  Uses in Industry. (2004). Retrieved November 24, 2008, from

10 Questions

11 Additional Slides

12 Modern Sanitary Landfill An Overview of Landfill, 2008

13 Production phases of typical landfill gas


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