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Punctuation By Muhammad Asif Nadeem Course Instructor Course: Principles of Language acquisition.

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1 Punctuation By Muhammad Asif Nadeem Course Instructor Course: Principles of Language acquisition

2 Introduction Punctuation is derived from Latin word Punctum which means to speak with pause. Punctuation is derived from Latin word Punctum which means to speak with pause. Importance of Punctuation in daily life is quite important as it conveys what we want to say! Importance of Punctuation in daily life is quite important as it conveys what we want to say! I detest liars like you, I believe that honesty is the best policy. I detest liars like you, I believe that honesty is the best policy. I detest liars; like you, I believe that honesty is the best policy. I detest liars; like you, I believe that honesty is the best policy.

3 Capital letterA, BPeriod. Capital letterA, BPeriod. Comma,Semi Colon ; Comma,Semi Colon ; Colon:Parenthesis ( ) Colon:Parenthesis ( ) Hyphen-Quotes “ “ Hyphen-Quotes “ “ Question Marks?Apostrophe ‘ Question Marks?Apostrophe ‘ Dash_Exclamation ! Dash_Exclamation ! Square Bracket[ ]Slash/ oblique / Square Bracket[ ]Slash/ oblique / ItalicsI ItalicsI Dots/ ellipses… Dots/ ellipses…

4 Capital letters Beginning of New sentence. Beginning of New sentence. Example: Do not believe in thinking, believe in doing. Each fresh line of poetry. e.g. Each fresh line of poetry. e.g.Example: On Linden, when the sun was low, All bloodless lay the un- trodden snow And dark as winter was the flow Of Iser, rolling rapidly.

5 All proper nouns and the adjectives that are derived from them. All proper nouns and the adjectives that are derived from them. Example: Bahawalpur, Iqbal, Pakistan, Punjab, Ramadan, Pakistani, Punjabi All the nouns and pronouns that denote God. All the nouns and pronouns that denote God.Example: It is the God, Lord of all the elements, Who holds all things in His right hand. The pronoun “I” when it is used single and with the interjection “O” The pronoun “I” when it is used single and with the interjection “O”Example: When the bell rang I was crossing road and O, that sad event took place.

6 Full stop or Period It is used with. It is used with. A declarative or an imperative sentence. A declarative or an imperative sentence. Example Declarative Sentence His name is Tahir. Example Imperative Sentence The officer orders the soldiers to attack. Abbreviations but in modern style they are omitted mostly. Abbreviations but in modern style they are omitted mostly.Example M.A or MA, U.N.O or M.P, Mr or Mr M.A or MA, U.N.O or M.P, Mr or Mr In internet and email addresses it is said (dot) In internet and email addresses it is said (dot)Example http://www.edu.com

7 Abbreviations but in modern style they are omitted mostly. Abbreviations but in modern style they are omitted mostly.Example M.A or MA, U.N.O or M.P, Mr or Mr In internet and email addresses it is said (dot) In internet and email addresses it is said (dot)Example http://www.edu.com

8 Comma Comma Separate words belonging to same category that is noun, pronoun, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, clauses. Separate words belonging to same category that is noun, pronoun, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, clauses. Example for Nouns Pakistan, Sri lanka and China have good working relations Example for pronouns Example for pronouns You, he and I are the best friends You, he and I are the best friends

9 Example for adjectives Example for adjectives Her beauty, soberness, aquiline features and charm makes her innocent. Example for adverbs Example for adverbs He read his lessons neatly, sharply, exquisitely and precisely right. Example for verbs Example for verbs They decorated, furnished and built their house very well. Example for Clauses Example for Clauses The Indus runs smoothly, glides frequently, moves vehemently and falls roaring.

10 It separates pair of words that are connected with and. It separates pair of words that are connected with and.Example You must be precise and short, complete and elaborative in your communication. Use comma when you pronounce or call somebody. Use comma when you pronounce or call somebody.Example Shakespeare, the greatest dramatist of England wrote many famous plays. While addressing people While addressing peopleExample Boys, Lord of the Universe is the protector of all of us. Before and after Participial phrase. Before and after Participial phrase.Example Alexander, having conquered the world, returned to Greece. When a word is omitted then comma is used. When a word is omitted then comma is used.

11 Before and after Participial phrase. Before and after Participial phrase.Example Alexander, having conquered the world, returned to Greece. When a word is omitted then comma is used. When a word is omitted then comma is used.Example He worked a lot all the night; he, a hard worker did not get reward. For tag questions comma is used between them For tag questions comma is used between themExample Mr. Shahzad, bring me a glass of water, Will You

12 Interjections like 'please', 'thank you', 'yes', and 'no' require Comma. Interjections like 'please', 'thank you', 'yes', and 'no' require Comma.Example Yes, I called him for removal of some misunderstanding. Co-coordinative conjunctions require comma before them. Co-coordinative conjunctions require comma before them.Example I think we must resolve the matter, but amicably. Comma is used with the direct speech. Comma is used with the direct speech.Example He said to the teacher, “I will learn the lesson tomorrow.”

13 Comma is used to separate main clause, especially long ones linked by a conjunction such as and, as, but, for, or. Comma is used to separate main clause, especially long ones linked by a conjunction such as and, as, but, for, or.Example Students had been waiting to meet their parents, but they had to wait till the end of semester. To separate a tag question from the rest. To separate a tag question from the rest.Example It’s been long time since we met, isn’t it?

14 Avoid Comma Avoid Comma Do not use comma: Do not use comma: To separate the subject from its predicate To separate the subject from its predicateExample Getting registration in our institute, shall pay you regard and reward. (Wrong) Getting registration in our institute shall pay you regard and reward. (Right) To separate a verb from its objective or a preposition from its object. To separate a verb from its objective or a preposition from its object. ExampleShe traveled around the world with, a small backpack, a pup tent and a camera. (Wrong) She travelled around the world with a small backpack, a pup tent and a camera. (Right)

15 Comma must be used before a co-coordinating conjunction not after. Comma must be used before a co-coordinating conjunction not after.Example Think about the matters but, not in a way to misinterpret them. (Wrong) Think about the matters but not in a way to misinterpret them. (Right) When adverbial clause follows the principal clause. When adverbial clause follows the principal clause.Example Seek to please, if thou would’st be happy. (Wrong) Seek to please if thou would’st be happy. (Right)

16 The Semicolon For the separation of the clauses of compound sentences. For the separation of the clauses of compound sentences.Example Quaid was a brave, large hearted leader; and we all honor hum. To separate the phrases that do not have relationship and that are opposite to each other To separate the phrases that do not have relationship and that are opposite to each otherExample Man proposes; God disposes.

17 A sentence that already contains comma. A sentence that already contains comma.Example My faith in me determined to success whatever the consequences may be; I would achieve my aim, whoever may suffer in this regard.

18 Colon To introduce a quotation. To introduce a quotation.Example Bacon says: __ “Reading maketh a full man” Before list of things. Before list of things.Example The nominees of this award are: Umar, Saood and Faisal. Between those sentences that are grammatically different but closely connected. Between those sentences that are grammatically different but closely connected.Example Habit making in study achieves thinking level: it is not important in study.

19 Parenthesis It takes the sentence that does not belong to the main clause. It takes the sentence that does not belong to the main clause.Example I got (from heavens) what all I wished for this life. The abbreviations are enclosed if they are about some name The abbreviations are enclosed if they are about some nameExample Hazrat Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is the last prophet of God. In literature it is mostly used to describe the activity of the drama or novel. In literature it is mostly used to describe the activity of the drama or novel.Example I think there is some craft in his madness. (Aside)

20 Square Brackets/ Brackets Around words inserted to make a quotation grammatically. Around words inserted to make a quotation grammatically.Example Pakistan in [these] days, is under sever threat of terrorism.

21 Hyphen Connect the part of a compound word Connect the part of a compound wordExample Co-operation, Jac-of-all-trades. It is used to connect the spellings of the word left on the previous line. It is used to connect the spellings of the word left on the previous line.Example It is the fate that all the Muslim shall live in the blessings of God, and leave all the friv-volities of this world with a view to find redemption at the day of Judgment.

22 The Quotes Quotes are two inverted commas that indicate that words are exactly quoted by the speaker and there is no change in these words by the describer. Quotes are two inverted commas that indicate that words are exactly quoted by the speaker and there is no change in these words by the describer.Example Aslam said to Akram, “our president is a man of Principle.”

23 The Question Mark It tells that the sentence is interrogative. It is used with: It tells that the sentence is interrogative. It is used with: Direct question and it replaces full stop. Direct question and it replaces full stop. Example Example Did you see my pen? It is not used with the indirect question It is not used with the indirect questionExample How it is that you made such a great success and that too in a very short time.

24 Apostrophe It is used when: It is used when: Letter is omitted Letter is omittedExample We write don’t instead of do not and doesn’t instead of does not. Belonging of someone is shown. Belonging of someone is shown.Example It is Aslam’s book. Plural of letters and figures are formed. Plural of letters and figures are formed.Example Add two 5’s and four 2’s.

25 The Dash: Dash is a bigger line than the hyphen and differs in its use also as it is used to: Dash is a bigger line than the hyphen and differs in its use also as it is used to: To indicate an abrupt change in the sentence. To indicate an abrupt change in the sentence.Example Would that I had died instead of my father__ lamentation is useless now. To collect the scattered statement To collect the scattered statementExample All is lost __my kingdom, my queen and my children.

26 The Exclamation Mark It is used with the words that show some sudden emotion or wish as It is used with the words that show some sudden emotion or wish asExample Alas! Oh dear! What a terrible scene it is! O! Bravo! Long live King! Keep one major thing in mind, use this sign either right after the expression or at the end of the sentence.

27 Slash/ oblique: To weperate words that have alternates. To weperate words that have alternates.Example Would you like to have tea and/ or biscuits. In internet or email addresses. In internet or email addresses.Example My email address is http:\\www.edu.pk.

28 Italics: To show emphasis. To show emphasis.Example This is not my jurisdiction perhaps_ yours. To indicate the titles of books, plays etc. To indicate the titles of books, plays etc.Example M.A Adeeb’s I wish to be a researcher. For foreign words or phrases. For foreign words or phrases.Example Water (aqua) is necessary for all of us.

29 Dots / ellipsis: To indicate that the words have been omitted. To indicate that the words have been omitted. Example Example It is national pride... proven fact….Pakistan is a great country. It is national pride... proven fact….Pakistan is a great country.


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