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Ali’s Khilafah The Difficult Years 35-40 A.H.. Uthman was killed Friday 18 th Zi Al- Hijah, 35 HUthman was killed Friday 18 th Zi Al- Hijah, 35 H Five.

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Presentation on theme: "Ali’s Khilafah The Difficult Years 35-40 A.H.. Uthman was killed Friday 18 th Zi Al- Hijah, 35 HUthman was killed Friday 18 th Zi Al- Hijah, 35 H Five."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ali’s Khilafah The Difficult Years A.H.

2 Uthman was killed Friday 18 th Zi Al- Hijah, 35 HUthman was killed Friday 18 th Zi Al- Hijah, 35 H Five days later, Ali was given Bay’a under the pressure of the rebelsFive days later, Ali was given Bay’a under the pressure of the rebels Madina is under rebel controlMadina is under rebel control Sahaba and Ali differ regarding priorities for the new KhalifahSahaba and Ali differ regarding priorities for the new Khalifah

3 Iraq Misr Shaam

4 Rebels came from mostly 3 territirries

5 Madina is in turmoil and under control of rebels

6 Sahaba ask Ali to punish the murderers

7 Ali wanted to stabilize and restore order to the territories (Amsar)

8 Ali appoints new Governors. Before Bay’a

9 Uthman bin Hunayf

10 Ali appoints new Governors. Before Bay’a Uthman bin Hunayf

11 Ali appoints new Governors. Before Bay’a Ubaydullah bin Abbas to Yemen Uthman bin Hunayf

12 Ali appoints new Governors. Before Bay’a Abu Musa Uthman bin Hunayf Kays bin Saad

13 Ali appoints new Governors. Before Bay’a Abu Musa Kharabta Uthman bin Hunayf Kays bin Saad

14 Ali appoints new Governors. Before Bay’a Abu Musa Kharabta Sahl bin Hunayf Uthman bin Hunayf Kays bin Saad

15 Mu’away and Ali Abu Musa Kharabta Uthman bin Hunayf Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

16 Talha and Al-Zubayr Abu Musa Kharabta Uthman bin Hunayf Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

17 Army of Mecca Abu Musa Kharabta Uthman bin Hunayf Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

18 Army of Mecca to Basra Abu Musa Kharabta Uthman bin Hunayf Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

19 Ali moves to Al- Shaam Abu Musa Kharabta Uthman bin Hunayf Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

20 Ali changes direction to catch up with Army of Mecca Abu Musa Kharabta Uthman bin Hunayf Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

21 Uthman bin Hunayf Abu Musa Mecca Army Ali’s Army

22 Uthman bin Hunayf Abu Musa Mecca Army Ali’s Army Events of Al-Basra Rabi II 36 A.H.

23 Uthman bin Hunayf Abu Musa Mecca Army Ali’s Army Events of Al-Basra Rabi II 36 A.H.

24 Abu Musa Mecca Army Ali’s Army Events of Al-Basra Rabi II 36 A.H.

25 Abu Musa Mecca Army Ali’s Army Ali moves to Kufa

26 Mecca Army Ali’s Army

27 Mecca Army Ali’s Army Ali moves to Basra

28 Mecca Army Ali’s Army Ali moves to Basra

29 Mecca Army Ali’s Army Battle of Al-Jamal (Camel) 10 Jumada II 36 A.H.

30 Ali’s Army Battle of Al-Jamal (Camel) 10 Jumada II 36 A.H.

31 Ali controls most Islamic states exept Shaam. Jumada II 36 A.H. Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

32 Ali and Mu’aweya Mu’aweya is asked by Na’yla* to retaliate for Uthman* ALLMu’aweya* refuses to follow Ali* before ALL those participated in the revolution against Uthman are executed. Estimated ~2500 in all. Ali refuses to kill or surrender the rebels: –Not all rebels are involved in the murder plot (like Ammar* bin Yaser*) –Just and fair trials have to take place –The Khalifah has to restore order first, then deliver justice according to Islamic Shari’a *May Allah be pleased with them and all of the Sahaba

33 Ali and Mu’aweya Amr* bin Al-A’as joins Mu’aweya* Abdullah* bin Abi As-Sarh joins Mu’aweya Shurahbil bin As-Samt (Hims) calls for Mu’aweya to become Khalifa. Since there has to be a Khalifa among Muslims on Muaweya’s side. Ali* sees in deviding the Muslim Ummah a worse Fitna than the murder of Uthman. Decides to move with his army to Al-Shaam to restore order and unity *May Allah be pleased with them and all of the Sahaba

34 Ali moves to Shaam and reaches Seffeen in Zi Al-Hija 36 A.H. 120,000 fighters Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

35 Mu’aweya reaches Seffeen in Zi Al-Hija 36 A.H. 90,000 fighters Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

36 Ali sends Mu’aweya messengers in Zi Al- Hija 36 A.H. Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

37 Skirmishes start in Zi Al-Hija 36 A.H. Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

38 Fighting halts for Muharam 37 A.H. Negotiations restart Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

39 Battle of Seffeen starts Wednesday, 1 st Safar 37 A.H. Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

40 Battle of Seffeen continues Thursday, 7th Safar 37 A.H. Ammar is killed Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

41 Battle of Seffeen ends friday, 8th Safar 37 A.H. Quran on the spears. Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya 70,000 Muslim are killed 25,000 from Ali’s army 45,000 from Mu’aweya’s

42 Agreement of Tahkeem (Judgment) is reached 13 or 15 th Safar 37 A.H. Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

43 Agreement of Tahkeem (Judgment) is reached 13 or 15 th Safar 37 A.H. Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya Dumat Al-Jandal

44 Tahkeem Ali realizes the trick from Mu’aweya and Amr, but his army is sharply divided over the issue. Ali accepts against his own judgment. Abu Musa is to represent Ali, and Amr is to represent Mu’aweya Contract of Judgment written in Safar 37 A.H. Actual meeting is to take place in Ramadhan 37H in Dumat Al-Jandal

45 Tahkeem 12,000 of Ali’s army are angered by the Tahkeem. They leave the army to Harura’. This is the beginning of Al-Khawarej. Abdullah bin Abbas and Ali convince them to return to Ali’s side. (temporarily)

46 Tahkeem Amr and Abu Musa meet in Dumat Al- Jandal in Ramadhan 37 A.H. A group of Sahaba is present. Tahkeem events. (Common historical myths, not supported by good references or common sense)

47 Tahkeem Ali refuses to accept the ruling: –Still no agreement on a Khalifa. –Not based on Quran or Sunna. Ali’s speech in Kufa to resume fighting against Mu’aweya Khawarej leave Ali’s camp and ask for his Tawbah

48 Fighting Khawarej Ali prepared his army to invade Al-Shaam. Al-Basra army show lack of support. 3,200 fighters show up out of 60,000. Kufa army responds, but demands dealing with Khawarej first. Ali has 68,000 fighters.

49 Fighting Khawarej Khawarej were strict and diligent worshipers with misguided interpretation of religion. They lacked support of any Sahabi. (none in their camp, in contrast to Ali’s and Mu’aweya’s) Some hated the dominance of Quraysh over Khilafa Crimes of Khawarej: Abdulla bin Khabbab. Takfeer. Ali decides to deal with Khawarej first. Ali fights Khawarej and defeats them in Al-Nahrawan.

50 Ali’s army waekens: –Many killed in Seffeen –Not enough support from Basra –Many Khawarej among their clans –Tired of consecutive battles –Confused by division and Fitna Events of Egypt: further weakness and division

51 Events of Egypt A.H. Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

52 Kays bin Saad deos not want to fight in Kharabta Kharabta Kays bin Saad Mu’awya

53 Muhammad bin Abu Bakr becomes Governor of Egypt Kharabta Muhammad bin Abu Bakr Mu’awya

54 Muhammad bin Abu Bakr fights in Kharabta and defeated. Kharabta Muhammad bin Abu Bakr Mu’awya

55 Al-Ashatar is murdered on his way to Egypt Kharabta Muhammad bin Abu Bakr Mu’awya

56 Mu’aweya sees an opportunity to capture rich Egypt Kharabta Muhammad bin Abu Bakr Mu’awya

57 Mu’aweya sends Amr to conquer Egypt Kharabta Muhammad bin Abu Bakr Mu’awya

58 Egypt falls to Mu’aweya and Muhammad bin Abu Bakr is killed Kharabta Muhammad bin Abu Bakr Mu’awya

59 Egypt falls to Mu’aweya and Muhammad bin Abu Bakr is killed Mu’awya

60 Mu’aweya is stronger. Sends armies to raid and capture more territories Mu’awya Busr bin Ata’a Sufian bin Awf Dhahak bin Kays

61 Mu’aweya controls most Muslim teritorries Mu’awya

62 Assassination Plot Khawarej meet to plot and revenge from Ali. Abdur-Rahaman bin Muljam and his co-conspirators. Ali is assassinated on Friday Ramadhan 15 th, 40 A.H.; Dies Ramadhan 17 th. Al-Hasan becomes the Fifth Khalifa. Then, six months later, he gives Bay’a to Muaweya to end Fitnah. Al-Fitnah Al-Kubra is over.


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