2“Old Immigration”When the 13 colonies were established, most immigrants to America were from England.EnglandIrelandFranceBefore 1880, Most of the these people came from northern & western Europe. Majority were Protestants. They came to escape religious & political persecution or economic opportunities
3“New Immigration”Between , most immigrants coming to the United States were from southern and eastern EuropeRussiaPolandMostly were Catholics & Jews. It also included people from Mexico; other nations in Latin American and JapanItalyGreece
4Old vs New Immigrants Spoke English Protestant Different appearances and habitsThey spoke little or no EnglishCatholic, Jewish, Orthodox ChristianDifferent appearances and habitsExtremely poor and uneducated
7A Land of HopeThe Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor was the symbol of America to many immigrants looking for a new lifeThe millions of immigrants who sailed to America were greeted by the Statue of Liberty.
8Ellis IslandImmigrants coming into New York were stopped at Ellis IslandIncoming immigrants were given a physical to check for diseases and their criminal record was checked
9With the huge numbers of immigrants, inspectors had just 2 minutes to complete the process and many immigrants had their last names changed by the inspectors because they didn’t have the time or patience to struggle with the foreign spellings
10Stairs of SeparationAs the immigrants walked up the staircase, U.S. Public Health Officials watched them for signs of a number of illnesses.Inspection LineNow began a series of tests that would determine their fateOnly 2 % were sent back2% of 12 MillionWould you like to have 2% of $12 Million Dollars?
11Medical Inspectors watched the people & marked them with chalk The exam was frightening & embarrassingMedical ExamThe Inspector would take about 7 seconds to determine if the immigrant had any infectious diseases.
12Asked a Series of 29 Questions The Same as Were Asked Before Leaving EuropeTo See if Your Story Remained the SameImmigrants that were detained for medical or other reasons stayed in these rooms, tightly packed with rows of bunk beds.
13Making ItOnce All the Testing Was Done, You Were Allowed to Leave the Island & Become an AmericanOr Become a “Bird of Passage” intended to immigrate temporarily to earn money; and then return to their homeland.
14Little Italy, New York City, circa 1901 Ethnic Cities – Little ItalyBy the late 1800s, immigrants made up a great portion of the country’s largest cities, including New York City, Chicago and BostonLittle Italy, New York City, circa 1901
15Chinatown, New York City Ethnic Cities - ChinatownImmigrants lived in their own separate neighborhoods – like Little Italy or Chinatown – and kept many of their former traditions.Chinatown, New York City
16Asian ImmigrationDuring the late 1800s, the west coast (California) saw a boom in the amount of immigrants coming from Asia.Most Chinese immigrants came to America because over-crowding in China led to high unemployment, poverty and famine.
17Angel IslandAsians immigrants arriving on the west coast went through Angel Island in San Francisco.The inspection process on Angel Island was more difficult than on Ellis Island.Immigrants endured harsh questioning and a long detention in filthy ramshackle buildings
18By 1900, lower Manhattan was the most crowded place in the world. Adjusting to a New Land· Most immigrants settled in the cities of the NE & Midwest where they took unskilled jobs.By 1900, lower Manhattan was the most crowded place in the world.Gradually immigrants became “Americanized” assimilated into mainstream American society by learning its values and behaviors. Often it was the children of the immigrants who were first to become “Americanized”
19The Rise of NativismThe flood of immigrants into the U.S. worried many Americans who felt their way of life could be changed.Nativism is an extreme dislike for foreigners by native-born people and a desire to limit immigration.
20The Rise of NativismWorkers blamed immigrants for low wages or shortages of employment. A resentment of foreigners crept into America’s attitudes.New immigrants were easy scapegoats for the fear of social change that many experienced due to the rapid changes based on the Industrial Revolution.
21Seattle's anti-Chinese riot of February 8, 1886 Anti-Asian Sentiment· Many Americans feared they would lose their jobs to the Chinese. As a result; labor groups pressured politicians to restrict Asian immigration.Asians were prohibited from buying land in California.Chinese immigrants were frequently attacked, and occasionally killed, by racist mobs.Seattle's anti-Chinese riot of February 8, 1886
22Chinese Exclusion ActThe Chinese Exclusion Act was the law passed by Congress that greatly reduced the amount of Asian immigrants coming to America in the late 1800s.The law barred Chinese immigration for 10 years and prevented the Chinese from becoming U.S. citizens.
23The Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907) Americans showed prejudice against Japanese immigrants as well.In San Francisco; the local school board put all Chinese; Japanese; and Korean children in special Asian schools.This led to anti-American riots in Japan.Under the Gentlemen’s Agreement; Japan’s government agreed to limit immigration to the US in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order.
24Quota System (1924)This system established the maximum number of people who could enter the United States from each foreign country.The goal of the quota system was to cut sharply European immigration to the United States.Favors “desirable” immigrants over othersThe system achieved that goal!