Chapter 12 Sections 1-4 Imperial City Great Wall of China
300 years of warring among Chinese kingdoms had China in a state of chaos. Chinese warlords – military leaders ran the government-fought each other while nomads conquered parts of northern China. A.D. 581, China finally reunites under General Wendi who declares himself emperor.
Wendi founds a new dynasty called the Sui. Wendi’s son, Yangdi, rebuilds the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, linking the Huang He and Chang Jiang Rivers.
How do improvements in transportation help increase trade? How do you think this effected the economy?
618, one of Yangdi’s generals named himself emperor and sets up the Tang dynasty. Tang rulers worked to bring about many reforms, and brought back the civil service tests. Farming improvements included: countryside was at peace, better form of rice was developed, the Tang gave land away to farmers.
Buddhism spread to China from traders and missionaries c.150. Chinese were looking for peace & calm during this time of civil war. Chinese Buddhist monks and nuns lived in palaces called monasteries where they lived and worshiped. Ran schools, provided rooms for travelers, and medical care
960 to 1279 Song dynasty ruled China with peace & prosperity, resulting in cultural achievements. Great advances were made in the areas of technological invention, material production, political philosophy, and government. Neo-Confucianism was developed during this time, especially during the Southern Song dynasty.
Combination of Buddhist, Confucian and Daoist teachings. Became more than a list of rules for being good, if a person followed Confucius’ teachings they would find peace of mind and live in harmony with nature. Buddhism teaches about an afterlife. Why do you think this blend of thoughts would be rejected by some people?
Confucius Duty to family, community & gov’t. Daoist Live in harmony with nature Neo Confucianism Combined spiritual ideas of Buddhism and philosophy of Confucianism Buddhist Give up worldly desires, follow the 8 fold path to reach nirvana
1.Life is full of suffering. 2. People suffer because they desire worldly things and self- satisfaction. 3. The way to end suffering is to stop desiring things. 4. The only way to stop desiring things is to follow the Eightfold Path.
1. Know and understand the Four Noble Truths. 2. Give up worldly things and don’t harm others. 3. Tell the truth, don’t gossip, and don’t speak badly of others. 4. Don’t commit evil acts, like killing, stealing, or living an unclean life. 5. Do rewarding work. 6. Work for good and oppose evil. 7. Make sure your mind keeps your senses under control. 8. Practice meditation as a way of understanding reality.
By 800’s Tang officials feared Buddhism’s popularity and had 4,600 monasteries and 40,000 temples destroyed.
Both Tang and Song rulers used civil service exams to hire officials. They based the bureaucracy on a merit system, what people can do and not based on their wealth or social status. Students began preparing at age 4 by learning to write the characters of the Chinese language. Later they had to memorize all of Confucius’ writings. Still only 1 in 5 passed the test. One rule was students could never do physical work.
Items traded by the Chinese along the major trade route, the Silk Road: silk, porcelain, tea, steel and paper. Porcelain is made of fine clay & baked at high temperatures. In return, other countries sent China, gold, silver, precious stones and fine woods.
Tang dynasty developed the technologies of steelmaking and printing. The earliest printing process (600’s) used carved characters on wood blocks, poured ink over the block then laid the paper on top to print the whole page. Process was timely to cut the block but it could be used repeatedly.
During the Tang dynasty often celebrated nature. Li Bo, one of the most popular poets of the Tang era, often centered his poems around nature. School children had to memorize “Still Night Thoughts.”
Bed before bright moon shine Think be ground on frost Raise head view bright moon Lower head think home Before my bed, the moon is shining bright, I think that it is frost upon the ground. I raise my head and look at the bright moon, I lower my head and think of home.
Chinese paintings were often landscapes during the Song dynasty. They are meant to portray ideas of mountains, rivers, etc. People are small, indicating they are only a part of nature and not controlling it.
Used gunpowder for use in explosives and the fire lance, the forerunner of the gun. Also used gunpowder to make fireworks. Built large ships with rudders and sails. By 1150, Chinese sailors were using a compass to help them navigate further from land.
Mongols lived in the area north of China known as Mongolia. The people lived in tribes, raised cattle, goats, sheep and horses. Mongols were known for their horsemanship and being fierce warriors.
Born in 1160’s, as Temujin, is able to unite the Mongols and begin building the Mongolian Empire. Named Genghis Khan=strong ruler at a meeting among tribes.
Genghis Khan & his warriors became known for their cruelty and use of terror to conquer people. Mongol warriors attacked, robbed and burned cities. Many people surrendered to them without fighting.
1 of the most famous Europeans to arrive in China was Marco Polo from Venice, Italy wrote a book about his travels. Polo served in Khan’s court for 16 years, gathering information for Khan about places he had traveled to.
1368, Mongols are driven out, Zhu Yuanzhang became emperor and found the Ming dynasty. Zhu takes the name Hong Wu = military emperor, rules very cruelly, killing anyone he suspects of treason. Yong Le, moves capital to Beijing and builds the Imperial City. In the center was the Forbidden City, only top gov’t officials could enter the Forbidden City because it was the home of China’s emperors.
From time to time the Ming officials would conduct a census to help them collect taxes more accurately. What did the Romans use their census for? Counting the population for tax purposes and number of men available for the army.
Ming rulers import a new type of rice from southeast Asia that grew faster. In addition, repairs were made to canals so rice could be shipped from southern to northern China. What would be the result of having a type of rice that grew faster and could be shipped to more areas? Feed more people.
Rebuilds what the Mongols destroyed. Built new farms, roads, and ordered forests to be planted. Repaired & expanded the Grand Canal. Supported the silk industry and started growing cotton for clothing for the 1 st time. Forbidden City, Beijing, China
As the economy improved, Chinese writers produced novels, or long fictional stories.
Chinese Muslim and court official who sailed to Southeast Asia and India.
Confucian officials wanted to end the voyages b/c: they brought new ideas to China, they cost too much, and they made merchants rich. After Zhen He’s death, the officials convinced the emperor to stop the voyages, the ships were dismantled, ship building knowledge was lost in 50 years. Trade sharply declined.
1514, 1 st time Europeans arrive off the coast of China wanting to set up trade since the journeys of Marco Polo. They also were interested in Christianizing the Chinese. The Jesuits, a special group of Roman Catholic priests impressed the Chinese as a highly intelligent group & were fascinated by the items they brought with them, clocks, eyeglasses & scientific instruments.